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place in which anything is protected the earlier part of its life. A kind of scythe used in cutting grain. A case for a broken arm. A framework of timbers, to support a vessel about to be launched.

6. To lead pupils to see that in this sentence the word cradle means the rocking bed or nest of the humming bird.

7. To lead pupils to see—That it does not sound well to use the same word a number of times in one sentence, paragraph or selection; that substituting the word cradle for nest, in the second case, gives a pleasing variety of expressions; that the word cradle is not only equivalent to the word nest, as used in this sentence, but it is a word of much broader content; hence by studying a word and its equivalent we gain more knowledge.


(This Department is conducted by Geo. F. Bass, Supervising Prin. Indianapolis schools.

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ANY pupils fail in division because they do not know their
“tables." They say “7 into 59 goes": -(a long pause

followed by a mere guess) “9 times.” Just here the teacher shows signs of distress and often expresses himself in an unpleasant manner. He probably says, “My!!” or “Why Jimmy, I'm surprised!” or “Tut, tut, tut !” or “Think, think, think; you are not thinking." Or possibly he only opens his eyes a little wider.

The last named has the least harm in it, but none of them is helpful, and all but the last are harmful, because they bother the pupil. He often, in fact generally learns his “tables” in spite of the teacher, but a great deal of valuable time is wasted. Guessing is fostered. The teacher said the right thing when he said think, provided the pupil has been taught how to think or what to think about. Judging from the appearance of most pupils at the time of such occurrences we infer that they have not been so taught. When a pupil fails, the teacher ought to say just enough to put the pupil in the right "track” for thinking.

The kind of failures referred to above come from presenting too much at once and presenting it in an unsystematic manner. Text-books and teachers are blamable for this. Teachers are not compelled to follow the exact order of any text-book. They may use it for what its name suggests—for texts. It is easier to follow it-i. e., it is less work on the part of the teacher. If your book happens to answer your purpose, follow it.

A text book on my table, in 13 examples has used all the divisors from 3 to 12. Too many divisors are used at one sitting. The first example has 4 for a divisor; the second 3; the fourth 2 ; the sixth 6; the eighth 8. It would be better to give 8 examples to be divided by the same divisor, for then he might master one thing before taking up another.

Suppose we are teaching to divide bp 8. First teach 8-8= 1; 16+8=2; 24 =-8= 3. Follow this with examples bringing in these and nothing else until these are mastered. (1) 168-8; (2) 160:8; (3) 240-8; (4) 248--8; (5) 824-8; (6) 816-8: (7) 1624-8; (8) 81624-8; (9) 16824-8; (10) 24816--8.

When all possible combinations of the above are solved the pupils will have pretty clearly in mind the numbers that contain one eight, two eights, and three eights. The next step is to give examples in which these facts occur, and the additional fact of remainders. Arrange a table as jollows:

( 8 1 time.

9 i time and I remainder.
10 i time and 2
i i time and 3
12 i time and 4
13 i time and 5
14 I time and 6

15 i time and 7
8 into 16 2 times.

17 2 times and i
18 2 times and 2
19 2 times and 3
20 2 times and 4
21 2 times and 5
22 2 times and o
23 2 times and 7

24 3 times. Call attention to the fact that 8 into any number greater than 8 and less than 16 is contained 1 time and gives a remainder. That the remainder is found by subtracting one 8 from the

number: "8 into it one time. II-8=3" is what the pupil must think. Carry out the same idea with the numbers between 16 and 24, and so on through the entire “table of 8's."

Give examples bringing in these new “difficulties”: (1) 1784; (2) 9048; (3) 10424; (4) 1841704; (5) 1618176, and so on. It will be seen that no remainder greater than two should occur in this set of examples. When 32 is added to our table, we can kave

3 for a remainder; 40, four may occur, and so on. When a pupil hesitates or makes a mistake, as follows: "8 into 22, 3 times” — the teacher may with propriety say “think.” He may question as follows; “What number contains three 8's? Is 22 larger or smaller than this number? What number exactly contains two 8's ? Is 22 larger or smaller than this? Then how many 8's in 22 ?” The pupil now readily answers, “Two and

4 over.

This plan, we think, is a correct one in theory, and we know by experience that it is practical-i. e., it can be used with success in the school-room.

G. F. B.


A GREAT difficulty is the almost universal habit which students have of using technical or semi-technical terms, which, in reality, convey to them no idea whatever.

They think they have comprehended the thing when they christen it with a high-sounding name, and they do not stop to ask themselves whether they understand what the name means. The student who called a hole in a cell wall a bioplast was quite pleased with his achievement until he was asked what a bioplast was. The suggestion that a hole might, without any great violence to the English language, be called a hole, was timely if not pleasing. Evidently, for an educated man, the art of calling a spade a spade is difficult to acquire. Day after day, one is obliged to ask students to translate their lingo-I don't know what else to call it-into English. Frequently they can not. At length they begin to see that they are only deceiving themselves by using words which they do not comprehend to describe structures which they do not understand,

It frequently happens that after the student has described an object under the microscope, in what he considers fine scientific language, he admits that he does not understand the structure of the object at all, but, on making him start over again, and describe it in plain English, he finds that it all comes out clearly enough. It is evident, for instance, that, so long as a student thinks he must call all round bodies in cells nuclei, he will soon have such a stock of nuclei on hand that he will be hopelessly confused, and the matter is not much improved, if, as a last resort, he indiscriminately calls some of his superfluous nuclei vacuoles and others bioplasts. The tendency to use meaningless words is not, by any means, confined to biological students, but, in a laboratory, where one is examining something definite, the evil should certainly be checked by frequent demands for English translations of verbose rubbish.- Popular Science Monthly.


UTTER.—This verb is often misused for say, express. To utter means to speak, to pronounce; and its derivative utterance means the act, manner or power of uttering, vocal expression, as, "the utterance of articulate sounds.” We utter a cry; express a thought or sentence; speak our mind; and, though prayers are said, they may be uttered in a certain tone or manner. “Mr. Blank is right in all he utters:” read says. "The court uttered a sentiment that all will applaud :” read expressed a sentiment.

THOSE KIND.—Those kind of apples are best.” “That kind of apples is best." It is truly remarkable that many persons who can justly lay claim to the possession of considerable culture use this barbarous combination. It would be just as correct to say “those flock of geese," or "those drove of cattle,” as to say "those kind or sort of people.” STOP.-"Where are you stopping ?“At the Metropolitan.”

word to use here is staying. To stop means to cease to go forward, to leave off, and to stay means to abide, to tarry, to dwell, to sojourn. We stay, not stop, at home, at a hotel or with a friend as the case may be.

The proper

SEEMS, APPEAR.--Graham, in his "English Synonyms," says of these two words: “What seems is in the mind; what appears is external. Things appear as they present themselves to the eye; they seem as they are represented to the mind. Things appear good or bad, as far as we can judge by our senses. Things seem right or wrong as we determine by reflection. When things are not what they appear our senses are deceived; when things are not what they seem, our judgment is at fault.”- Wisconsin Journal of Education.


IN a previous number, we took occasion to refer to the use of mottoes in the school room. Some teachers have wondered where they could get good mottoes. One is likely to see what he looks for. If he is looking for mottoes, he will make quite a collection in a few years; but there are a great many teachers who are teaching for the first tiine this winter, and they do not wish to wait several years-or even months. They want some good mottoes now. The most for the money, 15 cents, can be had by addressing Prof. Geo, W. Hoss, Topeka, Kansas, and asking for the “Primer of Memory Gems." This little primer contains many choice quotations, the study of which in the manner suggested in our former article will encourage the study of literature. because they will have a desire to know more of the book or author from which they come,

The way to get pupils not to use slang is to see that they have something better to use. These mottoes properly used will supply this.

Another book is "Gems of Thought," by Charles Northend, published by D. Appleton & Co., New York. This book contains more than two hundred pages, filled with more than a thousand choice selections.


So many teachers find it difficult to teach small pupils how to count. I begin with the chart class. Every primary teacher should be supplied with kindergarten material, but for the benefit of those who have never had the pleasure of visiting a kindergarten school, I will give some imitations of the objects used there; the imitations costing only a little work and time.

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