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Let us suppose now that he has reached page 221 of Webster's High School Dictionary. At the top of each page in this dictionary are two words; the first one is the same as the first word in the first column; the second is the same as the last word in the last column. The last one on this page is pence, and as r comes after n, he knows his word is not on that page. He turns to the next page and finds the second word at the top is perchance. Since s comes after c he knows the word is not on that page. He glances at the next page and in a similar way sees that it can not be on that page. He turns now to page 224.
Here the first word is perpendicularity and the last one petrel. As s comes after p and before t, he knows his word is on that page.
In which column? He looks at the first word in the second column and finds it to be personification. Since o comes after i, he knows the word must come before personification, and is therefore in the first column. He needs to look in this column only.
This is slow work at first, but when practiced persistently pupils become very skillful in finding words, and much valuable time is saved.
WHY FIND WORDS? Generally for one of two things,-pronunciation or meaning The pronunciation of monosyllables and accented syllables is easily determined, as in these the letters are marked; but in the unaccented syllables they are marked only when they are exceptions to a general principle given in the "front part" of the book. The teacher must decide for the younger pupils, but the older ones should be taught how to use this “front part.” Turn to the word adult. Here the first syllable is composed of the letter a and is unaccented and is unmarked. Now turn to page IX of the "front part” of the book. Read Section 41. Reference is made to Note , under Section 40. Read the reference on the same page.
Then re read Section 41, and we find that a has a brief sound of Italian a.
This paper is already too long, so we shall say nothing about getting the meaning of the word.
Political “ringsters” now read it plainly “on the wall."
DEPARTMENT OF PEDAGOGY.
(This Department is conducted by S. S. PARR, Principal De Pauw Normal School.)
THE MEANS FOR TEACHING GEOGRAPHY.
'N considering how to teach geography to a country school,
we have thus far considered what the subject is logically and
chronologically, and sketched the purposes for which it is taught. Next in this series comes an inventory of the means the teacher can command. We have all heard of Mrs. Partington's attempt to mop back the ocean when it rose into her door yard, and how the ocean was excited and how Mrs. Partington got her “dander up" and mopped with might and main, but all in vain;
her means were inadequate to her purpose! If our means of teaching geography are inadequate to our purpose, failure will result.
It sounds like a curious proposition to say that the most important means in the teacher's hands is the pupil's mind, and yet it is true.
The text-book is a means of gathering certain facts to be used as material by the pupil's mind.
Maps and charts are important means for getting ideas of form, outline, parts and their location, and the location of places.
Books of travel, scientific and other descriptions, gazetteers, cyclopedias and magazine articles are all means of auxiliary information.
The moulding-board is an efficient means of gaining a general idea of the vertical contour of a counrry. It is also an excellent test of the pupil's understanding of what he has learned. An attempt has been made to proclaim the moulding. board the ne plus ultra, or words to that effect, of the subject of geography. So far the attempt is a failure.
Map drawing is an excellent means of fixing in memory a representation, on a small scale, of a country or other kind of geographical feature, But to mistake a remembered idea of a piece of paper splotched here and there with colors and lines resem. bling the tracks of lies that had tumbled into the ink bottle, for the idea of a real, living country is very much like mistaking a druggist's mortar for an apothecary shop!
The teacher's fund of information is a valuable means of supplementing and completing the work done by the pupil for him. self and of testing the accuracy of the knowledge gathered and assimilated by the latter. A small bank soon stops payment when a run is made on it. If the teacher has a meager fund of geographical knowledge, his value in this regard will be small.
The pupil's experience and observation form very valuable means of teaching the subject. Indeed all the knowledge he gathers must be interpreted in terms of this. It is the teacher's business to see that this is done, else knowledge derived from sources outside of it will be in a measure valueless.
A good method is a valuable means. By method is meant the way or manner the various means are combined into a working order—the way the means are adapted to the end.
The foregoing are believed to be the chief means employed in teaching this important subject. All of them should be employed, none being given undue prominence, and none neglected. If rightly employed, they are ample for realizing the purpose.
S. S. P.
AN OLD STORY RETOLD.
SUPPOSE one remembered fully the following; what would he do?
“Him the Almighty Power
Who durst defy the Omnipotent to arms." To the mind, as idea, this is the imagination's picture of the hurling of the rebel Lucifer from the battlements of Heaven down to Hell. It involves a series of ideas, - Lucifer, the Almighty Power, Heaven, Hell, and the condition of Lucifer in his punishment, -and their relations, as pictured and thought.
In thinking these ideas there is a consecutive set of mental acts independent of bodily action.
There is a series of acts performed by the brain and nervecenters coördinate with the series of purely mental acts.
In reading the words, the muscles of the mouth and throat, under the direction of the will, execute a complicated series of bodily acts.
At the same time the eye executes a similar series.
Both these are accompanied by a series of sound impressions on the ear.
Each series of bodily acts, whether of mouth, ear or eye, has its coördinate series of underlying and determining mental acts. The utterance of every oral word, the seeing of every printed word, and the hearing of every spoken word are shaped by the mind.
In addition to all the above, the stanza given might be written, in which case two other sets of acts, one mental, the other bodily, would be added to those already given. Altogether, then, we should have ten different series of mental and bodily acts concerned in the reproduction of the selection. Now a law of mind and body is that both tend to do again what they have done before. If nothing interfered, under this law, the mind would, if started on any one of the series of acts indicated above, run right through the series to the end, as readily as the clock runs through to the end of the weight or the spring. But the laws of associ- . ation and habit interfere and switch mind and body off to whatever has been impressed on either more strongly. If, in recalling the series of ideas, the mind got as far as hurled headlong flaming from and the association were stronger with Mt. Olympus than with ethereal sky, it would be thrown off the track and be unable to complete the series. If, in recalling the words, the series of words on the page presented itself all right to “combustion" and then “gas," "coal" or something similar presented itself, the mind would again be thrown off the track and be unable to finish the series.
The ten series evidently so interact as to help one another. Each of them can be reproduced, when the mind has been so habituated to it as to not be switched off by foreign associations. The success in mastering the reproduction of ideas, oral words and written words, will depend on the amount of concentrated
energy brought to bear on the work. Perfect memory will result from securing such a state of mind and body as will enable either when started on these series of acts to run them through just as a ball runs through a ten-pin alley. Other things being equal, that will be remembered most readily which brings into action the greatest number of kinds of activity. Then to remember this or any other stanza best, the ideas should be mastered, the written words impressed on the eye by reading them over frequently, the oral words impressed on the ear by reading aloud and the muscles of the hand and the action of the eye brought into play by writing it.
S. S. P.
The Irish drill-sergeant in the civil war, who was detailed to a western company and whose first order was "'Tintion, company, eyes front!” no doubt created a lively interest in his men. As in every other case the emotion (interest is emotional and corresponds to attention, which is intellectual) was composite. It was made up of several distinct elements. His recruits were full of curiosity. They desired to know what was coming next. They were on the qui vive to know what piece of rich brogue would fall from his tongue at the next turn. The feeling of amusement must have had considerable place. It is a pleasurable emotion, and the pleasurable emotions have large share in the complex feeling we denominate interest. Novelty or difference was also part of the complex. The man, his speech, his intonations, his movements of head, limbs and body were different from anything in the men's previous experience. This gave his doings that freshness that at once lays hold of any mind. Novelty is both intellectual and emotional. As an intellectual element it consists in the perception of something essentially different from what has been perceived before. The sight of ice would be a novelty to an inhabitant of Siam. Novelty, as an emotion, is the pleasure derived from the perceptions of what is new and different. Besides all these, but much deeper than any of them, were the love of truth and the feeling of beauty. At first thought the attempt to find these elements in this commonplace anecdote