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may seem far-fetched, but it is not. The love of truth has as many forms as Briarus had hands (he was the hundred handed); the feeling of the beautiful is as varied as Argus' eyes. It is by no means certain that we have exhausted the elements which made up the interest in this case. There may have been a feel. ing of ridicule at what seemed to the men incongruous in actions and speech. Sympathy, respect, admiration, desire to learn the manual of arms, and other like ingredients may have entered into the compound.

The lesson from this is important. No interest, no attention. To create interest one must be able to appeal to a large number of motives, to press on any one or more of a number of springs, and to not wear any one out before leaving it for another.

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A BILL OF EXCEPTIONS.

In one article of the November Journal the writer says: "A teacher must be a person who KNOWS the lesson or truth to be taught.” In another paragraph we are told that “These definitions and statements are so simple and obvious as to need no argument or proof." This applies to the definition already quoted. We confess an amount of stupidity sufficient not to see the obviousness of any such definition. It seems very like Socrates' definition of man as a featherless biped, at which some one derisively set before the great thinker a plucked fowl. If the proposition that a teacher is one who knows the lesson or truth to be taught is true, then the converse must be true, viz., that every one who knows what is to be taught is a teacher. This is just as absurd as the plucked chicken. The idea that academic knowledge is the only qualification of the teacher wis thought to be laid in the grave for good, but it was an error of judgment so to think, for here comes a shining light who straightway digs up the mummy and breathes new life into it. It is somebody's duty to knock it on the head with a club, hence this trial at it. Academic knowledge is a sine qua non, but the oldschoolmaster idea that it is the only qualification of the teacher is dead, notwithstanding all attempts to galvanize its corpse into new life.

The editor of this department has not been appointed censor of the Journal's articles and does not want the job. But the public health and convenience demand that there be Ben Butlers whose business it is to go about armed with a hatful of bricks to be shied at those who need them. In another article by another shining light we are told that Induction is an analytic process, while deduction is synthetic. * * * To make any serious attempt to pursue the inductive method of teaching without a sufficient basis of facts, can result only in random guessing on the part of the pupil."

Professor Jevons says in his Logic that induction involves four steps: 1. Preliminary observation or gathering of facts; 2. the forming of hypotheses or tentative generalizations from these facts for the purpose of explaining them; 3. deductions from the hypotheses or tentative generalizations with a view to test their truth; 4. corroborative observation to further establish the truth of the hypotheses and of the deductions. This clear statement not only fixes the nature of induction as a process of arriving at general truths by a synthetic process, i. e., a building together of particular facts, under the laws of thought, but also the true relation of induction and deduction. Deduction has long been illustrated by this : “All men are mortal; John is a man; therefore John is a mortal.” The process of thought in this is as follows: All men (a class of objects) are thought as a part of the larger class 'mortal.' According to Aristotle's dictum, whatever is true of a class is true of every member of the class.

If John is a member of the class man, he must therefore possess attributes which the including class 'mortal' possesses. Plainly, then, the whole procedure is one of separation. Those who care for authority are respectfully cited to Hamilton's Logic; Mill's Logic; and Porter's Human Intellect, articles Induction and Deduction.

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One-story intellects, two-story intellects. three story intellects, with sky.lights. All fact-collectors, who have no aim beyond their facts, are one-story men. Two-story men compare, reason, generalize, using the labor of the fact.collectors, as well as their own. Three story men idealize, imagine, predict; their best illumination comes from above, through the sky-light. Holmes.

may seem far-fetched, but it is not. The love of truth has as many forms as Briarus had hands (he was the hundred handed); the feeling of the beautiful is as varied as Argus' eyes. It is by no means certain that we have exhausted the elements which made up the interest in this case. There may have been a feeling of ridicule at what seemed to the men incongruous in actions and speech. Sympathy, respect, admiration, desire to learn the manual of arms, and other like ingredients may have entered into the compound.

The lesson from this is important. No interest, no attention. To create interest one must be able to appeal to a large number of motives, to press on any one or more of a number of springs, and to not wear any one out before leaving it for another.

A BILL OF EXCEPTIONS.

In one article of the November Journal the writer says: “A teacher must be a person who knows the lesson or truth to be taught.” In another paragraph we are told that “These definitions and statements are so simple and obvious as to need no argument or proof.” This applies to the definition already quoted. We confess an amount of stupidity sufficient not to see the obviousness of any such definition. It seems very like Socrates' definition of man as a featherless biped, at which some one derisively set before the great thinker a plucked fowl. If the proposition that a teacher is one who knows the lesson or truth to be taught is true, then the converse must be true, viz., that every one who KNOWS what is to be taught is a teacher. This is just as absurd as the plucked chicken. The idea that academic knowledge is the only qualification of the teacher wis thought to be laid in the grave for good, but it was an error of judgment so to think, for here comes a shining light who straightway digs up the mummy and breathes new life into it. It is somebody's duty to knock it on the head with a club, hence this trial at it. Academic knowledge is a sine qua non, but the oldschoolmaster idea that it is the only qualification of the teacher is dead, notwithstanding all attempıs to galvanize its corpse into new life.

a

The editor of this department has not been appointed censor of the Journal's articles and does not want the job. But the public health and convenience demand that there be Ben Butlers whose business it is to go about armed with a hatful of bricks to be shied at those who need them. In another article by another shining light we are told that “Induction is an analytic process, while deduction is synthetic. * * * To make any serious attempt to pursue the inductive method of teaching without a sufficient basis of facts, can result only in random guessing on the part of the pupil."

Professor Jevons says in his Logic that induction involves four steps: 1. Preliminary observation or gathering of facts; 2. the forming of hypotheses or tentative generalizations from these facts for the purpose of explaining them; 3. deductions from the hypotheses or tentative generalizations with a view to test their truth; 4. corroborative observation to further establish the truth of the hypotheses and of the deductions. This clear statement not only fixes the nature of induction as a process of arriving at general truths by a synthetic process, i. e., a building together of particular facts, under the laws of thought, but also the true relation of induction and deduction. Deduction has long been illustrated by this: “All men are mortal ; John is a man; therefore John is a mortal.” The process of thought in this is as follows: All men (a class of objects) are thought as a part of the larger class 'mortal.' According to Aristotle's dictum, whatever is true of a class is true of every member of the class.

If John is a member of the class man, he must therefore possess the attri

which the including class 'mortal' possesses. Plainly, then, the whole procedure is one of separation. Those who care for authority are respectfully cited to Hamilton's Logic; Mill's Logic; and Porter's Human Intellect, articles Induction and Deduction.

a

One-story intellects, two-stry intellects. three-story intellects, with sky-lights. All fact-collectors, who have no aim beyond their facts, are one-story men. Two-story men compare, reason, generalize, using the labor of the fact.collectors, as well as their own. Three story men idealize, imagine, predict; their best illumination comes from above, through the sky-light. - Holmes.

may seem far-fetched, but it is not. The love of truth has as many forms as Briarus had hands (he was the hundred handed); the feeling of the beautiful is as varied as Argus' eyes. It is by no means certain that we have exhausted the elements which made up the interest in this case. There may have been a feeling of ridicule at what seemed to the men incongruous in actions and speech. Sympathy, respect, admiration, desire to learn the manual of arms, and other like ingredients may have entered into the compound.

The lesson from this is important. No interest, no attention. To create interest one must be able to appeal to a large number of motives, to press on any one or more of a number of springs, and to not wear any one out before leaving it for another.

A BILL OF EXCEPTIONS. In one article of the November Journal the writer says: "A teacher must be a person who knows the lesson or truth to be taught.” In another paragraph we are told that “These definitions and statements are so simple and obvious as to need no argument or proof." This applies to the definition already quoted. We confess an amount of stupidity sufficient not to see the obviousness of any such definition. It seems very like Socrates' definition of man as a featherless biped, at which some one derisively set before the great thinker a plucked fowl. If the proposition that a teacher is one who knows the lesson or truth to be taught is true, then the converse must be true, viz., that every one who knows what is to be taught is a teacher. This is just as absurd as the plucked chicken. The idea that academic knowledge is the only qualification of the teacher was thought to be laid in the grave for good, but it was an error of judgment so to think, for here comes a shining light who straightway digs up the mummy and breathes new life into it. It is somebody's duty to knock it on the head with a club, hence this trial at it. Academic knowledge is a sine qua non, but the oldschoolmaster idea that it is the only qualification of the teacher is dead, notwithstanding all attemp's to galvanize its corpse into new life.

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