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The editor of this department has not been appointed censor of the Journal's articles and does not want the job. But the public health and convenience demand that there be Ben Butlers whose business it is to go about armed with a hatful of bricks to be shied at those who need them. In another article by another shining light we are told that “Induction is an analytic process, while deduction is synthetic. * * * To make any serious attempt to pursue the inductive method of teaching without a sufficient basis of facts, can result only in random guessing on the part of the pupil."

Professor Jevons says in his Logic that induction involves four steps: I. Preliminary observation or gathering of facts; 2. the forming of hypotheses or tentative generalizations from these facts for the purpose of explaining them; 3. deductions from the hypotheses or tentative generalizations with a view to test their truth; 4. corroborative observation to further establish the truth of the hypotheses and of the deductions. This clear statement not only fixes the nature of induction as a process of arriving at general truths by a synthetic process, i. e., a building together of particular facts, under the laws of thought, but also the true relation of induction and deduction. Deduction has long been illustrated by this : “All men are mortal; John is a man; therefore John is a mortal.” The process of thought in this is as follows: All men (a class of objects) are thought as a part of the larger class ‘mortal.' According to Aristotle's dictum, whatever is true of a class is true of every member of the class.

If John is a member of the class man, he must therefore possess the attri

hich the including class 'mortal' possesses. Plainly, then, the whole procedure is one of separation. Those who care for authority are respectfully cited to Hamilton's Logic; Mill's Logic; and Porter's Human Intellect, articles Induction and Deduction.

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One-story intellects, two-strry intellects. three story intellects, with sky-lights. All fact-collectors, who have no aim beyond their facts, are one-story men. Two-story men compare; reason, generalize, using the labor of the fact.collectors, as well as their

Three story men idealize, imagine, predict; their best illumination comes from above, through the sky-light. - Holmes.

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT. [ Chis Department is conducted by HOWARD SASdison, Professor of Methods in the

State Normal School.)

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GEOGRAPHY IN THE SECOND YEAR OF SCHOOL.

THE aim of the first year's geography work has been indi

cated as the making clear to the child those fundamental ideas,

such as form, color, size, place, etc., that underlie the comprehension of any region of the earth, or of a map or picture, through which the region is to be studied.

The aim of the geography work of the second year of school, is to awaken the pupil's interest in locality. In the various regions of the earth as locality the child is but little interested. He must, however, become interested in them, as the work in geography is soon to pass into that stage when the child is to be engaged largely with the study of the earth's surface; that is, with locality, as locality. The second year's work is to prepare him for that time by attaching his interest to the various regions of the earth, so that when he comes to study the divisions and elements of the earth's surface they will have interesting associations for him.

The great point of the first year's work was to give the child clear ideas of form, color, size, etc., and to show these ideas in geogruphical material; but the great point of the second year's work is to clothe with interesting associations the various typical regions of the earth.

Three considerations are to claim attention when determining how this main aim is to be accomplished :

The first of these is the fact that the mind by its associative power extends the pleasure or interest that it has in any given objects, to all those things with which the given objects stand in close relations.

The second is that the child is much interested in all phases of life. Plant life and its curious manifestations; animals, with their queer ways; and man, considered as to his home, habits, occupations, etc.,—these furnish varied and deeply interesting themes for the young minds. They constitute the true avenue by which to approach the study of the surface of the earth, which

in itself is not so inviting a field to the child, (although it has among its essential characteristics much that is picturesque, won. derful and attractive.) These phases of plant and animal life and of the life of man, are to be studied in that way that shall most strongly call into activity the associative principle above referred to, thereby clothing with pleasing associations the various regions of the earth, by having the characteristic features of any region, its name, its distance and direction from the pupil's own region, and its resemblances and differences in respect of his own surroundings, introduced incidentally in connection with lessons upon typical plants, animals, and upon the mode of life of various races and communities.

All the work of the first year, and all these ideas that are sug. gested for the second year's work are to be presented independently of any mapping or map. It is quite frequent to consider that the necessary first step in geography work is making clear the idea of a map, by constructing a map of the school-room, school yard, township, etc. The question may well be raised-“Is this either necessary or advantageous ?” Is it not mechanical and formal work introduced at a time when the mind of the child should be dealing with the attractive features of the subject itself?

The subject of geography has its essence or subject matter, i. e., its ideas; and the instruments or means through which its ideas are to be reached. Among these instruments is the map. The other means are language (oral and written descriptions, tales of travels, etc.) and pictures. With the last two--language and pictures-the pupil is quite familiar; with the idea of the first he is not.

In so far as possible the child's thought, at first, should be concentrated upon the geographical features themselves, to the comparative exclusion of the means.

If the geographical ideas are presented, during the first two or three years, by means of language and pictures, this will be the result, for since the child is already quite well versed in the use of language and pictures, his attention may be almost enterely centered upon the ideas themselves. It is quite the reverse if the first work in the geographical line is upon the map. The

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT. [ This Department is conducted by HOWARD SAXDISON, Professor of Methods in the

State Normai School.)

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GEOGRAPHY IN THE SECOND YEAR OF SCHOOL.

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HE aim of the first year's geography work has been indicated as the making clear to the child those fundamental ideas,

such as form, color, size, place, etc., that underlie the comprehension of any region of the earth, or of a map or picture, through which the region is to be studied.

The aim of the geography work of the second year of school, is to awaken the pupil's interest in locality. In the various regions of the earth as locality the child is but little interested. He must, however, become interested in them, as the work in geography is soon to pass into that stage when the child is to be engaged largely with the study of the earth's surface; that is, with locality, as locality. The second year's work is to prepare him for that time by attaching his interest to the various regions of the earth, so that when he comes to study the divisions and elements of the earth's surface they will have interesting associations for him.

The great point of the first year's work was to give the child clear ideas of form, color, size, etc., and to show these ideas in geogruphical material; but the great point of the second year's work is to clothe with interesting associations the various typical regions of the earth.

Three considerations are to claim attention when determining how this main aim is to be accomplished :

The first of these is the fact that the mind by its associative power extends the pleasure or interest that it has in any given objects, to all those things with which the given objects stand in close relations.

The second is that the child is much interested in all phases of life. Plant life and its curious manifestations; animals, with their queer ways; and man, considered as to his home, habits, occupations, etc.,—these furnish varied and deeply interesting themes for the young minds. They constitute the true avenue by which to approach the study of the surface of the earth, which

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in itself is not so inviting a field to the child, (although it has among its essential characteristics much that is picturesque, won. derful and attractive.) These phases of plant and animal life and of the life of man, are to be studied in that way that shall most strongly call into activity the associative principle above referred to, thereby clothing with pleasing associations the various regions of the earth, by having the characteristic features of any region, its name, its distance and direction from the pupil's own region, and its resemblances and differences in respect of his own surroundings, introduced incidentally in connection with lessons upon typical plants, animals, and upon the mode of life of various races and communities.

All the work of the first year, and all these ideas that are suggested for the second year's work are to be presented independ. ently of any mapping or map. It is quite frequent to consider that the necessary first step in geography work is making clear the idea of a map, by constructing a map of the school-room, school yard,

, township, etc. The question may well be raised—" Is this either necessary or advantageous ?” Is it not mechanical and formal work introduced at a time when the mind of the child should be dealing with the attractive features of the subject itself?

The subject of geography has its essence or subject matter, i. e., its ideas; and the instruments or means through which its ideas are to be reached. Among these instruments is the map. The other means are language (oral and written descriptions, tales of travels, etc.) and pictures. With the last two- language and pictures—the pupil is quite familiar; with the idea of the first he is not.

In so far as possible the child's thought, at first, should be concentrated upon the geographical features themselves, to the comparative exclusion of the means.

If the geographical ideas are presented, during the first two or three years, by means of language and pictures, this will be the result, for since the child is already quite well versed in the use of language and pictures, his attention may be almost enterely centered upon the ideas themselves. It is quite the reverse if the first work in the geographical line is upon the map. The

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