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with a paper or two, a few readings, music interspersed: a third. “Recent Discovery in Africa”; a fourth, “The Crusades" or "* Eminent Women"; or arrange a debate. In addition, four lecturers could be brought in at a cost of $150. At every evening music should be used, and it would add greatly to the pleasure if a sheet of old songs should be printed and distributed and all be asked to sing, under the direction of some good leader. The entire cost of this need not be over $200 to $250. A church could easily be secured at small cost. Experience will suggest changes. The peculiarities of each locality will make necessary other changes. But with patience, enthusiasm and versatility, the winter evenings can be filled at small cost with lectures and entertainments which shall redeem life from monotony and open the way for larger things.

McC.

READING CIRCLE DEPARTMENT.

D.
OUTLINES FOR DECEMBER.

HAILMAN'S LECTURES ON EDUCATION-LECTURE III. The three great Grecian Schoolmasters are the subject of this lecture: Socrates--Plato-Aristotle. They were no ordinary schoolmasters, but born leaders of human thought, who traced the boundaries of ideas for all time to come.

Socrates originated and employed the Socratic method of teaching. This is, properly speaking, a method of refuting error and advocating truth by developing any given idea or set of ideas. Compayre says of the Socratic irony: “He [Socrates] raised a question as one who simply desired to be instructed. If there was the statement of an error in the reply of the respondent, Socrates made no objection to it, but pretended to espouse the ideas and sentiments of his interlocutor. Then by questions which were adroit and sometimes insidious, he forced him to develop his opinions, and to display, so to speak, the whole extent of his folly, and the next instant slyly brought him face to face with the consequences which were so absurd and contradictory that he ended in losing confidence, in becoming involved in his con clusions, and finally in making confession of his errors."

But the Socratic irony is as nothing alongside another contribution made by Socrates to education and thought. He was the first to teach that the method of thinking and of teaching should be a consciously ordered procedure. This made some very important things possible, viz., philosophy, psychology, and method in education.

It is only when teaching turns back on itself and asks, What? How? and Why? that method as a conscious means becomes possible. This Socrates

did. He taught the freedom of the individual, that morals could be taught, that virtue (manliness) is the highest good, etc. But these dwindle into nothingness, as forces in thought, compared with the idea of making teaching conscious of its own procedure, and thus capable of infinite systematic progress in accordance with a purpose.

Plato has a place in the history of education because he elaborated in one line the happy thought of hls great teacher, Socrates. The latter had pointed out the possibility that education could follow a conscious plan and purpose. Plato applied this idea and developed the first complete system of education in Greek thought. This system of education is part of his ideal commonwealth, portrayed in the Republic, In the Republic, statesmen, soldiers and workmen (artificers) are not to be left to chance, but to be trained for their respective callings. It is a notorious fact that every great reformer projects a system of education to carry out his reform. So Plato had, of necessity, to project a system of education to secure his ideal statesmen, soldiers mechanics. Thus his educational reforms are necessarily secondary and subordinate. But the elaboration of a more or less complete system is the central fact in the relation of Plato to education. It should be remarked in passing that Plato is the first to propose systematic state education.

Every great thinker is characterized by some all-powerful centra idea. Aristotle is perhaps the greatest philosophic genius the world has ever seen. In him the mighty central idea is that of thinking things under the form of totality, i. e., not only thinking them in their individual completeness, but also thinking them in the entire circle of their relations. Aristotle's contribution to education consists in the application of his central idea to that of education. He was first to consciously distinguish between formal education, that is, that given with the conscious purpose of education and that derived incidentally from those forms of activity not essentially educative.

Those who study Lecture III will do well to bear in mind these three central ideas. They will go far in helping to interpret the valuable facts Prof. Hailman gives.

S. S. PARR.

MENTAL SCIENCE-WATTS ON THE MIND.

SUBJECT: • Of Books and Teacners.” Chaps. V, VI, VII, pp. 61 79 “ If we think of it, all that a University or Highest School can do for us is still -- what the first school began doing-teach us to read." --Carlyle.

1. GENERAL STATEMENT.-Preparatory to this third month's work there should be a careful review of the salient points in Chapter IV of the November reading, especially the following: (1) Get, first, an idea of the book (or chapter, or section) as a whole. (2) Read without bias or prejudice,-be open to new truth. (3) Frequently consult dictionaries, word-books, cyclopedias, and other references.

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(4) Study subjects rather than authors. And note especially (5) the significance and importance of an index. The matter upon this should be re-read in connection with what the author has to suggest in the present lesson (p. 62) concerning title page, tables of contents, introduction, etc. It was a Spanish saying that an author, himself, should make an index (or table of contents) of his book, whereas the book itself might be written by any one else.” And 'tis Horace Binney who re-enforces this thought, in the words, “I have come to regard a book as curtailed of half its value, if it has not a full index (a reference analysis of its contents).”

II. POINTS TO BE STUDIED.-1. Touching the reading of books entire, or in parts.

(a) In reading pass over (omit) such parts as are already known."" -7. A. Spencer.

(6) “A book may have but one thing in it worth knowing; shall one read it all through???--Johnson.

(c) “He who reads with discernment and choice will acquire less learning, but more knowledge."Bolingbroke.

(d) “Few signs are more promising than an inclination to read the same book again and again."-Spencer.

2. Touching criticism of books.

(a) “It is a much shallower and more ignoble occupation to detect faults than to discover beauties.

To discover rightly whether what we call a fault, is in very deed a fault, we must previously have settled two points: (1) we must make plain what the author's aim really and truly was; (2) we must decide how far this aim accords --not with us and our individual crotchets-but with human nature. and the nature of things at large.”Carlyle.

(6) " Before censuring a book for seeming what it is not, we should be sure we know what it is."'--Colton.

(c) “Cases may occur where a little patience and some attempt at thought (in reading) would not be altogether superfluous."--Carlyle.

3. Importance of collateral readings.

III. ITEMS OF PROFESSIONAL INTEREST.-1. Affected judgments of new books. 2. Qualifications of the Instructor. (a) Skill in the communication of knowledge. (6) Patience in the art of teaching. () Industry. (d) Adaptation of methods (means) to the nature (capacity) of the learner. (e) The “authority" of one's instruction.

IV. GEMS WORTH REMEMBERING.-1. * Every poor low genius may cavil at what the richest and noblest hath performed."

2. “ Life is too short and time too precious, to read every new book, in order to find that it is not worth the reading."

3. “Truth is not always attended and supported by the wisest and safest method; while error may be artfully covered and defended."

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“ Be not too rigidly censorious;
A string may jar in the best master's hand,
And the most skillful archer miss his aim."

-Roscommon's Horace. 5. “Envy is a cursed plant; it condemns by wholesale."

V. SUGGESTIVE REFERENCES.-For the use of those members who may care to further pursue the subject of the right use of books the following are suggested:

Libraries and Readers-W. E. Foster. F. Leypoldt, New York, publisher. 50 cts.

On the Right Use of Books, W. P. Atkinson. Boston. 25 cts. Libraries and Schools-S. S. Green. F. Lypoldt, N. Y.

R. G. BOONE.

50 cts.

HISTORY

Green's Shorter History of the English People. 1. General Review.--(a) We have taken a hasty view of the English People under their various kings, beginning with Egbert of the Cerdic line and reaching down to the death of Henry II, who was the first of the Plantagenet line of kings: we have seen these people meet amid the carnage of battle, the struggle of tyrants and the growth of principle until a race has been developed who knows how

** To take Occasion by the hand, and make

The bounds of freedom wiiter yet." We have seen this great people develop from the ruins and debris of the Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Danish, and Norman Conquests. (6) It was the repeated revolts of these indomitable English rather than the battle of Hastings that made William of Normandy a conqueror. (©) Among the innovations which the Conqueror introduced were,--the Feudal System, the Forest Laws, the Curfew, Peter's Pence, Doomsday Book, and the French Language.* (d) After the conquest of England William still held Normandy, and hence remained a vassal of the French king. This fact began a complication of English and French interests which became a fruitful source of strife, that culminated in bloody wars, which stretched along the wake of nearly five centuries. (e) Questions.-1. Give the principal results of the reign of Alfred the Great. 2. On what did William the Conqueror base his right to the English throne? 3. Name the Primates of England as far as the reign of King John; state some important step that each one took. 4. What were the leading traits in the characters of Dunstan and Becket? 5. Why was Henry II called a Plantagenet? Who was his mother? What territory did he obtain by his marriage? 6. State the cause of the Crusades and name three important results.

*NOTES.-1. When the Northern barbarians became masters of Rome they rewarded their chief with large possessions from their conquered territories on condition that these chiefs would assist them in times of war. These chiefs allowed their subordinates to hold a part of these grants on the same condition of military service, and these subordinates again to others on similar conditions: thus originated a succession of classes held together by homage and service on the part of the subordinates, and protection on the part of the chiefs; thus originated that system of lords and vassals and serfs, the last of which were held in no higher estimate than beasts, and could be transferred along with the soil they tilled. Lands thus granted were called Feudes, and hence, Feudalism. It reached its height in continental Europe in the tenth century and was introduced into England by the Norman Conquest. “The evil effects of this system were inevitable: These great lords held both civil and criminal jurisdiction over their feudes or fiefs, and often exercised it without regard to justice; secure in their castles they could defy their sovereigns, and were hence independent of con trol."

2. During these centuries of the so-called Dark Ages ignorance and superstition were supreme; in the midst of this mental and moral night some French nobles pledged themselves to defend the weak and the oppressed; the Church favored their proposition; and thus originated that institution called Chivalry, which formed the leading feature in the civilization of the Middle Ages. This custom was introduced into England along with other continental customs.

II. Advanced Work-Pages 143 to 235. Points OF SPECIAL INTEREST.-(A) King John and Magna Charta. (B) The diplomacy of the Royal Houses of England, Scotland, and France. (c) The strong English cbaracter of Edward I. (D) The invasion of Scotland and the battle of Bannockburn. (E) Edward I, and the Barons. (F) The right of the King to tax the people without their consent forever withdrawn. (6) Origin of the term Prince of Wales. (H) Oxford and the revival of learning. (1) Roger Bacon and Science. (1) The British Parliament; reason for the two Houses. (Notice carefully the origin and development of the literature of those times.)

NOTE.-It will be impossible to anything more than simply develop our taste for History in the time allotted to it in the course; really this is all that is necessary at present, since a cultivated taste is the key to future endeavor. I have but little faith in any kind of mnemonics as a plan of study, but I will suggest a little plan of this kind which does not even have the merit of being original, but which has been really very helpful to me in fixing the names and time relations of the mythical line of English Kings in my memory. This of itself would be comparatively valueless, but it has been a nucleus around which I have collected other facts which are valuable. It is as follows: (1) Re

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