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member that Egbert heads the Royal line. (2) Remember the meaningless word Ethel-wolf-bald-best-red. (3) Remember always King Alfred. (4) Also the meaningless word Edward-mund-red-wy-garward-mund. (5) Remember Athelstan's reign occurred between the first and second Edward, and that Ethelred II reigned between the last and next to the last Edward. (6) Then come the Danes, Knut, Harold, and Hardi-Canut; then the restored Saxons, Edward the Conqueror and Harold the Second ; then,-

* First William the Norman,

Then William his Son,
Henry, Stephen and Henry,
Then Richard and John;
Next Henry the Third,
Edwards one, two and three,
And, again after Richard
Three Henrys we see ;
Two Edwards, then Richard,
If rightly I guess,
Two Henrys, sixth Edward,
Queens Mary and Bess.
Then Jamie the Scotchman,
And Charles whom they slew;
Yet received after Cromwell
Another Charles too;
And next James the Second
Ascended the throne;
Then William and Mary together come on,
When Ann, Georges four
And William were passed,
God gave us Victoria ;

May she long be the last!“ SUGGESTION.-Read Shakespeare's King John; Mrs. Hemans' familiar poem on the death of the son of King Henry I, who was sunk in the White Ship, entitled, “ He never smiled again”; also Mrs. Hartwick Thorpe's poem on the Curfew. MATTIE CURL DENNIS.

BACK COURSES.

Besides about three thousand sets of books already sold for 1886–7, it is evident there are many readers who, having failed from various reasons to complete the studies of previous years, are doing that reading this year. This is perfectly legitimate. Those who have the books for 1885-6 (or for 1884-5) can do the reading for those years, following the outlines and distribution of work for those years, and have an opportunity to take examination upon all, or any part of it, June 1887. Indeed when that work has been partly done, it is probably better that it be finished rather than new work (for 1886–7) be taken. There is so much work prescribed; when it has been completed in whole or in part, credit will be given for so much as is done.

quered territories on condition that these chiefs would assist them in times of war. These chiefs allowed their subordinates to hold a part of these grants on the same condition of military service, and these subordinates again to others on similar conditions: thus originated a succession of classes held together by homage and service on the part of the subordinates, and protection on the part of the chiefs; thus originated that system of lords and vassals and serfs, the last of which were held in no higher estimate than beasts, and could be transferred along with the soil they tilled. Lands thus granted were called Feudes, and hence, Feudalism. It reached its height in continental Europe in the tenth century and was introduced into England by the Norman Conquest. “The evil effects of this system were inevitable: These great lords held both civil and criminal jurisdiction over their feudes or fiefs, and often exercised it without regard to justice; secure in their castles they could defy their sovereigns, and were hence independent of control."

2. During these centuries of the so-called Dark Ages ignorance and superstition were supreme; in the midst of this mental and moral night some French nobles pledged themselves to defend the weak and the oppressed; the Church favored their proposition; and thus originated that institution called Chivalry, which formed the leading feature in the civilization of the Middle Ages. This custom was introduced into England along with other continental customs.

II. Advanced Work-Pages 143 to 235. Points of SPECIAL INTEREST.-(A) King John and Magna Charta. (B) The diplomacy of the Royal Houses of England, Scotland, and France. (C) The strong English character of Edward I. (D) The invasion of Scotland and the battle of Bannockburn. (E) Edward I, and the Barons. (F) The right of the King to tax the people without their consent forever withdrawn. (G) Origin of the term Prince of Wales. (H) Oxford and the revival of learning. (1) Roger Bacon and Science. (1) The British Parliament; reason for the two Houses. (Notice carefully the origin and development of the literature of those times.)

NOTE.-It will be impossible to anything more than simply develop our taste for History in the time allotted to it in the course; really this is all that is necessary at present, since a cultivated taste is the key to future endeavor. I have but little faith in any kind of mnemonics as a plan of study, but I will suggest a little plan of this kind which does not even have the merit of being original, but which has been really very helpful to me in fixing the names and time relations of the mythical line of English Kings in my memory. This of itself would be comparatively valueless, but it has been a nucleus around which I have collected other facts which are valuable. It is as follows: (1) Remember that Egbert heads the Royal line. (2) Remember the meaningless word Ethel-wolf-bald-best-red. (3) Remember always King Alfred. (4) Also the meaningless word Edward-mund-red-wy-garward-mund. (5) Remember Athelstan's reign occurred between the first and second Edward, and that Ethelred II reigned between the last and next to the last Edward. (6) Then come the Danes, Knut, Harold, and Hardi-Canut; then the restored Saxons, Edward the Conqueror and Harold the Second; then,

“ First William the Norman,

Then William his Son,
Henry, Stephen and Henry,
Then Richard and John;
Next Henry the Third,
Edwards one, two and three,
And, again after Richard
Three Henrys we see:
Two Edwards, then Richard,
If rightly I guess,
Two Henrys, sixth Edward,
Queens Mary and Bess.
Then Jamie the Scotchman,
And Charles whom they slew;
Yet received after Cromwell
Another Charles too;
And next James the Second
Ascended the throne;
Then William and Mary together come on,
When Ann, Georges four
And William were passed,
God gave us Victoria ;

May she long be the last!“ SUGGESTION.--- Read Shakespeare's King John; Mrs. Hemans' familiar poem on the death of the son of King Henry I, who was sunk in the White Ship, entitled, “ He never smiled again”; also Mrs. Hartwick Thorpe's poem on the Curfew. MATTIE CURL DENNIS.

BACR COURSES.

Besides about three thousand sets of books already sold for 1886–7, it is evident there are many readers who, having failed from various reasons to complete the studies of previous years, are doing that reading this year. This is perfectly legitimate. Those who have the books for 1885-6 (or for 1884-5) can do the reading for those years, following the outlines and distribution of work for those years, and have an opportunity to take examination upon all, or any part of it, June 1887. Indeed when that work has been partly done, it is probably better that it be finished rather than new work (for 1886–7) be taken. There is so much work prescribed; when it has been completed in whole or in part, credit will be given for so much as is done. Even the order of so much as is prescribed is not insisted upon,--all that is asked being simply that the work be honestly done.

Any questions concerning these back courses will be cheerfully answered by Hon. John W. Holcombe, Indianapolis, or R. G. Boone, Bloomington, Ind.

LOCAL CIRCLES.

It has been many times suggested that readers who can do so, migbt profitably organize themselves into local circles of two, three or more and be mutually helped by the interchange of opinions upon the readings. There is undoubtedly great gain in this. Each reads somewhat different meanings into the words, members have had varying experiences touching the same questions; individual tastes color the conclusions and general understanding. So in discussion, each comes into possession of the diverse views of all the others. In order too, that these conferences be profitable, they need not be always learned or profound. Let but each express his simple, earnest conviction, and every like-minded hearer must be benefited; only he who is indifferent carries nothing away. The greater profit is not to him who knows most, or reads most, but to him who thinks best upon the little or much he knows and reads.

But such local clubs are by no means necessary to the profitable pursuit of this or any course of reading. He who reads alone thoughtfully and intelligently, reads to his advantage. While the Reading Circle Board has constantly urged the formation of local circles, and the holding of frequent discussions, it has all the while been held that these after all are only aids, means, to the highest good.

The main thing is-earnest, careful, persistent, individual reading. With the most helpful surroundings, and the most intelligent associations, and the wisest leadership, in reading clubs the measure of one's good, is the measure of one's individual effort. As no one can learn for another his daily lessons, and no one for another learn self-control, and no one grow strong by another's eating, so no one can get more than nominal returns by the most intimate acquaintance with another's reading and thinking. The one thing important above every other in this Reading Circle interest, is that each shall thoughtfully read the course for himseif. If this may be supplemented by the aids named, or others, so much the better; but it must not be forgotten that these are only aids.

Posey County.---We have an interesting Circle of twenty-five in Posey county. This is the first effort to organize, and some obstacles were met, but have been happily surmounted, and we hope to double the number before the year closes. Two hours of our township institute are devoted to the discussion of the reading. Prof. Stultz directs

the discussion in Hailman's “ Lectures”; Prof. O. L. Sewell that in Green's History; and the County Manager that in Watt's “Improvement of the Mind." Quite an interest is manifested, and we are assured that the work is of eminent value and profit. Arrangements for intermediate meetings between the institutes have been made.

EDWIN S. MONROE, Co. Manager. It is said that at least 75,000 teachers in the United States are reading methodically and professionally.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

QUESTIONS PREPARED BY STATE BOARD FOR OCT.

| These questions are based on the Reading Circle work of last season WRITING AND SPELLING.–The penmanship shown in the manuscripts of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100, with reference to legibility (50), regularity of form (30), and neatness (20). The hand-wrtting of each applicant will be considered in itself, rather than with reference to standard models.

The orthography of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100, and I will be deducted for each word incorrectly written.

SCIENCE OF TEACHING.-1. How many objects are necessary to an act of judgment? In what does the judging act consist?

2. Which do you regard the more important, and why, silent reading or oral reading?

3. What is the main use which one makes of a knowledge of diacritical marks? When should they be taught?

4. In what ways may the school give effective moral training and instruction?

5. Is it the function of the school to train the religious nature? Give reasons.

6. Explain the difference between a sensation and an emotion. Give an example of each. Which is the more educative when employed as an incentive?

READING.-1. Ought pupils to be encouraged to memorize choice extracts of prose and poetry? Give reasons for your answer.

2. Name three prominent difficulties that must be overcome in teaching pupils in the First Reader.

3. What periodicals would you recommend a child of the Third Reader grade to read?

4. What kind of literature do you consider improper to be placed in the hands of your pupils ?

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