« 前へ次へ »
have effected even in the House of Com- sitting in Parliament, liable to be sent out mons.
of the country at the shortest notice. The Major Cartwright's motion was then least the people could expect was, that put and negatived. After which the fifth they should not suffer by it. The Officer, Resolution was carried almost unanimously. if ordered abroad, had his option. Let
On the sixth Resolution being proposed him, if he pleased, pursue the career of
Major Cartwright said, that, previous honour and ambition; but let not the to the question being put, he wished to people lose sight of the necessity of having move a Resolution, which, if carried, their Representatives ready on the spot, should be inserted before that which they prepared to oppose every attack on their had just heard read. Although the mo- liberties. He need scarcely point out to tion he had before submitted was nega-them the encroachments which had been tived, he Alatiered himself that what he made on their liberties, when they saw was about to propose would meet their ap- their country, under a military Governprobation. It had been carried, that ment, and the law carried into execution Lord Cochrane was a proper person to re- by the point of the bayonet." Major C. present them in Parliament; but it cer- then entered at some length into the cirtainly could not be their intention, if his cumstances attending the arrest of thirtyLordship were elected, and afterwards sent eight persons, who had assembled at Manout of the country, to do without one of chester, to petition for Reform-these men, their Representatives. He should, there- he said, were falsely accused by an infore, propose
former, and the friends of despotism ea" That Lord Cochrane, if elected, begerly darted on their prey. They were requested to pledge himself to resign his sent to gaol; not by the ordinary operation seat in the Commons' House of Parliament, of the law, not by the intervention of conby accepting of the Chiltern Hundreds, in stables, but by the agency of a military case he should be ordered out of the king- force. They, however, gained a victory dom in his naval capacity."
over their false accuser, and the current of Mr. GIBBON said, Lord Cochrane had Reform was only impeded for the moment. shewn, in his address, that, even abroad, When this was the case, when such base he could be of essential benefit to the acts were publicly known, was it not imcountry. He would, therefore, oppose a portant that their Representatives should be Resolution, which narrowed and confined ready to protect their rights? He, therehis exertions. If they were to fetter men fore, thought this pledge was not too much in this manner, they would ultimately find to expect from a Member of Parliament, no candidate willing to serve them. Would and he would not give his vote for any it be just, if the great Lord Nelson, or man who would not accede to it. Marquis Wellington, held seats in the Mr. HARRIS said, if this pledge were House of Commons, that, while they were demanded of Lord Cochrane, and he agreed pursuing the interests of their country to it, he certainly would not vote for him. abroad, they should be deprived of the He was astonished to hear such a propohonour of a seat in the Parliament at sition; it went to drive Lord Cochrane home?
from a noble profession, to which he was Mr. WALKER supported the motion. an honour,
Major Cartwright said, that the Gen Mr. RICHARDSON was of opinian, from tlernan (Mr. Gibbon) who had lately ad- the nature of the proposed condition, that dressed them, seemed to have an objection there was not a sincere wish to elect Lord to Members of Parliament given pledges ; Cochrane. If such a pledge were tendered but he could insorin him, that the Lord to his Lordship, and he accepted of it, he High Chancellor, and every man who ac- (Mr. R.) would neither vote for him, por cepted a situation under Governnent, gave would he ask a single friend to do so. a pledge, by taking the oatlas of allegiance After a few words from the CHAIRMAN and supremacy. Therefore, pledges were and Major CARTWRIGHT, the Resolution the doctrine of the law and the constitution. proposed by the latter was carried. The number of military and naval officers The sixth Resolution was then agreed to. in the House of Commons had grown out Mr. Harris next proposed of that system, which was called the Rot “6 That the Committee who conducted ten-borough Parliament. If the people the Election for Westminster in 1807, be had the fair exercise of the elective fran- requested to carry the Resolutions of this chise, there would be very few Officers Meeting into effect, and the individuals of
this Meeting will give their best assistance knowledge he has of the country, that it to the same end."-Agreed to.
is much easier to enter, than depart out The thanks of the Meeting were then of it, according as the enemy might oppose voted to the Chairman, after which the the entrance or departure, he decided on assembly immediately broke up.
evacuating this province, and on taking a position at Reynosa ; there having learnt that the Army of Portugal was in presence
of the English army, and that they were OFFICIAL PAPERS.
on the point of engaging, he did not hesiBATTLE OF SALAMANCA.
tate on putting himself in motion and re(Continued from page 446.)
joining it.--Strongly impressed with
this important succour and the augmentarmy, or such as belonged to individuals ation which my cavalry was about to re.
who had no right to have them, or to such ceive, not having learnt any thing positive who had a greater number than they are further concerning the Army of the North, allowed. I did not hesitate making use of and being besides informed of the march this means, the imminent interest of the of the army of Gallicia, which in the course army and the success of the operations be- of a few days would necessarily force me ing at stake. I therefore ordered the seiz- to send a detachment to repulse them, I ure of such horses as were under this thought it my daty to act without delay. predicament, and I likewise seized a great I had to fear that my situation, which was number which were with a convoy coming become much ameliorated, might change from Andalusia, all upon estimation of by losing time, whilst that of the enemy their value, and making payment for them. would, by the nature of things, become This measure, executed with security, gave better every moment; I therefore resolved us, in the space of eight days, 1,000 more on repassing the Douro, but this operation horsemen, and my cavalry united amount is difficult and delicate, it cannot be uned to more than 3,000 combatants. 'Mean- dertaken without much' art and circumwhile I no less hoped to receive succours spection in presence of an army in condifrom the army of the North, which con- tion for batile. I employed the days of tinued its promises, the performance of the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th July in which appeared to have commenced, but making a number of marches and counter. of which we have not hitherto seen any marches, which deceived the enemy. I effect. The 8th division of the army of feigned an intention to turn by Toro and Portugal occupied the Asturias; these turned by Tordesillas, making an extroops were completely isolated from the tremely rapid march. This movement army; by the evacuation of the provinces succeeded so well that the whole army of Leon and Benavente they were without could pass the river, move to a distance succours, and without any communication from it, aud form itself without meeting a with the Army of the North ; because ou single enemy. On the 17th the army the one side the Trindadores, who should took a position at Navarre del Rey. The have come from Bayonne, could not be enemy, who was in full march for Toro, sent to Gijon; and, on the other side, the could only bring iwo divisions with celeGeneral in Chief of the Army of the North, rity to Tordesillas de la Orden ; the others although he had formally promised so were recalled from different parts, to redoing, had caused himself to be dispensed cruit themselves. On the 18th, in the with, throwing a bridge over the Deba, morning, we found these two divisions at and there to establish posts. This division Tordesillas de la Orden. As they did not had been able to bring only very little am-expect to find the whole army joined, they munition, for want of means of carriage, thought they might, without peril, gain. and this was, in part consumed ; nor did some time. Nevertheless, when they saw they know how to replace it: its position our masses coming forward, they endeamight every moment become more critical, voured to effect their retreat to a plain and the enemy seriously occupied himself which commanded, a village to which we with it, inasmuch as if it were still thus were marching. We had already reached isolated, it would remain entirely ignorant them. If I had had a cavalry superior op of the important events which were taking equal to that of the enemy, these two diplace in the plains of Castille. General visions would have been destroyed. We Bonnet, calculating on this state of mat- did not, however, pursue them the less, ters, and considering, according to the and with all possible vigour, and during
three hours' march, they were overpowered higher Guarena, to return by a rapid by the fire of our artillery, which I caused movement upon the position they should to take them in the rear and flank, and have abandoned. The enemy followed my which they could with difficulty answer, movement. On the 20th, before day, the and protected by their numerous cavalry, army was in motion to ascend the Guarena. they divided themselves to reascend the - The advanced guard rapidly passed Guarena, in order to pass it with greater that river at that part where it is but a facility, -Arrived
upon the heights of river, and occupied the commencement of the valley of Guarena, we saw that a por- an immense piece of ground, which contition of the English army was formed upon nues without any undulation to nearly Sathe left bank of that river. In that place lamanca. The enemy endeavoured to octhe heights of that valley are very rugged, cupy the same ground, but could not sucand the valley a middling breadth. Whe- ceed :, then he attempted to follow a pather it was necessary for the troops to ap- rallel rising ground, connected with the proach the water on account of the exces position they had just quitted, and which sive heat, or whether it was froin some every where offered them a position, proother cause of which I am ignorant, the vided I should have marched towards English General had placed the greater them. The two armies thus marched papart of them in the bortom of the valley, rallel with all possible celerity, always within half cannon shot of the heights of keeping their masses connected, in order which we were masters; I therefore, upon to be every moment prepared for battle. arriving, immediately ordered a battery of The enemy thinking to be beforehand with 40 pieces of artillery to be placed, which us at the village of Cantalpeno, directed a in a moment forced the enemy to retire, column upon that village, in the hope of after having left a great number of killed being before us upon the rising ground and wounded upon the place. The army which commands it, and towards which marched in two columns, and I had given we marched; but their expectations were the command of the right column, distant deceived. The light cavalry, which I from that of the left three quarters of a sent thither, and the sih division, which league, 10 General Claussel, Arrived was at the head of the column, marched upon this ground, General Claussel, hav- so rapidly that the enemy were obliged to ing few people before him, he thought he abandon it. Besides the road from the was able to seize upon the two rising other plain approaching too close to ours, grounds upon the left bank of the Guarena, and that which we had having the advanand preserve them; but this attack wastage of commanding it, with some pieces of made with few troops; his troops had not cannon, judiciously placed, greatly annoyhalted, and scarcely formed; the enemy ed the enemy, for a great part of the army
perceived it, marched upon the troops, was obliged to defile under this cannon, which he had thus thrown in advance, and and the remainder was obliged to repass forced them to retreat. In this battle, the mountain to avoid it. At last I put the which was of short duration, we expe- dragoons in the enemy's track. - The rienced some loss. The division of dra- enormous number of stragglers which were goons which supported the infantry, vigo left behind would have given us an oprously charged all the English cavalry; portunity of making 3,000 prisoners, had but General Carree, a little too far ad- there been a greater proportion between vanced from the 13th regiment, fell into our cavalry and theirs, but the latter the enemy's power. The army re- disposed so as to arrest our pursuit, to mained in its position all the night of the press the march of the infantry by blows 19th; it even remained in it all the day of from the flat sides of their sabres, and to the 20th. The extreme heat, and the fa- convey those who could no longer march, tigue experienced on the 18th, rendered prevented us. Nevertheless, there fell this necessary to assemble the stragglers. into our hand between 3 and 400 men and
-At four in the evening the army re some baggage. In the evening the army sumed their arms, and defiled by the left encamped upon the heights of Aldea Rubia, to proceed up the Guarena, and take a po- having its posts upon the Tormes. The sition in front of Almo. My intention enemy re-occupied the position of San was, at the same time, to threaten the Christoval. On the 21st, having been enemy, and continue to proceed up the informed that the enemy did not occupy Guarena, in order to pass it with facility, Alba de Tormes, I threw a garrison into or if the enemy marched in force upon the it. The same day I passed the river in
two columns, taking my direction by the -The enemy had his troops parallel to skirts of the woods, and establishing my me, extending his right by leaning towards camp between Alba de Tormes and Sala- the mountain of Tesares, which always ap:
My object in taking this direction peared to be his point of retreat. There was to continue the movement by my left, was in front of the plain occupied by the in order to drive the enemy from the neigh- artillery another vast plain, easy of defence, bourhood of Salamanca and fight them with and which had a more immediate effect on greater advantages. I depended upon the enemy's movements. The possession taking a good defensive position, in which of this place gave me the means, in case I the enemy could undertake nothing against should liave maneuvred towards the evenme, and, in short, come near enough to ing, of carrying myself on the enemy's them to take advantage of the first faults they communications on Tamames. This post, might make and vigorously attack them. which was otherwise well occupied, was On the 22d, in the morning, I went upon impregnable, and in itself completed the the heights of Calbaraca de Azzeva to re- position which I had taken. It was, be.connoitre the enemy. I found a division sides, 'indispensably necessary to occupy it, which had just arrived there, others were seeing that the enemy had reinforced his in march for the same place. Some firing centre, from whence he might push forward took place, for the purpose of occupying the en masse on this plain, and commence his
posts of observation, of which we respec- attack by taking this important point. tively remained masters. Every thing an- In consequence, I gave orders to the 5th nounced that it was the enemy's intention to division to take position on the right extreoccupy the position of Tesares, which was mity of this plain, the fire from which exa league in the rear of that in which he then actly crossed that from Aropiles, to the 7th was, distant a league and a half from Sala- division, to place itself in a second line to manca. They, however, assembled consi- support this, to the 2d to hold itself in derable forces upon this point, and as their reserve to the latter, and to the 6th to ocmovement upon Tesares might be difficult, cupy the plain at the head of the wood, if all the French arıny was in sight, í where a large number of pieces of artillery thought it right to have it ready to act as were yet remaining. I gave like orders circumstances required. There were be to General Bonnet to cause the. 122d to octween us and the English some isolated cupy a point situated between the great points, called the Aropiles. I ordered Ge- plain and the point of Aropiles, which deneral Bonnet to occupy that which belonged fended the entrance of the village of Aroto the position we ought to take; his troops piles; and, finally, I gave orders to General did so with promptitude and dexterity. Boyer, Commandant of the Dragoons, to The enemy ordered theirs to be occupied, leave a regiment to clear the right of the but it was commanded by ours at 250 toises General, and to push the three other regidistance. I had destined this point, in the ments to the front of the wood, on the flank event of there being a general movement by of the second division, in such manner as to the left, and a battle taking place, to be the be able, in case the enemy should attack the part and point of support of the right to all plain, to attack them by the right of this the army. The first division had orders plain, in the mean while that the light cato occupy and defend the plain of Calbaraca, valry should charge his left. The most which is protected by a large and deep ra- part of these movements were performed vine. The third division was in the second with irregularity. The fifth division, after line, destined to support it, and the 2d, having taken the post assigned to them, ex4th, 5th, and 6th were at the head of the tended itself on its left without any cause or wood en masse, behind the position of reason. The seventh division, which had Aropiles, and could march equally on all orders to support it, marched to its posisides, whilst the 7th division occupied the tion, and, in short, the second division was left head of the wood, which formed a still in the rear. I felt all the consequences point extremely uneven, and of very diffi- which might result from all these irregucult access, and which i hadi lined with 20 larities, and I resolved on remedying them pieces of artillery. The light cavalry was myself on the spot, which was a very easy charged to clear the left, and place itself in matter, the enemy as yet not having made advance of the 7th division. The dra- any movement at all. At the same time I goons remained in the second line to the received the report of the enemy having
right of the army. Such were the dispo- caused fresh troops to pass from his left to șitions made towards the middle of the day. his right; I ordered the 3d and 4th divi
sions to march by the skirts of the wood, my removal from the army. I would with in order that I might dispose them as I delight have exchanged this wound for the found needful. It was half past four certainty of receiving a mortal stroke at the o'clock, and I went to the place which was close of the day, to have preserved the fato be the object of a serious dispute, but at culty of command, so well did I know the this moment a shell struck me, and broke importance of the events which had just my right arm, and made two large wounds taken place, and how necessary the prein my right side. I thus became incapable sence of the Commander-in-Chief was at of taking any kind of part in the command. the moment when the shock of the two ar
The previous time which I should mies appeared to be preparing, to give the have employed in rectifying the placing of whole direction to the troops and to appoint the troops on the left, was fruitlessly passed, their movements. Thus one unfortunate the absence of the Commander gives birth moment has destroyed the result of six to anarchy, and from thence proceeds dis- weeks of wise combinations, of methodical order; meanwhile the time was running movements, the issue of which had hitherto away without the enemy undertaking any appeared certain, and of which every thing thing. At length, at five o'clock, the ene- seemed to presage to us that we should reap my, judging that the situation was favour- the fruit. On the 23d the army made its able, attacked this ill-formed left wing with retreat from Alba de Tormes on Penaranda, impetuosity. The divisions engaged re taking its direction towards the Douro. pulsed the enemy, and were themselves re- The whole of the enemy's cavalry harassed pulsed in their turn, but they acted without our rear, composed of the cavalry of the concert and without method. The division first division. This cavalry fell back, and which I had called to sustain the brst, left the division too much exposed, but it found themselves in the situation of taking formed itself in squares to resist the enemy. part in the combat without having foreseen One of them was broken ; the others reit.-- Every General makes extraordinary sisted,, and especially that of the 69th, efforts to supply by his own particular dis- which killed 200 of the enemy's horse, by positions, those which are in the whole re- the push of the bayonet. After this time quisite, but if he can attain it in part, yet they made no attempt on us. -General he cannot effect it completely. The artil- Clausell has the command of the army, and Jery covered itself with glory, performed takes such measures as circumstances reprodigies of valour, and in the midst of our quire. I am going to have myself transJosses, caused the enemy to suffer enor- ported to Burgos, where I hope by repose mously. He directed bis attacks against and care taken, to recover of the severe Aropiles, which was defended by the brave wounds I have received, and which afflict 120ih regiment, and was there repulsed, me more from the dire influence which they leaving more than eight hundred dead on have had on the success of the army, than
At length the army retires, from the sufferings which they have caused evacuates the plains, and retires to the skirts me to endure.I cannot do sufficient of the wood. There the enemy makes justice to the bravery with which the Genefresh efforts. The division of Foy, which, rals and Colonels have fought; to the good by the nature of the business, was charged disposition which animated them in that with the covering of the retrograde move difficult circumstance. Tought particular. ment, was attacked with vigour, and con- ly to mention General Bonnet, whose repustantly repulsed the enemy. This division tation has been so long established. I merits the greatest eulogy, as does likewise should likewise name General Taufin, who its General. From this moment the retreat commanded the sixth division ; General was effected towards Alba de Tormes, Clausell, though wounded, did not quit the without being disturbed by the enemy field of battle, but to the end gave an exOur loss amounts to about 6,000 men hors ample of great personal bravery. The Gede combat.-----We have lost nine pieces of neral of Artillery, Terlet, and Colonel Dicannon, which being dismounted, could geon, commanding the reserve of artillery, not be carried off. All the rest of the bag- particularly distinguished themselves. gage, all the park of artillery, all the mate. In this day, unfortunate as it has been there rials belonging to the army have been are a multitude of traits worthy of being brought away. - It is difficult, M. le Duc, noticed, and which honour the French name. to express to you the different sentiments I will collect them, and solicit from his which agitated me at the fatal moment Majesly rewards for the brave men who when the wound which I received caused have deserved them. I ought not to de