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acking. Arrived at Smoleosko, we hadriages which separated. This contemptible already lost many cavalry and artillery cavalry, which only make noise, and is not horses.The Russian army from Vol- capable of penetrating through a company kynia was opposed to our right. Our right of voltigeurs, rendered themselves formileft the Minsk line of operations, and took dable by favour of circumstances. Neverfor the pivot of its operations the Warsaw theless the enemy had to repent of all the line. On the oth, the Emperor was in serious attempts which he wished to underformed at Smolensko of this change in the take: they were overthrown by the Viceline of operations, and conceived what the roy, before whom they were placed, and enemy would do. However hard it ap- lost many men. The Duke of Elchinpeared to him to put himself in movement gen, with 3,000 men, had blows up the during so cruel a season, the new state of ramparts of Smolensko. He was surrounde things demanded it. He expected to ar- ed, and found himself in a critical position; rive at Minsk, or at least upon the Beresina, but he extricated himself from it with that before the enemy; on the 13th he quitted intrepidity with which he is distinguished. Smolensko; on the 16th he slept at Kras- After having kept the enemy at a distance noi.The cold, which began the 7th, from him during the whole day of the 18th, suddenly increased, and on the 14th, 15th, and constantly repulsed him at night, made and 16th the thermometer was 16 and 18 a movement on the right, passed the Bos degrees below the freezing point. The rysthenes, and deceived all the calculations roads were covered with ice; the cavalry, of the enemy. On the 19th, the army artillery, and baggage horses perished every passed the Borysthenes at Orza, and the night, not only by hundreds, but by thou- Russian army, being fatigued and having sands, particularly the German and French lost a great number of men, ceased from horses. In a few days more than 30,000 its attempts.The army of Volhyaia horses perished; our cavalry were on foot; had inclined on the 16th upon Minsk, and our artillery and our baggage were without marched upon Borisow. Gen. Dombrow: conveyance. It was necessary to abandon ski defended che bridge-head of Borisow and destroy a good part of our cannon, am- with 3,000 men. On the 23d he was munition, and provisions. This army, forced, and obliged to evacuate this posis so fine on the 6th, was very different from tion. The enemy then passed the Berethe 14th: almost without cavalry, without sina, marching upon Bobo; the division artillery, without transports. Without Lambert formed the advanced-guard. cavalry, we could not reconnoitre a quarter The second corps, commanded by the Duke of a league's distance; without artillery, of Reggio, which was at Taeherein, had we could not risk a battle, and firmly await received orders to march upon Borisow, to it: it was requisite to march, in order not secure to the army the passage of the Bereto be constrained to a battle, which the sina. - On the 24th, the Duke of Reggio want of ammunition prevented us from de- met the division, Lambert, four leagues siring; it was requisite to occupy a certain from Borisow, attacked and defeated it, space not to be turned, and that too with took 2,000 prisoners, six pieces of cannon, out cavalry, which led and connected the 500 baggage-waggons of the army of Vol. 'columns. This difficulty, joined 10 a cold hynia, and threw the enemy on the right which suddenly came on, rendered our bank of the Beresina.-- General Berkeim, situation miserable. Those men, whom with the 4th cuirassiers, distinguished himnature had not sufficiently steeled to be self by a fine charge. The enemy could above all the chances of fate and fortune, only secure his safety by burning the appeared shook, lost their gaiety, their good bridge, which is more than 300 toises in humour, and dreamed but of misfortunes length. Nevertheless, the enemy occupied and catastrophes; those whom she has all the passages of the Beresina ; this river created superior to every thing, preserved is forty toises wide, and had much floating their "gaiety and their ordinary manners, ice on it, but its banks are covered with and saw fresh glory in the different difficul- marshes 300 toises long, which present ties to be surmounted. The enemy, great obstacles in clearing it. The enemy's who saw upon the roads traces of that General had placed his four divisions at frightful calamity which had overtaken the the different debouches, where he presumed French army, endeavoured to take advan- the French army would atteropt to pass. tage of it. He surrounded all the columns On the 26th, at break of day, the Emwith his Cossacks, who carried off, like peror, after having deceived the enemy by the Arabs in the deserts, the trains and car-different movements made during the day
of the 25th, marched upon the village of warm. The enemy wishing to turn our Studżeanea, and caused, in spite of an ene-right, General Doumere, commanding the my's division, and in its presence, two 5th division of cuirassiers, which made bridges to be thrown over the river. The part of the 2d corps that remained on the Duke of Reggio passed, attacked the enemy, Dwina, ordered a charge of cavalry, by and led him, fighting, two hours. The the 4th and 5th regiments of cuirassiers, at enemy retired
upon. the léle-du-pont of Bo the moment when the legion of the Vistula risow. General Legrand, an officer of the was engaged in the woods, to pierce the first rate merit, was badly, but not danger centre of the enemy, who was defeated and ously, wounded. During the whole days put to the route, with the enemy's cavalry of the 26th and 27th, the army passed. which came to the assistance of its infantry. The Duke of Belluno, commanding the 9th Six thousand prisoners, two standards, and corps, had received orders to follow the six pieces of cannon, fell into our hands. movement of the Duke of Reggio, to form On his side the Duke of Belluno via the rear guard, and keep in check the Rus- gorously charged the enemy, defeated him, sian army from the Dwina, which followed took from five to 600 prisoners, and did him. Portaunaux's division formed the not suffer him to advance within the reach rear-guard of this corps. On the 27th, of the cannon of the bridge. General at noon, the Duke of Belluno arrived with Fournier made a fiue charge of cavalry. two divisions at the bridge of Studzeanea. In the battle of the Beresina, the army of Portaunaux's division set out at night Volhynia suffered much. The Duke of from Borisow. A brigade of this division, Reggio was wounded, but his wound is which formed the rear-guard, and which not dangerous. He received a ball in his was charged with burning the bridge, side. The next day (the 29th) we remarched at seven in the evening, and ar, mained on the field of battle. We had to rived between 10 and 11 o'clock; it sought make our choice between two routes-that its first brigade and its General, who had to Minsk and that to Wilna. The road to departed two hours before, and which it Minsk led through the middle of a forest had not met with in its foute. Its re- and of uncultivated marches, where it was searches were in vain; some uneasiness impossible for the army to subsist itself. was then conceived. All we have since On the contrary, the road to Wilna led been able to learn is, that the first brigade through a very fine country. set out at five o'clock, missed its way at being without cavalry, deficient of ammusix, went to the right in place of proceed- nition, and horribly fatigued by 50 days ing to the left, and marched two or three march, carrying in its train all the sick Jeagues in this direction; that during the and wounded of so many battles, stood night, and benumbed with cold, it rallied greatly in need of getting io its magazines. at seeing the enemy's fires which it mis
On the 30th, the head-quarters were took for those of the French army. Thus at echnitsi; on the 1st Dec. at Slaike, surrounded it was taken. This cruel and on the 3d, at Molodetschno, where mistake must have caused us a loss of the army received the first convoys from 2,000 infantry, 300 cavalry, and three Wilna. All the wounded Officers and pieces of artillery. Reports state, that the soldiers, and whatever else could be of General of Division was not with his co- embarrassment, with the baggage, &c. lumn and had marehed alone. -All the were sent off ro Wilna. -To say that army baving passed on the morning of the the army stands in need of re-establishing 28th, the Duke of Belluno guarded the its discipline, of refreshing itself, of retéle du pont upon the left bank; the Duke mounting its cavalry, completing its arof Reggio, and behind him all the army, tillery, and its materials, this is the result was upon the right bank of the Borisow, of the Exposé which has just been made. having been evacuated, the armies of the Ils repose is of the first necessity. The Dwina and Volhynia communicated : they material and the horses are coming in; planned an attack on the 28th, at break of General Boureier has already more than day. The Duke of Reggio caused the Em 20,000 remount horses in different depots. përor to be informed that he was attacked.
The artillery has already repaired its Half an hour afterwards the Duke of Bel- losses. The Generals, Officers, and solluno was on the left bank. The Duke of diers have suffered greatly from want, Elchingen immediately followed the Duke Numbers have lost their baggage by the of Reggio, and the Duke of Treviso, the loss of their horses, and several by the Đuke of Elchingen. The battle became effect of the Cossacks' ambushes. The
Cossacks have taken numbers of isolated prosperity, there is just occasion also for persons, of geographical engineers, who our mutual congratulations and thankfulwere taking positions, and of wounded ness. With these blessings are naturalOfficers, who were marching without pre- ly mingled the pressures and vicissitudes caution, preferring running the risk to incidental to the state of war, into which the marching slowly, and going with the con- United States have been forced by the pervoy.The reports of the General Officers severance of a Foreign Power in its system commanding the different corps will make of injustice and aggression. Previous to known what Officers and soldiers have its declaration, it was deemed proper, as a chiefly distinguished themselves, and the measure of precaution and forecast, that a details of these memorable events. In considerable force should be placed in the all these movements the Emperor has been Michigan territory, with a general view to continually marching in the middle of his its security; and, in the event of war, to guards. The cavalry commanded by such operations in the uppermost Canada, Marshal Duke of Istria, and the infantry as would intercept the hostile influence of commanded by the Duke of Dantzic. Great Britain over the savages; obtain the His Majesty has been well satisfied with command of the lake on which that part of the fine spirit shewn by his guards. They Canada borders ; and maintain co-operathave always been ready to sliew themselves ing relations with such forces as might be every where that their presence was need- most conveniently employed against other ful : but circumstances have always been parts.-Brigadier-Gen. Hull was charged such that their appearance alone was suffi- with this provisional service, having under cient; and that they never were in a case his command a body of troops, composed of which required them to charge.—The Prince regulars and of volunteers from the state of of Neufchatel, the Grand Marshal, the Grand Ohio: having reached his destination, after Equery, and all the Aids-de-Camp and Mili- his knowledge of the war, and possessing tary Officers of the household, have always discretionary authority to act offensively, accompanied His Majesty. Our cavalry he passed into the neighbouring territory was
ounted to such a degree, that it of the enemy with a prospect of an easy. was necessary to collect the Officers, who and victorious progress. The expedition, had still a horse remaining, in order to nevertheless, terminated unfortunately, not form four companies of 150 men each. only in a retreat to the town and fort of The Generals there performed the functions Detroit, but in the surrender of both, and of Captains, and the Colonels those of of the gallant corps commanded by that Subalierns.--This sacred squadron, com- Officer. The causes of this painful reverse manded by General Grouchy, and under will be investigated by a military tribunal. the orders of the King of Naples, did not A distinguishing feature in the operations lose sight of the Emperor in all these which preceded and followed this adverse movements. The health of His Majesty event, is the use made by the enemy of the was never better.
merciless savages under their influence. Whilst the benevolent policy of the United
States invariably recommended peace, and AMERICAN PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. promoted civilization amongst that wretch
Washington City, Nov. 4.-The Presi- ed portion of the human race, and was dent of the United States this day commu
making exertions to dissuade them from nicated to Mr. Coles, his private Secretary, has not scrupled to call to his aid their
taking either side in the war, the enemy the following Message to Congress :
ruthless ferocity, armed with the horrors Fellow Citizens of the Senate and House of of those instruments of earnage and torture Representatives,
which are known to spare neither age nor On our present meeting, it is my first sex. In this outrage against the laws of duty, to invite your attention to the provi- honourable war, and against the feelings dential favours which our country has ex sacred to humanity, the British Commandperienced in the unusual degree of health ers cannot resort to a plan of retaliation; dispensed to its inhabitants, and in the rich for it is committed in the face of our exabundance with which the earth has re- ample. They cannot mitigate it by calling warded the labours bestowed on it... In the it a self-defence against men in arms, for it successful cultivation of other branches of embraces the most shocking butcheries of industry, and in the progress of general defenceless families; nor can it be pretend, improvement favourable to the national ed that they are not answerable for the
atrocities perpetrated, since the savages are who was also Governor of the province ; employed with the knowledge, and even and was sustained by veteran troops, from with menaces, that their fury could not be inexperienced soldiers, who must daily imcontroled. Such is the spectacle which the prove in the duties of the field. -Our deputed authorities of a nation, boasting expectation of gaining the command of the its religion and morality, have not been re- Lakes, by the invasion of Canada from Destrained from presenting to an enlightened troit, having been disappointed, measures age.The misfortune at Detroit was were instantly taken to provide on them a not, however, without a consoling effect. naval force superior to that of the enemy. It was followed by signal proofs that the From the talents and activity of the Officer national spirit rises according to the pres-charged with this object, every thing that sure on it. The loss of an important post, can be done may be expected. Should the and of the brave men surrendered with it, present season not admit of complete sucinspired every where new ardour and de- cess, the progress made will ensure for the termination. In the states and districts next a naval ascendency where it is essenleast remote, it was no sooner known, than tial, to a permanent peace with, and a conevery Citizen was eager to fly with his trol over, the Savages. - Among the inarms at once to protect his brethren against cidents to the measures of the war, I am the blood-thirsty savages let loose by the constrained to advert to the refusal of the enemy on an extensive frontier; and to Governors of Massachusetts and Connecti. convert a partial calamity into a source of cut to furnish the required detachments of invigorated efforts. This patriotic zeal, militia towards the defence of the maritime which it was necessary rather to limit than frontier. The refusal was founded on a excite, has embodied an ample force from novel and unfortunate exposition of the prothe states of Kentucky and Ohio, and from visions of the Constitution relating to the parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia. It is militia. The correspondence which will placed, with the addition of a few regulars, be before you, contains the requisite inforunder the command of Brigadier-General mation on the subject. It is obvious, that Harrison, who possesses the entire confi- if the authority of the United States to call dence of his fellow-soldiers ; among whom into service and command the militia for are citizens, some of them volunteers in the the public defence can be thus frustrated, ranks, not less distinguished by their poli- even in a state of declared war, and of tical stations than by their personal merits. course under apprehensions of invasion pre
—The greater portion of this force is ceding war, they are not one nation for the proceeding on its destination towards the purpose most of all requiring it, and that Michigan territory, having succeeded in the public safety may have no other rerelieving an important frontier post, and in source than those large and permanent miseveral incidental operations against hostile litary establishments which are forbidden tribes of savages, rendered indispensable by by the principles of our free government, the subserviency into which they had been and against the necessity of which the miseduced by the enemy; a seduction the litia were meant to be a constitutional bulmore cruel, as it could not fail to impose a wark. -On the coasts and on the ocean, necessity of precautionary severities against the war has been as successful as circumthose who yielded to it.—At a recent stances inseparable from its early stages date an attack was made on a post of the could promise. Our public ships and prienemy near Niagara, by a detachment of vate cruizers, by their activity, and where the regular and other forces, under the there was occasion, by their intrepidity, command of Major-Gen. Van Renssellaer, have made the enemy sensible of the difof the Militia of the State of New York. ference between reciprocity of captures, The attack, it appears, was ordered in com- and the long confinement of them to their pliance with the ardour of the troops, who side. Our trade, with little exception, has executed it with distinguished gallantry, safely reached our ports, having been much and were for a time victorious ; but not re- favoured in it by the course pursued by a ceiving the expected support, they were squadron of our frigates, under the comcompelled to yield to reinforcements of mand of Commodore Rodgers; and in the British regulars and savages.
Our loss instance in which skill and bravery were has been considerable, and is deeply to be more particularly tried with those of the lamented. That of the enemy, less ascer enemy, the American flag had an auspicitained, will be the more felt, as it includes ous triumph. The frigate Constitution, among the killed the Commanding General, commanded by Captain Hull, after a close
and short engagement, completely disabled | affairs with France retain the posture which and captured a British frigate; gaining for they held at my last communication to that officer, and all on board, a praise you.-Notwithstanding the authorized which cannot be too liberally bestowed, expectation of an early as well as favournot merely for the victory actually achievable issue of the discussions on foot, these ed, but for that prompt and cool exertion have been procrastinated to the latest date. of commanding talents, which, giving to The only intervening occurrence meriting courage its highest character, and to the attention, is the promulgation of a French force applied its full effect, proved that decree, purporting to be a definitive repeat more could have been done in a contest re- of the Berlin and Milan Decrees. This quiring more. Anxious to abridge the proceeding, although made the ground of evils from which a state of war cannot be the repeal of the British Orders in Couna exempt, I lost no time after it was declar- cil, is rendered, by the time and manner ed, in conveying to the British Government of it, liable to many objections. The the terms on which its progress might be final communications from our special Miarrested, without waiting the delays of a nister to Denmark, afford further proofs of formal and final pacification: and our the good effects of his mission, and of the Chargé d'Affaires at London was at the amicable disposition of the Danish Governsame time authorized to agree to an armis- ment. From Russia we have the satisfactice, founded upon them. These terms re tion to receive assurances of continued quired, that the Orders in Council should friendship, and that it will not be affected be repealed, as they affected the United by the rupture between the United States States, without a revival of the blockades and Great Britain. Sweden also professes violating acknowledged rules; that there sentiments favourable to subsisting harmoshould be an immediate discharge of Ame- ny. -With the Barbary Powers, except. rican seamen from British ships, and a ing that of Algiers, our affairs remain on stop to impressments from American ships, the ordinary footing. The Consul General with an understanding that an exclusion of residing with that Regency, has suddenly, the seamen of each nation from the ships of and without cause, been banished, together the other should be stipulated, and that the with all the American citizens found there. armistice should be improved into a defini: Whether this was the transitory effect of tive and comprehensive adjustment of de- capricious despotism, or the first act of prepending controversies. Although a re- determined hostility, is not ascertained. peal of the orders susceptible of explana. Precautions were taken by the Consul on tions meeting the views of this Govern- the latter supposition.--The Indian tribes, ment, had taken place before this pacific not under foreign instigations, remain at advance was communicated to that of Great peace, and receive the civilizing attentions Britain, the advance was declined from an which have proved so beneficial to them. avowed repugnance to a suspension of the With a view to that vigorous prosecupractice of impressment during the armis- tion of the war to which our national facul tice, and without any intimation that the ties are adequate, the attention of Congres's arrangement proposed with respect to sea- will be particularly drawn to the insuffimen would be accepted. Whether the ciency of the existing provisions for Gilling subsequent communications from this Go- up the military establishment. Such is the vernment, affording an occasion for recon- happy condition of our country, arising sidering the subject on the part of Great from the facility of subsistence, and the Britain, will be viewed in a more favour- high wages for every species of occupation, able light, or received in a more accom- that, notwithstanding the augmented inmodating spirit, remains to be known. It ducements provided at the last Session, a would be unwise to relax our measures, in partial success only has attended the recruitany respect, on a presumption of such a re- ing service. The deficiency has been nesuit. --The documents from the depart- cessarily supplied during the campaign by ment of State, which relate to this subject, other than regular troops, with all the inwill give a view also of the propositions for conveniences and expenses incident to them. an Armistice, which have been received the remedy lies, in establishing more fahere; one of them from the authorities at vourably for the private soldier, the proHalifax and in Canada, the other from the portion between his recompense and the British Government itself, through Adini- term of his inlistment : and it is a subject ral Warren; and of the grounds upon which which cannot too soon or too seriously be neither of them could be accepted.Our taken into consideration. The same insuf