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reads through the whole of the Colo- produced barley, (to which Marshal nel's work may probably see cause Wade gave the prize at a competition enough to doubt whether, after all, with gentlemen possessed of estates any of the leading feelings with which much farther south,) from a hill side it overflows are worthy of being call- where, during the last fifty years, ed by the name of prejudice--and there has grown nothing but heather. whether it be not well entitled to a Within the limits of the same estate place in the English Library for the the vestiges still survive of several justice of its philosophy, as well as the mansions, all evidently of considerable richness of its historical details. extent and importance, and each of
The first thing that will excite the which was in the old time the sepa-, astonishment of English readers and rate castle of a separate landholder perhaps it may tend to move the able to sustain the character of wealth laughter of some of them, is the mag- and independence. To rise from Garth nificent conception the Colonel seems to the Gael in general, it appears to to have formed concerning the state of us that the following passages are emithe Highlands at a very remote period nently curious, and at the same time of time. Indeed we have little doubt very sensible. that considerable cachination will be raised at the ideas he so boldly express the Picts induced the Kings of the High
" When the succession to the throne of es concerning the ancient grandeur lands to transfer the seat of royalty from of his native region; and that many the mountains to the more fertile regions well-informed people enough will be in- of the Lowlands, and when the marble clined to rub their eyes, and try whether chair, the emblem of sovereignty, was rethey are really awake, and not dream- moved from Dunstaffnage to Scone, the ing, when they find themselves in the stores of learning and history, preserved in midst of “ the court of our Alpine the College of lona, were also carried to Kings,”—"ourroyal palaces among the the south, and afterwards destroyed by the hills," --and our • Hebridean Univer- barbarous policy of Edward I. Deficient sity;" Smile, nay laugh, however, and mutilated as the records in consequence as they may, we would just advise are, it is impossible to ascertain the degree them to compare the accounts of the and mountains had attained; but, judging
of civilization which this kingdom of glens territory of Palestine, and of its popu- from the establishment of the College of sation, contained in the early histori. Icolm-kill, at so early a period, when darkcal books of the Bible, with those in ness prevailed in other parts of Europe, a the works of modern travellers and considerable portion of learning must be ad. historians, and then they may perhaps mitted to have been diffused. The feelings pause before they think themselves of even Dr Johnson were powerfully awaquite entitled to consider Colonel Stew kened by the associations naturally arising art's statements as the mere ravings from the sight of this celebrated spot. of a Celtic Sennachie. The contrast
“Such a seat of learning and piety could between the coast of Barbary as it was
not fail to influence the manners of the when a Roman province, and as it is people. Inverlochay,* their capital, mainnow, is another case quite in point. But and Spain. Yet, of the progress made in
tained a considerableintercourse with France the best of all arguments are perhaps the arts by the Scots of that remote period, those on which the Colonel himself no specimens have descended to our times insists, viz.—the vestiges of cultiva- except the remains of their edifices. The tion, population, and splendour, quite Castle of Inverlochay, although it has been beyond what the Highlands can now in ruins, and uninhabitable for nearly five boast of, still visible in almost every hundred years, is still so entire as to have part of them. The deterioration of furnished a model for the present castles the climate, (the consequence, pro- of Inverary and Taymouth; so far had bably, in a very great measure of the
our ancestors, at a very early period, addecay of the woods,) has been such, vanced in the knowledge and practice of that no one can either doubt the fact, tions round that part of Inverlochay which
The underground foundaor calculate to what extent it may is still standing, shew that it was originalhave operated. For example, the Co- ly of great extent. Dunstaffnage Castle, lonel tells us, that on his own estate also in ruins for many centuries, has equal on the braes of Athole, his grandfather strength of walls, but not the same regu
• Hollingshed Chronicles.
larity of plan. This may have been owing stance, is shewn the kennel for Fingal's to its situation, as it is built on a rock, to dogs, and the house for the principal huntthe edges and incurvations of which the ers. All this, to be sure, is tradition, and walls have been adapted. Urquhart Castle, will be received as such ; but the traces of which has likewise stood in ruins for many a numerous population in former times are centuries, is one of the finest specimens of nevertheless clear and incontrovertible. castle building in the country. But it “But, whatever might have been the po. must be confessed that Scotland in general, pulation and state of civilization of ancient and particularly the Highlands, possesses Albion, the country was destined to experino castles that can bear comparison with ence one of those revolutions which are fre. the baronial residences of the more wealthy quent in human affairs. The extension of nobility of England and Wales.
their dominions occasioned the frequent ab“ In many parts of the Highlands, how- sence of the kings from the ancient seats of ever, ruins and foundations of places of their governments. At length, when, about strength, and of castles, are so frequent, as the year 1066, the Court was removed by to exhibit proofs of a population more nu- Malcolm Ceanmor, never to return to the merous than in latter ages. The marks mountains, the sepulchres, as well as the and traces of the plough also evidently de- residence of the future kings of Scotland, monstrate that cultivation was more ex. were henceforth to be in the south ; and tended than at present. Fields, on the Dunfermline became the royal cemetery inmountains, now bleak and desolate, and stead of Icolm-kill, where so many kings, covered only with heath and fern, exhibit chiefs, bishops, eminent ecclesiastics, and as dictinct ridges of the plough as are to men of learning, lie entombed. That unibe seen on the plains of Morray. Woods versity, which had for ages been the founand cultivation gave a genial warmth to tain whence religion and learning were difthe climate, which planting and other im. fused among the people, was now deserted. provements would probably restore. As an The removal of the seat of authority, was instance of these marks of the ancient po- speedily followed by the usual results. pulation, I shall confine my observations The Highlanders were impoverished. Nor to one district. In a small peninsula of was this the only evil that resulted from four miles in breadth, situated between the the transference of the seat of government. rivers Tummel and Garry, in Athole, ex- The people, now beyond the reach of the tending from Strowan to the Port of Loch- laws, became turbulent and fierce, revenging tummel, about ten miles in length, and in person those wrongs for which the adending at the point of Invergarry, be- ministrators of the laws were too distant low the Pass of Killiekrankie, there are so and too feeble to afford redress. Thence many foundations of ancient habitations, arose the institution of chiefs, who natural(and these of apparent note,) as to indicate ly became the judges and arbiters in the a remarkably numerous population. They quarrels of their clansmen and followers, are nineteen in number. One circular and who were surrounded by men devoted building, near the house of Fincastle, is to the defence of their rights, their proper. sixty-two feet in diameter; the walls are ty, and their power; and, accordingly, the seven and a half feet thick, and a height of chiefs established within their own territofive feet is still remaining. In the district ries a jurisdiction almost wholly independe of Foss there are four. On the estate of ent of their liege lord. Garth there are eight, some with walls nine feet thick ; the stones in two of which are so “ The country traditions are filled with weighty, that they could scarcely have been anecdotes of the hunting expeditions of the raised to the walls without the aid of ma- Alpine kings. From these traditional au. chinery. In Glenlyon * there are seven; thorities, the names of many remarkable and, in a word, they are scattered all over objects in the neighbourhood of their anthe country. Respecting these buildings, cient residence, particularly in Glenroy various opinions are entertained ; but one and Glenspean, are derived. Ossian, and thing is certain, that they must have been the heroes celebrated in song, seem in a erected at a great expence of labour, and manner overlooked in the recollection of that a numerous people only would have the later warriors and Nimrods. Since required so many buildings, either for shel. strangers and men of science have traversed ter or defence. Tradition assigns them to these long-deserted regions, an irreconcilethe age of Ossian, and they are according. able feud of opinions has arisen between the ly denominated Caistail nam Fiann, the Geologists and the Highlanders, regarding Castles of the Fingallians.' The adjacent an uncommon conformation in Glenroy, a smaller buildings are pointed out by names glen in Lochaber, remarkable for the expressive of the purposes to which they height
and perpendicularity of its sides, were appropriated. In Glenlyon, for in- particularly of one of them. On the north side, at a considerable elevation above the to the ocean. After stating these reasons, stream, which flows along the bottom of they triumphantly conclude by a query, the glen, there is a flat, or terrace, about Why other glens and straths in the Highseventy feet broad, having an appearance lands do not exhibit natural appearances of a road formed on the side of the moun. similar to those in the vicinity of the an. tain, and running along, on a perfect level, cient residence of their kings? Their own to the extremity of the glen ; five hun- account, which they believe as firmly as dred feet above this, there is another of they do their creed, is, that these roads these terraces, and still higher a third, all were made for the hunting of the kings parallel, and of a similar form. In English when at Inverlochay; that they were palithey are called Parallel Roads: the inha. sadoed on each side ; and that the game bitants know them by the name of the was driven through, affording the Royal King's Hunting Roads. Geologists say Hunters time to destroy numbers before that the glen was once full of water, up to they could get to the end. As a confirmathe level of the highest parallel, which tion of this account, they quote the names must have been formed by the action of of the circumjacent places, which all bear the waters of this lake on the side of the an analogy to these huntings. hill. By some violence, however, an open. “ To these opinions, so opposite and ing was made in the lower end of the glen, difficult to reconcile, it is probable that which confined the water, in consequence each party will adhere." of which it immediately fell as low as the Another matter, the Colonel's feelsecond parallel, and formed it in the same ings as to the which break out in manner as the first. Another opening of the same kind brought down the surface of every part of his volumes, is the the water to the third parallel, wlien, at he esteems it) produced by the intro
* In ancient poetry, it is stated that the Fingallians had twelve castles in Glenlyon, but there are only ruins of seven visible at this day.
more recent deterioration (for such length, that which confined the water giving way entirely, it subsided to the bot. duction of sheep-farming into the tom of the glen, where it now runs, in a Highlands. This new system has been rapid stream, without obstruction. To this the instrument of lowering to a proopinion the Highlanders object, that it is digious extent the population of these not probable that water, after the first de regions, and if persisted in, must ere clension, would remain so perfectly sta- long, in the Colonel's opinion, destroy tionary as to form a second parallel of the altogether, what all the world must same breadth and formation as the first, or agree with him in considering as an that the second declension would be so re- invaluable nursery of British soldiers. gular in time, and the water so equal in His reflections are particularly severe its action, as to forn a third terrace of form and breadth perfectly similar to the
as to the conduct of the Sutherland two others ; that the glen is too narrow to family, and acquitting the Marquis allow the waves to act with sufficient force and Marchioness of Stafford, as we to form these broad levels ; that, in the most sincerely do, of any evil intens centre of the glen, which is narrow, the le- tion, we can have no hesitation in exvels are the broadest and most perfect, pressing our doubts whether the rea whereas, on the upper end, which opens to duction that has taken place in the poa wide extent, allowing a large space for pulation of these vast estates may not the wind to act with a superior force, the hereafter be repented very bitterly by levels are contracted and less perfect ; that those at the head of them. on the other side of the glen these terraces are broad, and of perfectly regular forma- the history of the Highland clans,
The Colonel goes very deep into tion, while, on the other, they are narrow, and the result of his own inquiries and not so well formed ; and that, unless the wind blew always from the same quar
seems to be, at the least, a most ter, waves would not roll with more force sincere conviction in his own mind, to one side of a piece of water than to ano- that the territory of the chief was in ther. In Glenspean, which is in the im. reality the common inheritance of the mediate neighbourhood, and in which si- race who followed his banner. In milar appearances present themselves, the many instances it is well known the hills recede from each other, leaving a wide clansmen used to exercise the privi, expanse, on the sides of which, if the hol- lege of deposing a chief when he had low had been filled with water, the waves acted unworthily of his high station, would have acted with considerable force, and of electing another of his kindred and yet these roads, or terraces, are by no to be his successor in the phylarchic means so well formed, continuous, and distinct, as in Glenroy. The Highlanders dignity. The unbroken custom of also urge the impossibility of water having many centuries had completely settled ever been confined in Glenspean, without in what proportions the produce of an improbable convulsion of nature, the the land was to be at the disposal of lower end being of great width, and open the chief of the race--and accustom
ed as the chief of those days was to clans, it would have been well, we live always among his clan, and to think, had he endeavoured, viewing find his own comfort and consequence people and measures by the usual in their numbers and zeal, of course lights, to suggest some plan, through no system by which the clan could be which the more extensive expatriation banished from their ancestral soil of this loyal, hardy, and honourable could ever have been dreamed of. race, may be prevented.
In latter times, however, the tastes Taking the world as it is, nobody of Highland gentlemen and ladies can expect that a great landholder is have come very naturally to be almost to sacrifice so much of his own inentirely the same with those of people come for the good, not of himself, but of the same sort of rank in other parts of the state. A few very liberal mindof the empire ; and in order to supply ed and reflective landholders in the themselves with the means of exhibit- Highlands may indeed be wise enough ing the splendours of equipage and to prefer other things to the mere cal. establishment before the eyes of stran- culations of pounds, shillings, and gers, they have in innumerable in- pence: but it is not perhaps fair stances adopted arrangements which to blame those who conduct themhave had the effect of driving thou- selves on the more common-place and sands of once devoted clausmen to prosaic principle quite so severely as seek subsistence for themselves and Colonel Stewart has done. If the their children in the regions of the Highland proprietor is to be compelnew world. On Lady Stafford's estates led to do so much more than the alone, we think, so many as three fine Yorkshire proprietor, for the benefit regiments were raised during the last of the commonwealth-if he is to sareign-three regiments of temperate, crifice so many hundreds, or thouworthy, honourable, and most gallant sands per annum, in order that whensoldiers, any one of whom would have ever government wants a regiment he thought himself and his family dis. may be able to raise one on his estategraced to all eternity had he hesitated why should not the Yorkshire gentleto march at the slightest expression of man pay his part of the cost ? Make the the Countess of Sutherland's will. Celtic lord or laird understand, that The hundred smiling glens where the whenever he raises a regiment, or a comfathers of these brave men cultivated pany, he shall receive such and such their little fields of oats and barley, substantial advantages, and then perare now thrown into the possession of haps there will be less difficulty about some half dozen English or Lowland persuading him that the race of men tenants, and when the drum beats the is a better thing than the race of next time among the domains of Mo- sheep. We honour Colonel Stewart's rar Chattu, the same answer will be personal and chivalrous devotion to given which we have heard of as being the cause of his country, and we received some years back by another have no doubt that the Highland Highland chieftain not necessary to chieftain, whose conduct is regulated be named at present: "" Ye must re- upon principles so noble as his, lives cruit with the colley-dog, for there and dies a greater and a happier man is nothing but sheep upon your than the wealthiest lord in England. hills."
But even we, who know something of The Colonel has the utmost de the Highlands, must be permitted to light in expatiating on the merits of say, that in this part of his work the Lord Breadalbane, and some others, Colonel is too enthusiastic and that who have uniformly expressed their his doctrines, however much they scorn of purchasing some addition to may, and must raise his own charactheir rent-rolls by the banishment of ter in the eyes of his humbler countheir clansmen—and we heartily con- trymen, are not propounded in such a cur in this well-earned applause. But shape as to promise any very effeccandour compels us to say, that we tual improvement, either in their prethink the Colonel writes on the whole sent circumstances, or in the future of this subject with too little regard prospects of them and their children. to the ordinary course of human na- On the contrary, we should rather be ture and human conduct. Instead of apprehensive that they may tend very pouring out the vials of his wrath up- strongly to nourish and exacerbate cer. on the chiefs who have banished their tain feelings of jealousy and mutual distrust, which have already been, on NOTE, which makes part of the followmore than one occasion, made mani- ing extract, will, we are sure, both ilfest, in shapes which we are quite lustrate our subject and delight our sure no one could regard with deeper readers. concern than Colonel Stewart him- “This impetuosity of Highland soldiers, self.
and the difficulty of controlling them, in As to these and some other matters, the most important part of a soldier's duty, there may be, and probably will be, has been frequently noticed and reprobated. many different ways of thinking ; but To forget necessary discretion, and break in regard to the history of the High
loose from command, is certainly an unland regiments, which forms the real military characteristic ; but, as it proceeds subject of the Colonel's book, we ap
from a very honourable principle, it deprehend everybody will completely go attempt to allay this ardour may be pru
serves serious consideration, how far any along with the author. Nothing can dent, or advantageous to the service. An be more interesting than the picture officer of judgment and feeling, acquainted which is given of the character of the with the character of his soldiers, and disHighland Soldier,-more particular- posed to allow this chivalrous spirit full ly as it existed some fifty or sixty years play, will never be at a loss for a sufficient ago, when the Black Watch was first check. It is easier to restrain than to aniembodied, at the suggestion of the
mate. It has also been observed, that the sagacious and patriotic Duncan Forbes modern Highland corps display less of that of Culloden. For a long period of chivalrous spirit which marked the earlier years, owing to the successive civil corps from the mountains. If there be any wars which spread desolation over probably be attributed to this, that these
good ground for this observation, it may Britain, the Highland race had been corps do not consist wholly of native Highlooked upon as a mere body of hardy landers. If strangers are introduced among rebels-disaffected to the government them, even admitting them to be the best of the country-and averse to all re- of soldiers, still they are not Highlanders. gular government. The President For- The charm is broken,—the conduct of such bes had the great merit of destroy- a corps must be divided, and cannot be ing this prejudice. The 42d regi- called purely national. The motive which ment was raised, and wherever they made the Highlanders, when united, fight went, their conduct-peaceful, in- for the honour of their name, their clan, nocent, and honourable in quarters,
and district, is by this mixture lost. Offiand brave of the bravest in the field
cers, also, who are strangers to their lanwas regarded with equal admiration thinking, cannot be expected to understand
their habits, and peculiar modes of
guage, and delight by all who had any op- their character, their feelings and their preportunity of contemplating it. At first judices, which, under judicious manageit was composed, in a great measure, ment, have so frequently stimulated to hoof the sons of gentlemen, proprietors nourable conduct, although they have someor tacksmen ; and these soldiers car- times served to excite the ridicule of those ried into their military service all the who knew not the dispositions and cast of high notions of family as well as per- character on which they were founded. sonal honour which their domestic But if Highland soldiers are judiciously education had instilled into their bo- commanded in quarters, treated with kind. soms. For a long, a very long suc
ness and confidence by their officers, and cession of years, there was no such
led into action with spirit, it cannot on any thing ever dreamed of as corporeal deficiency of that firmness and courage
good grounds be alleged that there is any punishment—" that being,” to use which formerly distinguished them, al. the words of a distinguished General, though it may be readily allowed that much in his orders, “ entirely urıcalled for of the romance of the character is lowered. anong such honourable soldiers.” At The change of manners in their native a later period much of the same simple country will sufficiently account for this. kindliness which united the first sol- But, even if their former sentiments and diers of the 42d, still prevailed among ancient habits had still been cherished in their successors—we have no doubt a
their native glens, the young soldier could vast deal of it remains among those not easily retain them, if mixed with other who at this moment march to the sound soldiers, strangers to his language, his of its bagpipe. Whenever Colonel country, poetry, traditions of battles and Stewart mentions himself, it is with would be more disposed to jeer and deride,
of acts of prowess. These companions that modesty always so characteristic than to listen to what they did not under. of great worth and real valour; and the stand.