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necessarily follows that laws are but types ly omitted in the returns to parliament, of slavery.' Give me leave to say, sir, through the agency of their superior lords.” you do not understand me, at least. No, Wasn't that an insufferable grievance, man has a greater reverence for the laws, or sir ?' is more firmly attached to the constitution, “• It might be so, sir, in your opinion ; than myself. • Only, that, like the man but we are speaking of the pure periods of who had grown so attached to his knife that the constitution, to which your reformers he bestowed a new blade and then a new look back with such tender yearnings, handle to it, you would renew it altogether.' when, instead of a grievance, it was consi.

No, sir, I say what I think, and what I dered as a relief from a burthen. I must feel. I am not bound to uphold the faults not, however, be interrupted, sir. Land, and defects, though I may love the consti- I repeat, was then the representative of the tution as sincerely as you do.' • Depend property of the country, but as the rights upon it, sir, our love begins to slacken of individuals came to be better ascertain. ominously, when the faults of the objected-when the professions were opened to are more visible to our perception than its men of every rank and station in lifebeauties; one step more, and our love is when the spirit of adventure brought the turned to hate.

treasures of a new world to our shores, " • Aye,-well, I don't understand all and commerce and trade multiplied the these roundabout ways ; I stick to my facts, sources of wealth,-a strict adherence to and want only a plain answer to a plain the letter of the constitution would have question ; why, because men have monopo- excluded the whole, or greater part of this lized our land, stould they have the power new property (inasmuch as it was extraneto monopolize our rights ?' • Still, your ous and independent upon the land) from question in this form is any thing but a being represented in parliament, and have question ; for you beg the whole of it, and subjected a large and daily increasing porthen demand a categorical answer. But tion of the people to the overruling and since you are determined to have one, I predominant influence of the landed inte. answer, in the first place, that those who rest. Without, therefore, imputing injushave the greatest stake are likely to be most tice to the landed interest, we may suppose interested in the welfare of the country, their ignorance of the true nature of mer. whilst at the same time I readily admit, cantile or commercial transactions to be a that this predominance should be so ex. sufficient ground for some change in the tended as to prevent partial or unjust lean- original plan of representation. There was ing toward any particular class, or order of no opening, no provision made for this new men, in society. • There you have hit it; state of things. It was not because certain isn't that what I say ?' asked his opponent towns, rising into importance, and certain triumphally. I fear not exactly,' an- ports, appropriate to commerce, might ocswered Pen ; ' for, by referring to the very casionally send men capable of watching grievance, the canker which the nice op- their interests, that the great mass of pertics of the reformers have discovered in the sons unrepresented at all would be satisfied. system of close boroughs, we shall find These, as I said before, might assert local that the practice of the constitution, in de- rights and privileges ; but it was necessary, viating from the strict theory, has applied with a view to the country at large, and the most effective means of preventing any the privileges of the constitution, that some undue preponderance of the landed interest essential change should be made in the over those of the moneyed, the commercial, general representation. Our ancestors were or trading part of the community. I will too wise to propose sweeping reforms. The not discuss with you, sir, the first principles constitution had been gradually forming itof government. I have already said, what self under the collective wisdom of succeedno man acquainted with the subject has ing generations; and any sudden deviation ever denied, that the representatives of a from its course was only likely to produce country, wbose object is permanency and those rude convulsions which have, more security, must be the representatives of its than once, threatened the subversion of all property. This is the principle of English that has rendered us the wonder and admilegislation. When this was originally esta- ration of surrounding nations.' blished in our constitution, which, by the “ Bravo, bravo ! exclaimed the grazier, by, you, sir, seem to imagine a piece of who had been roused from a gentle slum. old parchment, drawn up by some not- ber by the increasing energy of our hero. able lawyer, and declared regularly sign. Auld England's worth 'em all shaken ed and sealed by somebody, at some parti. together.' cular date- • I said no such thing,' " " The machine,' continued Pen, who interrupted the stranger. "Your argu- hardly heard his cheerer, · was so well ments imply it, at least ; but when this put together, that it gradually adjusted itprinciple was first understood and acted self to the new order of things. As ancient upon, land was the chief, if not almost boroughs decayed, or became rotten, if the the only representative of property ; so term please you better, they fell under the that even the boroughs were frequent- influence of small bodies, and even individuals, who by degrees secured a right in appearance, and circumstances which oc. them, between which, and the exercise of curred during the foregoing discussion, conit, to law could interpose ; and this right, ceiving him to be a misguided, rather than by purchase or conveyance, was made over an unprincipled person, he asked him, whecó individuals of every class or order in the ther he had never heard his associates in community, who evuld afford to avail them- reform confess, that their object was, in ef. selves of it by the profits of professions, fect, to do away with the regal govern. commerce, or any other branch of honour- ment ?' We never professed any such able industry and exertion. It might be views,' was the reply. And yet, sir, it is affirmed, indeed, that this innovation was clear as the sun at noon-day, that a House essentially deinocratical ; and it might with of Commons, reformed according to your out difficulty be proved, by reference to plan, could not subsist under a monarchy; facts, that these rotten boroughs have con- in plainer terms,--that a regal government stantly afforded an opening to the admission could not co-exist with a legislature so of men who have most strenuously advo- formed, for a single year. It would be no cated the cause of the people, and who longer a house of representatives, but a could by no other meuns have found their chamber of delegates, who, claiming to goway into parliament.' What of that ?' vern in the name of the sovereign people, demanded the stranger. • Have not the would feel, and quickly avow the inconpeople, in the same proportion, been dis- sistency, of submitting their decrees to the possessed of their riglits ? have they not ordeal, cither of Lords, or King. They forfeited their franchises ?' * Surely not in would at least discover, as the old Rump the instances to which I allude. The rights of Oliver Cromwell, and their more moyou speak of must have disappeared with dern copyists, the French Regicides did,the population.'

that both a King and a House of Peers only "All I mean to say,' said the stranger, stood in their way, and that they could just who appeared to have exhausted his stock as well do without them. With their sub. in hand—all I mean to say is, that it is sequent necessity of recurring for security hard the people of England should be de- to the old standard, and of restoring the prived of their undoubted rights. God same things, under the different names of knows, I want no bloodshed or plunder ; Emperors—or Protectors of Conservative but if Parliament won't do us justice, we Senates, and Councils of State-we have are entitled to take our own affairs into our nothing at present to do.' And so, you own hands.' The plea of necessity is, un- would have us submit Stop, sir,' cried questionably, a strong one ; but until you Pen, fiercely, 'I can reason with a REhear the case made out to your perfect sa- FORMER ; but I must repel a REBEL: tisfaction, it might be wiser to leave your you either fight under false colours, or you affairs-where they are. Depend upon it, must disprove the result I have anticipated, it would not mend the matter to have a to be consistent with your scheme.' Why, horde of mob-orators-adventurers without thee ben't one of them radicals-ater all, principle-moral or religious ; poor, des. mun, be'est thee?' asked the grazier. perate, and needy masters either of your That's the way with you all,' cried the liberties or your exchequers. Let me put baffled reformer ; "you can call names.' one question to you, which I would rather “ • Not I,' answered Pen, with great you should answer to yourself, upon your calmness ; ' I did not say you were a repillow to-night: What reasonable ground bel, --I only meant to show, that what is have you to suppose, that six hundred men, called radical reform, must inevitably lead of honourable life and character-I repeat to the subversion of the constitution, for generally, for exceptions must ever present which it professes to entertain so jealous an themselves of birth, rank, and education, affection,

that those who are capable of -men, who in their private conduct are reasoning upon the subject, cannot fail to unimpeachable, should, by being assem- perceive it, and that those who are not, bled together in a body, become at once are only blind instruments in the hands of rogues, plunderers, and tyrants ? Or, by those who do. The charge of corruption what possible process can you arrive at this is brought against our existing institutions conclusion, on the other side, that an equal and public functionaries, without any evinumber of men, chosen by the most igno- dence beyond that which goes to prove,rant and unenquiring classes of the people, what no man in his sense ever doubted, under the influence of leaders, who are that no human work is, or ever can be per. known to be of desperate fortune, and of fect, or perfectly exercised. A change is most abandoned character in every private proposed under the general and undefined relation of life,--are, by incorporation, to term of reform, which actually undermines, become at once pure, incorrupt, and in- and provides for the destruction, of all that corruptible stewards of a people's rights and is virtually good with what may be suppoproperty ?

sed capable of improvement, and has renOur hero, after a short time, finding dered the country for centuries the envy his opponent silent, addressed him in a more and admiration of Europe; whilst it carries calm and friendly manner, and from his with it not a shadow or pretence of reme. dying a single evil, it professes to have dis- pretext, which gave an air of patriotism covered. The popular branch of the con- to the rebellious Roundheads; and whilst stitution has for many years been gaining they thoughtlessly accumulate the mate. ground upon the other two estates ; and I rials for their own future subjugation, would have no hesitation in affirming, that the be incapable of informing a bystander power of the crown is more circumscribed whether they were about “ to fire another and limited in the present, than in any for- Troy," or to see a man creep into a quart mer period of our history. The few crafty bottle.” politicians, who are the secret springs, and With this long and splendid pasmovers of the radical party, perceive this, --and cry out against the House of Com. book which no doubt the Whigs will

sage we quit Pen Owen.

It is a mons, as the usurpers of power,—whilst they affect to identify the interests of the run down. One consolation the Tories people, with those of the crown, at the very have when they see their books run time, in fact, when they are labouring to down by the Whigs is, that though seize upon that popular branch of the le- the Whigs of our day can write regislature, as the most effective and power- views enough, none of them (at least ful means of becoming masters of the go- there is scarcely an exception) can vernment, and turning it equally against the write books. Lord Byron being laid people, and the two other estates of the out of view, and perhaps Tom Moore, realm. All parties, my good sir,” continued Pen, whose brain having been set write a tolerable book, and is not a

where is the man now living that can in commotion by the hostile appeal recently made to the outside of his head,

Tory? Can Jeffrey write a book ? He the sapping system of the spirituous reme could as soon leap his horse over a dies within it, -had become unusually elo- six-foot stone wall and a double ditch. quent,— all parties are constructed upon Could Mackintosh? We for one would the same principles ; it matters not whether be the first to subscribe for it. Could it is limited to the weekly club at mine Brougham ? No more than Joseph host's in the village, or extended over the Hume, or Lord A. Hamilton, or the country, in affiliated societies, from a pa. Duke of Bedford. We had, to be sure, rent-stock in the metropolis. A few strong forgot Mr Luttrell, but we can scarceand determined heads, who perceive all ly after all quite credit that report their points, and concentrate all their means about his being a Whig. We believe of aggression, gain the ascendant ; a larger no man to be a Whig until it is pronumber of agents receive from them their cue, and dole out in daily portions, through ved against him. To do otherwise, the medium of a hireling and prostituted

would be press, or in clubs, associations, and public

to bar from the kind heart meetings,-poisoned food for discontent, All thoughts of human gentle charity, and disaffection towards the government. And think of the poor brothers of our race The evils incident to all men, but more As if they had not sprung from Adam's pressing upon the subordinate classes, -as

loins." must inevitably and necessarily be the case

WORDSWORTI (we think.) in every community,-are made to appear Farewell, then, wise, witty, perhaps the result of peculiar and extraordinary cor- wicked author of Pen Owen! We, at ruption on the part of their governors: every least, love thee, (we mean all true Toprivation is felt

, which had never been felt ries) admire thee, praise thee! Write dered intolerable to them, by the conviction, on! Write three volumes yearly, paintthat it is the immediate product of tyranny ing" the living follies as they rise !" and oppression. There is but one step Lash and spare not the vile, the filthy, from feeling an injury, to the attempt at the sacrilegious, the blasphemous, inredressing it. A patriot, or mob orator, is fidel, rebel crew of THE UNENGLISH, at hand with the means, and the misguide and verily thou shalt have thy reward ed multitude rush forward to aid bis patris in the favour of all the good, the wise, otic exertions, without stopping to inquire, and the patriotic !-Au Revoir land or without sufficient intelligence to ascertain, that, we hope, is not a long look. Thou the nature or extent of his designs. The art not a poet, so far as we see, nor people of this country, who wept tears of art thou a man of romance. Thy vein blood as a martyred sovereign was led to is the keen clear bitter ; if it be not slaughter,—had been blind instruments in the hands of his murderers, and invested so grand as some others, 'tis at least them with power sufficient, to crush their a far rarer one in these sentimental monarch, and themselves.-The people days. Thou wearest on thy shoulders are again called forth, and encouraged by a truly knowing head of the old Engthe promises of men, who have not even the lish cut. Would we could see thy Vol. XI.

4 N

face !-well wot we it is neither a lean, it.* But who thou art we know not. a pale, nor a pensive one. Art thou a Perhaps Ebony or Cadell only knows member of parliament? If not, well-perhaps neither. If thou beest a dost thou understand the hidden mat- lawyer, thou shouldst not long wear ters of St Stephens. Art thou a states- bombazeen. If thou art a parson, lawn man? We verily believe thou hast sat sleeves would become thee. If thy nemany and oft times at some long green ther end reposes on one of the treasury table somewhere in the parish of St benches, Lord Londonderry should James's. Art thou an old author ? lose no time in looking about him, and Most surely. There are not ten men asking, “ Who wrote Pen Owen?" in Britain who understand the nature Now, after all these pretty speeches, of the Bibliopole in all his sublime are you not a shabby fellow if you and sordid varieties, and one of these don't send Ebony an article every ten wrote Pen Owen, as certainly as month you live? -Once more, AU REanother of them writes this review of voir !

• Upon honour, I am not the author of the book myself._REVIEWER.

POLAND.

Books bearing so humble a title as tails which can only be interesting to that subjoined, however useful to the those who use the book as a travelling traveller in the country they describe, companion, and it is only after turnare seldom consulted for information ing over many pages that any thing or amusement by those who can only generally interesting can be found. travel by their own firesides and, in The accounts are, however, according truth, they are very rarely worthy to our information, candid and just, of such consultation, their sole inten- and calculated to give a tolerably cor. tion being not to give full informa- rect idea of the kingdom of Poland, tion, but to facilitate and direct those as is now constituted, including the who wish to gain it for themselves by territory of the free town of Cracau. actual and personal examination. Pas The extensive provinces formerly interson's Road-book would give but a cluded in that kingdom, but now unipoor idea of England. Poland, how- ted to Russia, Austria, and Prussia, ever, interesting as that ill-fated king, are not described. To this descripdom is, has never been sufficiently tion the author has annexed certain described in works of a superior class; “ notes instructives et nécessaires à and we found insuperable difficulties in ceux qui voyagent en Pologne;" and our sedentary peregrinations through with all submission this is exactly the it, from the want of clear and satis- part of the book which is most infactory descriptions of the people, pla- Structive and necessary for those who ces, and things, in any books we could have it not in their power to travel in meet with. On stating our grievance Poland, and we shall make use of it to a Polish friend, he was kind enough in the sequel accordingly. to send us this Traveller's Guide, with The book is published anonymoussome valuable information of his own, ly, but is well known to be the proof which we shall avail ourselves induction of the celebrated General Krathe course of our remarks.

sinski, who highly distinguished himThis book, as its name imports, is self in the late campaigns. To make intended as a guide to foreign travel- it more generally useful, he has writers in Poland. As usual, the princi- ten in the French language, and his pal post-roads are marked out,- the object in undertaking so humble a principal towns through which they task was to remove the misconceptions pass are described,--and the objects arising from the prejudice, and perchiefly worthy of attention are pointed haps the malice, which disgraced the out, sometimes, it is true, rather too accounts of previous foreign writers. minutely. In fact, there are many de- Thus we see, that in Poland, as well as

Guide du Voyageur en Pologne et dans la République de Cracovie--VarsovieGlücksberg, 1820.

in our own country," the hero, whose stows on the literary heroes he has glory it was to defend his native land mentioned. Its subject matter is hardfrom the desolation of war, does not ly worthy of an author of the rank of disdain to exercise his talents in peace Krasinski, and its language is foreign to ward off the shafts of envy or ma- –The style is somewhat too elevated, lignity, and to set the character of but the details are not exaggerated. Its his country and his countrymen in a object, however, which we shall now fair and true light before the world. allow the General to describe for himOur Polish friend writes to us as fol. self, is good. He says, lows:

It is melancholy to observe, that Po. “ I may remark to you, in general, that land, notwithstanding the renown she has my military countrymen are particularly acquired in the history of the latter

ages, both zealous in all that concerns the good and by the glory of her arms, and by the sahonour of their country. They glorify it in crifices of every kind which her inhabitants war with their valour, and adorn it in peace have made to their country, should be in with their literary pursuits. Polish litera- a manner forgotten in the branch of geo. ture is greatly indebted for its increase to

graphy which treats of voyages and tratheir real and superior talents. I would

vels. Every country, every town of imnot here make this remark, were they only

portance, even in the most remote regions, diletanti in literature and science ; but I

attracts crowds of curious and inquisitive dare assert that they cultivate them tho- persons, anxious to lay before the public roughly, and know as well how to sacrifice descriptions as accurate as they are minute ; to the Nine Sisters as to Mars, Several

while Poland, so distinguished for her hosyears ago, we boasted of a homely elegiac pitality, her toleration, and the friendly poet, Godebski. He fell on the field of bat.

reception she affords to strangers whom ile at Raszyn, in the year 1809, where political convulsions have driven from their 8000 Poles fought against 40,000 Austri- native lands, and who fly to her for an ans-and were victorious. A bard in his asylum-Poland has found in the few tratomb could never have an epitaph more vellers who have described her, enemies glorious than such a victory !-Amongst and calumniators instead of faithful delinethose who are alive is General Kropinski, ators. Without reckoning those who, like who fought at the side of Kosciuszko in the M. Neal, [in his “ Voyage en Pologne et cause of freedom, and spends the remain

en Russie, printed at Paris] present in der of his life in literary occupations. His their indecent pictures a silly collection of national Tragedy of Lutgarda, so often absurd calumnies against the nation, and performed and generally admired, has esta- of revolting personalities against its inhablished for ever his fame as a poet ;-and bitants ;-M. M. Délicourt Mehé, Vau. his other productions have gained him the trin, whose disgraceful productions injure name of an elegant writer. Colonel Chod, only their authors ;—passing over the letkiewicz followed the path of Addison, and ters of M. Uklanski, whose style is emwrote the tragedy of Cato. He has dis- bued with the gall of vengeance ---how tinguished himself by different pieces of many works upon Poland, published unepistolary poetry ; but for several years has der different titles by M. M. Malte Brun, been devoting himself to chemical studies, Georgel, Grafenaur, Guthrie, Pradt, &c., and has published a great many of his pro- although of acknowledged merit, are defound researches.--General Morawski has fective in point of precision. The most lately raised great expectations by some recent book on this subject, and which is original lyrical pieces of poetry—and also most chiefly resorted to by travellers, is a by his admirable skill, and the elegance of little portable work, printed at Weimar in his style, in translations from the German 1818, under the title of “ Guide des Voyaand French. There are, besides, some other geurs dans le Nord,” by M. Reinhard, distinguished names in the military calen- counsellor of the Grand Duke of Saxe der that might be mentioned, whose eager. Gotha, already well known by several exness and talents in literary pursuits are cellent publications of this sort, descripappreciated by their countrymen ; but I tive of all the leading states and cities of have named here only the principal ones, Europe. This author passes an eulogium whose works are looked upon as the orna- on the national character of the Poles, and ments of national literature, and will never

does justice to their hospitality and other cease to be read as long as the Polish good qualities ; but his descriptions, limitlanguage shall be spoken or understood.”

ed to a few pages, would have been more To return to the work before us, it correct, if he had not trusted too implicitly cannot claim for its author any such to the veracity of the authors I have al. distinguished praise as our friend be- ready mentioned, and if he had not follow

* Sce Colonel Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders.

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