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ed thé accounts of travellers, whose exa. The Cathedral, which is situated in minations of the country, to judge from the centre of this citadel, is an object Mr Reinhard's delineations, must have of peculiar veneration to the Poles ; been made more than twenty years ago, “it is,” says our author, “ what the In other respects the work is useful, and I Capitol was to the ancient Romans, have adopted it as my model in general in what the Pantheon is to France ; in the following pages.
“ Born in Poland, and possessing a toshort, it is the precious receptacle for pographical knowledge of my country, I the mortal remains of their kings and have determined to give the extent to this their heroes, and it is not without a work which its object appeared to me to feeling of respectful veneration, minrequire. Writing for foreigners, in a lan- gled with religious awe, that one preguage foreign to myself, I have endea- sumes to penetrate its ancient aisles, voured to unite in the work perspicuity where one is surrounded by mausowith utility, and I shall be too happy if, leums, inscriptive tablets, statues, and while I have no other merit than that of chapels decorated with marble and being the first to present to the world an bronze, and where one cannot advance exact description of some provinces of my country, I shall be enabled to make
a step without meeting with some
myself useful to travellers, and to point out monument of the renown of the counto strangers whatever objects in Poland try, of the valour and victories of heare most worthy to arrest their attention." roes. There repose the venerable ashes
Our author then proceeds in his de- of Boleslas III. and IV. of Ladislas scriptive tour, commencing with Cra. Lokietek; of Casimir the Great ; John cau, situated on a gentle ascent on the Albert; Stephen Batory; Sigismond left bank of the Vistula, which divides III.; Ladislas IV.; John Casimir; it into three parts. The old town,
Michel Wiszniowiecki ; John SobiCracau, properly so called, the an- eski; and Frederick Augustus II.” cient capital of Poland, is one of
In the Chapel of the Sigismonds are these parts, Podgorze and Casimir are deposited the remains of St Stanislas, the other two, and there are besides the patron of the kingdom, and those suburbs in different directions. One of the heroic Kosciuszko and Poniapart of the town of Casimir is inha- towski, which have been restored from bited by about 6000 Jews, who are foreign graves through the intervenexcluded from the main or old town tion of the Emperor Alexander, (King of Cracau, in which they are not even
of Poland) and are now deposited in allowed to pass the night. The re- the vault of King John Sobieski, who maius of antiquity which adorned the conquered the Turks before Vienna, city have been in a great measure de- and saved that capital.* stroyed by the Austrians, whose bar- Our author proceeds to enumerate barous policy it was to annihilate every and describe eight churches, (of which, monument which might remind the he says, Cracau may boast as the Poles of the renown of their ances- finest in Poland,) and other splendid tors. The old town was anciently for- and remarkable public buildings;tified by a double circle of walls, and the Academy, bearing the name of by towers remarkable for the variety
“ Daughter of the Sorbonne," foundof their forms; the gates were of Gò ed by the Jagellons in 1343, and posthic architecture, and were very ele- sessing a library of 30,000 volumes, gant; the Royal Castle or Citadel, and 4000 rare MSS., as well as a ca(Zamek) built in the early ages, and binet of natural history, and an anaformerly the habitation of the kings tomical theatre; and the palaces of the of Poland, rises splendidly conspicu- bishops and nobility, which ornament ous, and comma
manding an extensive the city. The “ Place" is in the cenprospect, upon a rock called Wewel, tre of the city. It was formerly the in the heart of the city. But the Aus- custom to erect a lofty throne in it on trians totally overturned the ramparts, the day after the coronation of the partly destroyed the gates, and con- kings, seated upon which they received verted the Castle into barracks. the homage of the tributary princes.
* Mr Palmer is the author of the Authentic Memoirs of Sobieski, which he address. ed to the Sovereigns assembled at the Congress at Vierna, in order to remind them of the claims of the Poles, who had, by their services, rescued that city from impending destruction. Mr Palmer is an Englishman.
In the neighbourhood, many plea- tête de pont. The present government sing excursions may be made, particu- is actively rebuilding it, upon a beaularly to the Salt Mines of Wieliczka, tiful and general plan. The Grand situated in Austria, a stage from Cra- Duke Constantine has there a splendid cau. The chambers and passages in palace, and usually represents, as dethese mines, cut out of the pure and puty, the citizens of these suburbs in sparkling salt, are described as superb. the General Diet. These, and such The passages are dry, clean, and every like liberal proceedings, heal gradualwhere high enough for persons to walk ly the wounds formerly inflicted on upright. In places, they open into the Poles. Prague is separated from large caverns, one of which is in the Warsaw by the Vistula, and comform of a capacious chapel, with an municates with the capital by a flyaltar, ornaments, and two monks, ap- ing bridge of 263 toises in length, parently in the act of solemnizing a which is speedily to give way to a mass, and a statue of Augustus III., more permanent one in masonry and all cut out of the rock of salt, which is chain-work, after a model by Mr in enormous masses, and in general Metzel. most beautifully crystallized. A se- The castle, on a lofty and imposing cond pleasure-trip may be made to the situation, commands the Vistula and marvellous caverns of Czaiowice, lying its opposite banks. It contains many in the midst of scenery worthy of me- superb and interesting apartments, lo-dramatic imitation. Dark' forests, adorned with pictures, marbles, and frowning precipices, subterraneous tor- bronzes. The palaces and public rents, castles, donjons, and the bones buildings, to judge from the descripof those who had taken refuge in the tions, and from the very neat prints caves, from the scourge of war and with which this volume is adorned, are pestilence, would furnish forth mate- very magnificent. Chaste in their rials for the most gloomy scene-paint- architecture, splendid in their extent, er of the most gloomy spectacle. and classical in their embellishments,
At Cracau there are two fairs every they would honour any capital in the year, which are well frequented. In world ; and yet one has never heard of the whole territory there are only 100 Warsaw as distinguished for architecnational guards (infantry,) 40 cavalry, tural beauty. In the midst of the and 200 mounted and dismounted of- large court of the Academy, a statue ficers of police. There is a good deal of KOPERNIK, (Copernicus), who was of commerce in grain.
by birth a Pole, and had been educated We need not follow the author in the University of Cracau, is by this through the small towns on the road time erected. The churches, the hosto Warsaw, but shall join him at that pitals, and the schools, are numerous capital, which contains 99,000 souls, and handsome. Many of the streets, independent of the garrison, amount- squares, and places, are spacious and ing to 20,000 more. It is now the beautiful, some of them ornamented capital of Poland; and has been, since by statues and pillars. Thorwaldson is the time of Sigismond III., the ordi- .employed on a bronze equestrian stanary residence of her kings. It is si- tue, in memory of Prince Joseph Potuated on a considerable hill, on the niatowski, to be placed in some one of left bank of the Vistula, and consists the principal squares. There are some of an old and new town, suburbs, streets in the city, as in all places of (which are the most beautiful parts of antiquity, which are narrow, and the the capital,) and four conterminous houses of which are very high; but towns, having each their exclusive pri- improvements are daily made in these vileges, and their respective town respects. houses ;-their names are Grzybow, Our author enumerates the merits Leszno, Szolec, and Prague. Prague, of the different inns, coffee-houses, resformerly of a large extent, was totally taurateurs, &c. in every place he dedestroyed by Suwarrow, in the war of scribes, with all the zest of a con1794. More than 2000 inhabitants, noisseur ; and perhaps the capital may without distinction of sex and age, were boast of many which are of the first butchered by the cruel soldiery. It was order. We must, however, take all afterwards rebuilt ; but, in the war of this cum grano, especially as to ac1816, it was again partly pulled down, commodations on the road; for we to make room for fortifications, and a have been cautioned against believing the bonnes auberges, &c. of our author We shall extract one more descrip to mean what we call good inns in tion, and then take leave of that deEngland. They do very well for the partment. This passage is not from natives, who carry their beds, and pro- the pen of Krasinski, but is extraeted per accommodations with them on their by him from another work. It sajourneys,- as is the custom in other vours somewhat of the style of the northern countries, as Prussia, Rus- Arabian Nights Entertainments; but sia, and even some parts of Germany, our readers must judge for themselves. In England, where the population is It is a description of Arcadia, a coungreat, and where constant and frequent try seat of the Princess Radzivill. intercourse is kept up, for the sake of business or pleasure, the encourage- that this place is indebted for its magai
“It is to the exquisite taste of this lady, ment to innkeepers is great, and the ficence;
all that Art and Nature have proinns and their accommodations pro- duced of rarity and price, in the most disportionably good. This is not the tant countries, are brought together here; case in other northern climes, where and it seems as if they had contested for the innkeeper does not feel it worth pre-eminence in the production of their bis while to risk any expence upon the treasures. accommodation of his employer. In- “ You enter by a house, having the ap deed, our author himself obscrves, at pearance of a Dutch farm ; scarce have you p. 94, that although there is some im- crossed the threshold of the door, which provement in the inns, “it is still al- proves to be the entrance of a palace of most indispensible for a foreigner tra- crystal, than you believe yourself to be is velling in Poland, to take his bed along mirrors-crystals and marble, disposed
an enchanted hall;—porphyry-bronzewith him, which he could rarely omit with skill and taste, complete the illusios. with safety, even in the towns.'
On leaving this splendid apartment, you Several newspapers and literary pass by a shady walk to a grotto, which magazines are published at Warsaw. you reach by steps contrived in the enorThere are many well stocked book- mous masses of rock of which the grotto is shops ;-15 printing presses ;-two li- formed. The grotto serves as an entrance thographic establishments ;—and se- to a building, whose appearance is that of veral engravers ;-academies for de- a Gothic castle, adorned with armour and signing after nature;—and an annual chivalric devices ; and which seems to have exhibition of paintings, which last year of the olden time. Leaving this, you pass
been the residence of some preux chevalier contained 180 works in painting and engraving ;-rewards are given by Grecian style, which serves as a frame to
by an open arcade to a bold arch in the government for the best perform the charming landscape formed by the everances ; ---a royal academy, founded in green thickets which surround the temple. 1816, by the Emperor Alexander ;- The gates of the temple are of precious an academy, for the instruction of materials (acajou,) and are opened by a key the deaf and dumb ;-an academy of of gold, enriched with diamonds. The music;-a dramatic school;-and four vestibule is in the form of a rotunda, lightschools on the Lancasterian plan. ed by a cupola in the daytime, and by a Cu. Among the numerous manufactures of pid, in a niche, bearing a torch, at night. the place, it is remarkable that there On advancing, you are surprised to see the are above 50 coach-making establish- The first of these is a museum, containing
rotunda change into a suite of apartments. ments,-in which branch there is a every thing that is most curious in cameos considerable export trade. In War
-Etruscan vases—fragments of inscripsaw there are 220 streets, and nearly tions_bas reliefs—tripod candelabras, &c. 4000 houses—3000 of which are of The imposing aspect of the temple, strikes masonry, covered with tiles, and the you, on your entrance, with a sort of reliremainder are of wood. The wooden gious awe; and carries you, in imagination, houses are gradually disappearing, and back to the days of the oracles of old. The give room for new and splendid build- grandeur of the vase and of the cupola, ings in stone; and it is not now law- charms and seduces the eye, which reposes ful to build in wood. The streets are
with delight upon those walls of white paved with various sized stones, the marble, adorned with Corinthian columns, inequality of which, although they are sacred fire which burns upon the altar.
and statues of Vestal virgins, guarding the carefully repaired, renders them un- The harmonious tones of an organ increase pleasant to foot passengers. The city, the charm ; and, in the midst of the and its suburbs, are lighted with ar- sweetest sensations that the soul can enjoy, gand lamps.
you find yourself, as it were by enchant
ment, hurried out of the sanctuary 1 --sud- on the exact model of the Temple of Sibyl, denly your sight is plunged upon (plongée in Tivoli, the other of a Gothic structure. sur) a lake, though which a river forces its The first is destined for the antiquities of way, bearing along the foam occasioned by Poland ; it contains a great number of anits recent fall, near the ruins of a hand- cient Polish armour-shielus, helmets, sasome aqueduct, which serves as a bridge to bres; it is overhung with standards won in enable you to make the tour of the lake, the battles with Turks, Crusaders, Austriand to obtain a view of the facade of the ans. There stand around at the wall, the temple.
cenotaphs of conspicuous men of old ; those “Following the flowery banks of this ri. of great generals and poets; some with some ver, you reach an isle, where there is placed relics of bories, some empty-all with apa monument of black marble, on which propriate emblems and mottos. That of an rests a figure of white marble, in the re. ancient poet, Kochanowski, hung over with posing attitude of the St Cecilia of Bernini a lyre ; that of Copernicus with a sublime at Rome,—which changes the interest of inscription-Sta Sol. In a dim under vault the inscription,
-Et in Arcadia ego,' of this temple, an obelisk of black Carpato that inspired by the epitaph on the tomb, thian marble is placed, to the memory of - J'ai fait Arcadic et j'y repose.' the Prince Poniatowski, who fell in the bat.
“ Then you have the picturesque ruins of tle at Leipsic. The Emperor Alexander the ancient habitation of the god Pan; the having visited this temple, adorned hereaf. sacrifice to Esculapius, surrounded by his ter its cupola, which was open, with a large attributes ; the isle of offerings, which you glass made expressively for this purpose; reach by a fying-bridge, fixed to the banks through which a dim and sombre day-light by cordage. The circus, constructed on falls on the glorious remains of the ancient the Grecian model, and of the same size, is Poles. filled with monuments of marble, and of “ The other, that is the Gothic temple, Oriental granite of the highest antiquity. contains chiefly the antiquities of middle A chapel, lately constructed at the gate ages, of all foreign countries and nations ; leading from the park, and in the middle they consist mostly in ancient and modern of a meadow enamelled with flowers, is tomb-stones-rare books and manuscripts above all remarkable. Its massive exte. -portraits. Among the last is to be seen, rior gives it the majestic appearance of the Portrait of Raphael, painted by him. a sarcophagus. It is elevated on four self, on wood. Besides, this splendid seat of arches, which serve as supports to it. It is Prince Czartoryski's,—who, like the Dukes ornamented in the interior by some co- of Weimar in Germany, are Mecænasses of pies in Sepia, of the works of the best learned men in Poland, and who themselves painters, by Seydelman, an artist celebra- bear a high literary character—is enriched ted for the spirit and truth with which he by the largest library in Poland, containgives the character of the painters after ing about i 10,000 volumes, in different lanwhom he designs. Among these, there is guages. Especially, there is the richest the Virgin, after Raphael -Sacrifice of store of manuscripts, particularly relating Emanuel, after Rembrandt,-Repose in to the history of Poland.” Egypt, after Ferdinand Boll,—Magdalen, after Bottoni, and others.
Posting, we are informed, has “ Delille has consecrated this spot, by reached the highest degree of perfechis admirable description of it in his im- tion in Poland. The postillions are mortal poem, LES JARDINS.
active, sober, intelligent, and trust" But the most beautiful place in Po- worthy. The horses, chiefly from the land that has been equally chaunted by De- Ukraine and Russia, are indefatigable, lille, is Pulawy, the usual country residence of the Prince Czartoryski. Nature, art, and action. The celerity with which
strong, although small, and full of fire taste, expence, all seem to have been combined to adorn it. It is situated on the pro
the traveller is conveyed from stage to minent banks of the Vistula. The buildings stage is agreeable in many respects. are shaded over with an extensive park, or Even on " postes doubles,” he is not rather dark grove; where, in a beautiful obliged, as in Germany, to kick his variety, are to be seen, Chinese Kiosks and heels while the horses are baiting. The precipices, hermitages and subterraneous public carriages, which regularly tragrottos—a colossal statue of the dying vel on the great roads, are on the moClarinda, supported by Tancred, in white del of those in England. They travel rock for the deceased friends of that illusnight and day. At every post-house, trious family. These, and such like ob (station de poste,) a register is kept,
in which travellers are entitled to enjects, strike the attention of a traveller ; yet it is not a place of beauty alone, but also ter any complaints they may have to of veneration. To it the natives resort, as make of the postboys, &c., whose dein pilgrimage, to gratify their patriotic feel. ceptions, inattention, or impertinence, ings ; for there are two temples--one built if established, are severely punished.
The whole system is under the super- themselves, Poland, from its geograintendance of' a direction generale des phical position (the bulwark of Gerpostes. Those who do not wish to many,) was continually subject to the travel post, may find in every place invasions of the Turks, the Tartars, voituriers in great numbers, among the Swedes, the Cossacks, &c. Thus whom are many Jews, who will con- repose and tranquillity, so necessary tract to convey them, at a small ex- for purposes of improvement, if obpense, distances of 20 or 30 miles, or tained at all, were necessarily employfarther, travelling at the rate of 10 ored in repairing the ravages of war. 12 miles a-day.* When arrived at the But a few years of peace have shewn end of the stipulated journey, the voi- that the spirit of improvement is not turier is sure to meet with a fare back wanting, if the means are afforded. again, and the traveller with the means The Soil in general is fertile, and of further conveyance. The probity produces a great variety of different of these voituriers is well established, kinds of grain. Wine, bread, and cofand they may be safely entrusted with fee, are universally allowed to be of valuable effects, or money, to be con- surpassing excellence. “ If you want veyed to distant places. These advan- your coffee strong, ask for Polish coftages in travelling will be further in- fee; if weak, call for German.” Forcreased by the rapid improvement of merly, the Hungarian wines were conthe roads, which proceeds with activity sumed in great quantity, and they are under the superintendance of govern- still to be met with of ancient vintages ment.
at the tables of rich proprietors, and, The Forests are of great extent, above all, of ecclesiastics, who have particularly those in the north. Not- kept them more than a century in withstanding this, the roads are safe; their cellars. Of late years the French and accidents of robbery or murder have introduced a taste for their own committed, are almost unheard of in wines, which are now to be met with, Poland.
in variety and good, in all the small THE VILLAGES are of great length, towns and private houses. English and consist of thatched wooden houses. ale and porter are now a common beThose of the better order of peasants verage; and champagne, mixed with contain spacious and commodious a- a profusion of seltzer water, is the partments. Of late years, houses of usual cooling drink in the hottest seastone are often met with. In many son. places there are as it were colonies of THE PEASANTRY, who are declared gentlemen farmers. They are the de- free by the constitutions of 1791, 1807, scendants and worthy rivals of those and 1815, though not very far advannobles who, under the name of pos- ced in civilization, are laborious, and polite, have given such proofs of devo- abound in good qualities. They are tion and fidelity to their native land, devoted to their landlords, and are and from whom also the most celebra- easily guided to improvement. They ted individuals, and the most distin- are not in general proprietors of the guished families, take their origin. soil, but possessors of portions allotted
The richest inhabitants of the cities, them by their landlord, (Seigneur,) as well as the nobles, have all their who receives his rent in labour, the CHATEAUS, or country houses, with peasant working for him so many days parks and gardens, which rival in beau- in the week, called by the French ty, and in the works of art which adorn corvée; † this practice is restrained by them, those of France and Germany. laws preventing its abuse. Every peaThese mighty improvements are only sant may quit his landlord if injured the work of later years. While all or dissatisfied. In some districts the other nations were making exertions peasants rise to be farmers, both hereto extend their commerce and their ditary and for terms of years; and it territory, to build new cities, and ge- is hoped that the condition of this nerally to improve and to beautify class will improve from day to day.
* The Polish mile is nearly six English miles.
+ A practice of this sort prevailed a few years ago, and perhaps still prevails, in Nor. thumberland, where the cottagers were obliged to do bondage work, as they called it, for the landlord.