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of Hinnom. This place was near Jerusalem. It is very probable that our Lord means no more here than this ; —if a man charge another with apostasy from the Jewish religion, or rebellion against God, and cannot prove his charge, then he is exposed to that punishment (burning alive) which the other must have suffered if the charge had been substantiated.” (Com. on Matt. v. 22.) Parkhurst remarks, “a Gehenna of fire, does, I apprehend, in its outward and primary sense, relate to that dreadful doom of being burned alive in the valley of Hinnom." See his Lex. on the word.

During the idolatrous worship of the Jews in the valley of Hinnom, that place was regarded by them as sacred; but after this haunt of idolatry was broken up, and made the receptacle of the filth of Jerusalem, it became abominable in the sight of the whole nation. In process of time, as all writers agree, it came to be a place of punishment, where criminals were caused to suffer death by burning; and in reference to such a kind of punishment, Jesus used the word, when he said, “ whosoever shall say, Thou sool, shall be in danger of a Gehenna of fire, (translated in the common version, hell-fire,) in which the Jewish laws ordained the burning of criminals.

With such abhorrence and dread, under all these circumstances, did the Jews in time regard this place, that they came to use it as a figure of dreadful woes and judgments; and so we find it both in the Old and New Testament. Thus Jeremiah, chap. xix. foretells the destruction of Jerusalem, and makes use of Tophet, or Gehenna, as a figure of the desolations God would bring on that ill-fated city. “I will make this city desolate, and a hissing ; every one that passeth ther shall be astonished and hiss, because of all the plagues thereof, &c. Thus will I do unto this place, saith the Lord, and to the inhabitants thereof, and EVEN MAKE THIS CITY AS TOPHET.” Verses 8, 12. See also Jer. vii. 31 – 34. This is the metaphorical sense passage. The ic

of Gehenna, or Tophet, in the Old Testament ; and with this knowledge let us turn to seek the sense in which it is used in the New Testament. The first instance where we find the word is Matt. v. 22; " Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment; and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the. council; but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna, (hell-fire in the common translation. Now that this cannot refer to a state of punishment in the future world, is evident from the terms of the

JUDGMENT." here

was, as Professor Stuart explains it, (Exeget. Essays, p. 142,) “a lower court, viz. that of the Septemviri among the Hebrews;" the "COUNCIL," (to quote again the Professor's words) was "the Sanhedrim, or highest council, who could inflict severer punishment than the court of Septemviri, q. d. he will deserve still severer pun. ishment than he who is merely angry ;” the “hell-fire" was the fire of the valley of Hinnom, as says the same author ; “but he who shall say, thou fool, shall be obnoxious to the fire of the valley of Hinnom, q. d. to a still higher and more severe punishment, (viz.] such as is inflicted by burning to death in the valley of Hinnom.” Now it is certain, that "the judgment” was in this world; it is equally certain, that “ the council ” was in this world ; and it is just as certain, that the punishment of Gehenna was in this world. If this passage is to be understood in a secondary or metaphorical sense, why then should we understand Gehenna to refer to the future world more than the other terms ? If the primary sense of Gehenna, as all must confess, was the punishment of the valley of Hinnom, as much as the judgment was the lower, and the council ” the higher court of the Jews, by what rule of interpretation shall we consider the two latter terms to refer to punishment in the present state of being, but Gehenna to refer to punishment in the future state ?. We have no proof that the word had ever been applied to punish

ment in the future state, by any writer, sacred or profane ; and was this a proper manner in which to announce for the first time, that Gehenna was to receive a new sense, and be applied to a supposed punishment, of which the Jews learned nothing from their Scriptures? Furthermore, Gehenna had received a secondary sense in the Old Testament, as we have shown by the quotations from Jeremiah ; and if Jesus used it in a secondary sense, why ought we not to suppose that he put the same secondary sense upon it, that the Jewish prophets had ? Let those who wish further light on this subject, examine Paige's “ Selections," Sects. VIII., XVIII. Balfour's “ First Inquiry,” chap. II. “Universalist Expositor,” Vol. II. pp. 351 - 368. For a very learned article on the “ Opinions and Phraseology of the Jews concerning the Future State," see " Universalist Expositor,” Vol. III. pp. 397 - 440.

V. Matt. y. 29, 30.

(For an explanation of Matt. v. 29, 30, see Mark ix. 43, 48.

VI. “ Enter ye in at the strait gate; for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat; because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.” Matt. vii, 13, 14. Luke xiii. 24.*

This passage is very frequently quoted to sustain the doctrine of endless misery ; but a candid examination will show, that it speaks nothing in regard to the future state. Does it say, broad is the way that leadeth to destruction in the immortal state? No. Narrow is the way which leadeth unto life in the immortal state ? No. Then, verily, the passage has nothing to do with the question of endless misery.

What is this strait gait? The preceding verse must be consulted for an answer. “ Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye ren so to them ; for this is the law and the prophets.”

Ience,” says Adam Clarke, “ the words in the final are very emphatic: Enter in (to the kingdom of heaven) through this strait gate, that is of doing to every one as you would he should do unto you; for this alone seems to be the strait gate which our Lord alludes to.” Nevertheless, Clarke supposes the passage to teach the doctrine of endless misery ; but we confess ourselves utterly unable to see therein the slightest proof of said doctrine. They who obey the commandments of Christ, walk in the path of wisdom ; and the path of wisdom is the PATH OF. LIFE ; the path of folly is the PATH OF DEATH. Wisdom is a

tree of life to those who lay hold upon her.” Prov. iii. 18. 66 Whoso findeth me findeth life.Prov. viii. 35. “ He is in the way OF LIFE that keepeth instruc: tion.” Prov. x. 17. Again, “In the way of righteousness is life, and in the pathway thereof there is no death." .Prov. xii. 28. The opposite state is death. "To be carnally minded is death.Rom. viii. 6. " He that loveth not his brother abideth in death."

1 John iii. 14. These scriptures develope the great principles on which the figure is founded. Sin and error are everywhere represented as death, while righteousness and truth are life and peace. Reader, avoid the broad road, and walk in the pleasant path of Christ's commandments.

VII. • Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name ? and in thy name have cast out devils.? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you; depart from me, ye that work iniqui.ty.” Matt. vii. 22, 23.

This is one of the texts which have been employed to sustain the doctrine of endless sin and misery ; but what is there in the passage that would lead able man to apply it to the future state of existence ? Many will

say unto me in that day," -- what day is meant? We are not to understand it to be a day of twenty-four hours, for any remarkable time is called a day in the language of the sacred writers. The time of a nation's punishment, by the visitation of God, is called the day of the Lord, because at that time God

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exercises justice.on that people ; hence, the phrase does not mean one and the same time whenever it occurs, but any time, or times, in which God punished certain nations for their sins by some tremendous visitation of judgment. To illustrate, we will refer to several passages of Scripture. See Zeph. i. 12-18. This passage refers to the time of the destruction of the Jews by the Babylonians; and it is called the day of the Lord, because God was supposed by the prophet to have sent the armies of Babylon to destroy the nation of the Jews for their sins. It is called, by way of distinction, that time, " the great day of the Lord,” “ a day of wrath,” “ a day of trouble and distress," " a day of wasteness and desolation," "a day of darkness and gloominess," "a day of clouds and thick darkness,” and “the day of the Lord's wrath,” &c. Joel describes a punishment which was sent upon the Jews, in very similar language. See chap. ii. 1, 2. “Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain ; let all the inhabitants of the land tremble ; for the day of the Lord cometh, for it is nigh at hand; a day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains ; a great people and a strong ; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, even to the years of many generations.

The New Testament writers, following the example of the writers of the Old Testament, represent the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, as the day of the Lord, or that day. Hence, after having foretold the destruction of Jerusalem, and declared, “this generation shall not pass till all be fulfilled," Jesus adds, “take heed to yourselves, lest at any time, your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so THAT DAY come upon you unawares. Luke xxi. 34. Again, Paul says, 1 Thes. v. 4, ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that THAT DAY should overtake you as a thief.” It will be seen, from this, that the Thessaloni

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