republished in 1782, again in 1785, and a foarth and more complete edition 1810-1817, in 3 vols. 4to, with reduced plates. In this work he originally received some important aid from the able pen of George Steevens, Esq. In 1822, when in bis 78th year, Mr. Nichols superintended an edition of Hogarth's Works from the original plates restored by James Heath, Esq. and furnished the explanations of the subjects of the plates. In 1781 he was also the author of · Biographical Memoirs of William Ged, including a particular account of bis progress in the art of Blockprinting. But what in the course of years, and by slow gradations, almost imperceptibly became the most important of Mr. Nichols's biograpbical labours, was his · Anecdotes of Bowyer, and of many of his literary Friends,' 4to, 1782. He bad before printed (in 1778) twenty copies of · Brief Memoirs of Mr. Bowyer,' 8vo, for distribution, “ as a tribute of respect, amongst a few select friends."

His “'History of Leicestershire,' of which it has been justly said that it might have been the work of a whole life, was not the accomplishment of a complete design, distinctly laid down in plan, and regularly executed: it grew from lesser efforts, among which were, · The History and Antiquities of Hinckley,' which he published in 1782, 4to. "The History and Antiquities of Aston Flamvile and Burbach, Leicestershire, 1787, 4to. “Collections towards the History and Antiquities of the Town and County of Leicester, 1790, 2 vols. 4to. About 1792, he was enabled to begin to print his great work of · The History and Antiquities of the Town and County of Leicester,' of which, Parts I and II were published in 1795; a third in 1798, a fourth in 1800, a fifth in 1804, a sixth in 1807, the concluding part in 1811, and an Appendix in 1815, in wbich he was assisted by his son; the whole making four large volumes in folio, illustrated by views, portraits, maps, &c. If any proof were wanting of Mr. Nichols's power of literary labour, and, what is equally necessary, the frequent revision of that labour, the History of Leicestershire might be allowed to be completely decisive. During the years in wbich he was preparing this work, travelling into various parts of the county, and corresponding with, or visiting every person likely to afford information, be appeared as editor or author of no less than forty-seven articles. Among these were a second edition of Lawyer's Greek Testament.' Bishop Atterbury's Correspondence, 5 vols. 8vo, illustrated, as usual, with topographical and Publical notes. 'A Collection of Miscellaneous Tracts, by Mr. Bowyer. "The History and Antiquities of Lambeth Parish.'. T'he Progresses and Royal Processions of Queen Elizabeth,' vols. 4to, and a third in 1804. "The History and Antiquities' of Canonbury, with some Account of the Parish of Islington,' 4to. • Illustrations of the Manners and Expenses of Ancient Times in England,' 4to. During the same period, Mr. Nicbols also published an edition of · The Tatler, 6 vols. 8vo, with notes respecting biograpby, but particularly illustrative of manners. From the sources that had supplied many of these, he edited afterwards, • Sir Richard Steele's Epistolary Correspondence,' 2 vols. 8vo. "The Lover and Reader. "The Town Talk, &c.' The Theatre and Anti-Theatre,' by the same author, 3 vols., all illustrated with notes, furnished from many forgotten records and family communications. Mr. Nichols first turned his attention to the British Essayists, in consequence of his connexion with Bishop Percy, Dr. Calder, and others, who intended to publish editions of the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian, with the same species of annotation.

The extent of Mr. Nichols's literary productions will appear yet more extraordinary, when we add that, during the period we have hastily gone over, he became engaged in some of those duties of public life which necessarily deinanded a considerable portion of time and attention. In December 1784, the respect he had acquired in the City, induced bis friends to propose bim as a member of the Common Council for the Ward of Farringdon Without. He was accordingly elected, and, with the interval of only one year, held this situation till 1811, when he resigned all civic honours. During ten years of this period, he had been selected by Alderman Wilkes to act as his deputy; and on the death of that eminent individual, was solicited by his fellow-citizens of the Ward to become their Alderman, which honour he declined. The prevalence of party-spirit among those with whom he had been accustomed to act, had its effect in precipitating his retirement. Mr. Nichols was not qualified for the turbulence of political life: he could not indulge asperity of thought or of Janguage; be bad nothing of the malevolence of party-spirit, and never thought worse of any man for differing from him in opinion. In 1804, his views were directed to a distinction more in unison with his literary pursuits. He bad for some time been a member of the Court of Assistants of the Stationers' Company; and in the aboye year attained wbat be called “the summit of bis ambition,' in being elected Master of the Company. The rooms of the Company are decorated by some valuable portraits presented by Mr. Nichols, among which are those of the elder and younger Bowyer; he also presented to the Company a bust of his predecessor,--and his portrait on copper-plate, in order that an impression from it might be given to every annusant under Mr. Bowyer's will.

w penso : On the 8th of January 1807, Mr. Nichols was one of his thighs fractured by a fall; and on the 8th of February, 1808, experienced a far greater calamity, in the destruction, brire, of his printingoffice and warehouses, with the whole of their valuable contents. It would be difficult, perhaps, to find many instances of a stronger mind than Mr. Nichols displayed while suffering under both these

calamities. He was now in his 630 year, and could not be far from the age when the grasshopper is a burthen.' For fifty years he had led a life of indefatigable application, and had produced, from his own efforts, works enough to establish character and content ambition. 'He was not desirous of accumulating wealth, and the reward of his industry had been tardy; but it seemed now approaching, and he had reason to expect a gradual advantage from his various productions, and a liberal encouragement in his future efforts. It was, therefore, a bitter disappointment, when, at the close of a cheerful day, and reposing in the society of his family, be heard that his whole property in business was consumed in a few short hours! Under this heavy trial he was consoled by the tender affection of his family, and by the sympathy of a large circle of friends, some of whom made offers of unlimited pecuniary assistance-offers, of wbich, though he was happily under no necessity of availing himself, he was not the less gratefully sensible. Supported by these testimonies of feeling and esteem, he resumed his labours with an energy equal to that which he bad displayed when in the prime of life. Besides completing his · History of the County of Leicester,' already mentioned, he returned to his · Life of Bowyer,' of which one volume had been printed, but not published, just before his fire, under the title of · Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century,' &c. This he lived to extend to pine large volumes, 8vo; to which he afterwarıls, finding materials increase from all quarters, added four volumes, under the title of · Illustrations of the Literary History of tbe Eighteenth Century; intended as a Sequel to the Literary Anecdotes. A fifth volume was nearly printed, and a sixth in preparation, at the time of his death: of these it is hoped the public will not be long deprived, as Mr. Nichols had the happiness to leave a son fully acquainted with his designs, and amply qualified to perpetuate the reputation attached to his name. The fourth volume of the Illustrations' appeared in 1822; before which he bad published, among other works, ‘Hardinge's Latin, Greek, and English Poems,' 8vo, 1818; Miscellaneous Works of George Hardinge, Esq. 1819,' 3 vols. 8vo; a new edition of his " Progresses of Queen Elizabeth,' with considerable additions, 3 vols. 4to; which, after a short interval, was followed by the Progresses of King James the First,' 3 vols.

Mr. Nichols's principal publications have now been cursorily mentioned: the public are, however, indebted to bis talents and industry for many others, which the length of this article precludes us from noticing. Before we conclude, it may be proper to add, that, in 1800, be associated with himself in partnership John Bowyer Nichols, his son; and, in 1812, Samuel Bentley, his nephew. The partnership with his nephew was dissolved in

1818, when the latter entered into business in conjunction with his brother.

On the day of his death, Mr. Nichols had passed some cheerful bours with his family, and, as he was retiring to rest, gently sank down on bis knees and expired, without any symptom of suffering. Sudden as his death was, it could not fail, even upon a slight reflection, to administer consolation. When the first impression was over, it was felt as a great blesse ing that Mr. Nichols had outlived the common age of man with entire exemption from the pains and infirmities he had witnessed in the case of some of his dearest friends. His old age imposed no necessity of leaving off his accustomed employments, or discontinuing his intercourse with society. His constitution, to the last, cxbibited the remains of great strength and activity. His natural faculties continued unimpaired during the whole course of his life, with the exception of his sigbt, which for several years past had become by degrees less and less distinct. It may, however, be allowed to be an extraordinary instance of the kindness of Providence, and be felt it as such, that a degree of sight was still left, which enabled him to peruse and select, from the literary correspondence before bim, such articles as were proper for bis · Illustrations. As to printed books, he had the assistance of his amiable daughters, who were his amanuenses and librarians. Those who knew the ardour of his parental affection could easily perceive that, amidst a privation wbicb would have sunk the spirits of most men, he had now a new source of domestic happiness and thankful reflection..

Mr. Nichols's character was remarkable for those qualities wbich procure universal esteem. The sweetness of his temper, and bis disposition to be kind and useful, were the delight of his friends; and strangers went from him with an impression that they had been with an amiable and benevolent man. During his being a member of the corporation, he employed his interest, as he did elsewhere his pen, in promoting charitable. institutions, and in contributing to the support of those persons wbo had sunk from prosperity, and whose wants he relieved in a more private manner. For very many years he filled the office of Registrar, or Honorary Secretary of the Literary Fund, which gratified his kind feelings, by enabling bim to assist many a brother author in distress. Nor was bis assistance less liberally afforded to those of his own profession, either in their outset in life, or when in difficulties.

It may afford a useful lesson, that Mr. Nichols preserved by exercise, and the vicissitudes of constant employment, a con-, stitution naturally good. His mind was always employed on what was useful; and such a mind is made to last. Both mind and body, there is every reason to think, were preserved in vigour, by the uncommon felicity of bis temper. There was much in the division of bis time which enabled him to perform the arduous tasks wbich be imposed on bimself. He began his work early, and despatched the business of the day before it became neces. sary to attend to public concerns, or to join the social parties of his friends. From his youth, he did every thing quickly. He read with rapidity, and soon caught what was important to his purpose. He spoke quickly, and that whether in the reciprocity of conversation, or when, which was frequently the case, he had to address a company in a set speech. He had also accustomed himself to write with great rapidity; but this he used jocularly to allow, although a saving of time, did not tend to improve his hand. Upon the whole, if usefulness be a test of merit, no man in our days has conferred more important favours on the republic of letters.

Mr. Nichols was twice married: first, in 1766, to Anne, daughter of Mr. William Cradock, who died in 1776, leaving two daughters, one of whom only survives; and secondly, in 1778, to Martha, daughter of Mr. William Green, of Hinckley, in Leicestershire, who died in 1788, leaving one son, John Bowyer Ni. chols, Esq. and four daughters, three of whom are still living. His only sister also survives him, the wife of Edward Bentley, Esq. of the Accountant's Office, in the Bank of England. -Mr. Nichols, at the time of his death, was probably the oldest native of Islington. His remains were deposited in the family vault in Islington Church-yard, only a very few yards from the house in which he was born.-See the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xcvi, part ii, p. 489; and New Monthly Magazine, vol. xxi, p. 73.

30.-SAINT ANDREW . Was the younger brother of Simon Peter. He was the first apostle who came to Christ. He is regarded as the tutelary Saint of Scotland; and the anniversary of the Order of the Thistle is on bis day. The officers of the Royal Society of London are also elected on this day. The Order of the Thistle is described in T. T. for 1816, p. 283.

30.-ADVENT SUNDAY. This, and the three following Sundays, precede the grand festival of Christmas, and take their name from the Latin advenire, to come into, or from adventus, an approach.-During Advent, a very singular spectacle presents itself to the stranger, who, unacquainted with the customs of the country, finds himself

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