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Maria; an Elegiac Ode, 4to, 1786.-Triumph of Britain, an Ode, 1803.- A Dissertation on the Diseases of Prisons and Poor houses, 8vo, 1795.-On the History of Medicine, so far as it relates to the Profession of an Apothecary, 12mo, 1795.-On the best Means of maintaining and employing the Poor in Parish Workhouses, 8vo, 1798. Second edition, 1805.-Address to the Members of the College of Surgeons, 8vo, 1800.-Oration on the General Structure and Physiology of Plants, compared with those of Animals, delivered at the Anniversary of the Medical Society, 8vo, 1808.-Essay on Medical Technology (to which the Fothergillian Medal was voted by the Council of the Medical Society, of wbich he became the Secretary), 8vo, 1810.-He also published in May, 1812, a new edition of Mason's Self-knowledge, with a Life of the Author, and notes, 12mo.
To these may be added, "The Book of Nature,' in three vols. 8vo, being a Series of Popular Lectures on the Phenomena of Nature, formerly delivered at the Surrey Institution, which, many of our readers will recollect, were among the most attractive of the Prelections given at that useful establishment.
*5. 1827.-H. R. H. THE DUKE OF YORK DIED,
ÆT. 63. The memory of the Duke of York is embalmed in the perpetual gratitude of his country. As the reformer and regenerator of the British army, he brought it from a state nearly allied to general contempt to such a pitch of excellence, that we may, without much hesitation, claim for our troops an equality with, if not a superiority over any soldiers in Europe. By a succession of well-considered and effectual regulations, the Duke of York put a stop, with a firm but gentle hand, to numerous abuses, particularly to such as existed in the purchasing of commissions. Terms of service were fixed for every rank, and neither influence nor money were permitted to force any individual forward, until he bad served the necessary time in the present grade which be held. No rank short of that of the Duke of York-no courage and determination inferior to that of bis Royal Highness.--could have accomplished a change so important to the service, but which yet was so unfavourable to the wealthy and to the powerful, whose children and protégés had formerly found a brief way to promotion. This a protection was afforded to those officers who could only hope to rise by merit and length of service; wbile at the same time
the young aspirant was compelled to discharge the duties of a subaltern before attaining the bigher commissions.
In other respects, the influence of the Commander-inChief was found to have the same gradual and meliorating effect. The vicissitudes of real service, and the emergencies to which individuals are exposed, began to render ignorance unfashionable,-as it was speedily found, that mere valour, however fiery, was insufficient, on such occasions, for the extrication of those engaged in them; and that they who knew their duty, and discharged it, were not only most secure of victory and safety in action, but most distinguished at head-quarters, and most certain of promotion. Thus a taste for studying mathematics, and calculations applicable to war, was gradually introduced into the army, and carried by some officers to a great length; while a perfect acquaintance with the routine of the field-day was positively demanded from every officer in the service as an indispensable qualification. His Royal Highness also introduced a species of moral discipline among the officers of our army, wbich had the bigbest consequences on their character.
The private soldiers equally engaged the attention of his Royal Highness. In the course of bis superintendence of the army, a military dress, the most absurd in Europe, was altered for one easy and comfortable for the men, and suitable to the hardships they are exposed to in actual service. The severe and vexatious rules exacted about the tying of hair, and other trifling punctilios (which had been found sometimes to goad troops into mutiny), were abolished, and strict cleanliness was substituted for a Hottentot head-dress of tallow and flour. The pay of the soldier was augmented, while care was at the same time taken that it should, as far as possible, be expended in bettering his food and extending his comforts. The slightest complaint on the part of a private sentinel was as regularly inquired into, as if it had ! been preferred by a general officer. Lastly, the use of the cane (a brutal practice which our officers borrowed from the Germans) was entirely probibited; and regular corporal punishments by the sentence of a court-martial have been gradually diminished. ;If, therefore, we find in the modern British officer more information, a more regular course of study, a deeper acquaintance with the principles of his profession, and a greater love for its exertions—if we find the private sentinel discharge bis duty with a mind unembittered by petty vexations and regimental exertions, conscious of immunity from capricious violence, and knowing where to appeal if he sus
tains injury-if we find in all ranks of the army a love of their profession, and a capacity of matcbing themselves with the finest troops which Europe ever produced, to the memory of his Royal Highness the Duke of York we owe this change from the state of the forces thirty years since.
The means of improving the tactics of the Britisb army did not escape his Royal Highness's sedulous care and at tention. Formerly, every commanding officer manoeuvred his regiment after his own fashion; and if a brigade of troops were brought together, it was very doubtful whether they could execute any one combined movement, and almost certain that they could not execute the various parts of it on the same principle. This was remedied by the system of regulations compiled by the late Sir David Dundas, and which obtained the sanction and countenance of his Royal Highness. This one circumstance, of giving a uniform principle and mode of working to the different bodies, which are, after all, but parts of the same great machine, was in itself one of the most distinguished services which could be rendered to a national army; and it is only surprising that, before it was introduced, the British army was able to execute any combined movements at all. - We cannot but notice the Duke of York's establishment near Chelsea, for the Orphans of Soldiers, the cleanliness and discipline of which are a model for such institutions ; and the Royal Military School, or College, at Sandhurst, where every species of scientific instruction is afforded to those whom it is desirable to qualify for the service of the Staff. The excellent officers who have been formed at this Institution, are the best pledge of what is due to its founder.' Again we repeat that, if the British soldier meets his foreign adversary, not only with equal courage, but with equal readiness and facility of manoeuvre-if the British of. ficer brings against his scientific antagonist, not only his own good heart and hand, but an improved and enlightened knowledge of his profession—to the memory of the Duke of York, the army and the country owe them.
The character of His Royal Highness was admirably adapted to the task of this extended reformation, in a branch of the public service on which the safety of England absolutely depended for the time. His judgment, in itself clear and steady, was inflexibly guided by honour and principle. No solicitations could make him promise what it would have been inconsistent with these principles to grant; nor could any circumstances induce him to break or elude the promise which he had once given. At the same time, his feelings,
humane and kindly, were, on all possible occasions, accessible to the claims of compassion ; and there occurred but rare jastances of a wife widowed, or a family rendered orphans, by the death of a meritorious officer, without something being done to render their calamities more tolerable.
During the last years of the most momentous war that ever was waged, his Royal Highness prepared the most splendid victories our annals boast, by an unceasing attention to the character and talents of the officers, and the comforts and health of the men. Trained under a system so admirable, our army seemed to increase in efficacy, power, and even in numbers, in proportion to the increasing occasion which the public had for their services. Nor is it a less praise, that when men so disciplined returned from scenes of battle, ravaged countries, and stormed cities, they reassumed the habits of private life as if they had never left them.
This superintending care, if not the most gaudy, is among the most enduring flowers which will bloom over the Duke of York's tomb. It gave energy to Britain in war, and strength to her in peace. It combined tranquillity with triumph, and morality with the habits of a military life. If our sol. diers have been found invincible in battle, and meritorious in peaceful society when restored to its bosom, let no Briton forget that this is owing to the paternal care of him to whose memory we here offer an imperfect tribute.-SIR Walter Scott.
For further particulars of his Royal Highness, the reader may consult Sir Herbert Taylor's very interesting Narrative'; the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xcvii, part I, and the Mirror.
6.-EPIPHANY, or TWELFTH DAY. The following is an account of this day as it is. celebrated in some of the Provinces of France :Twelfth Day, or La Fête des Rois, is kept twice in the year at Commercy and in its environs, and each time in a different way. The first commemoration takes place on the 5th of January, the Eve of the Epiphany. On this occasion, the family meet about six o'clock in the evening, and sit round a large table. They put into a hat or bag as many beans as there are persons:
one of the beans is red or black, and serves to designate the king of the bean, as he is called; the others are wbite. The youngest child draws the beans, and names each member of the family in succession, beginning with the eldest and finishing with the youngest: when the king of the bean is ascertained, he is congratulated by every one of the company on his accession to royalty.
The cake, which is round, is introduced before supper; it is sometimes pierced in the middle in the form of a crown, and contains a bean. It is cut into as many slices as there are persons in the family, including servants. The drawing is made in the same manner as for the bean; only, on this occasion, the share called la part à Dieu is drawn first, and given to the first poor person at the door who asks for it; and it is a rule not to begin to eat the cake till this portion of it has been given away. The amusements of this first Twelfth-day festival are cheerful without being obstreperous,-and there is nothing noisy about it, but the cry of le roi boit, which is repeated whenever his Majesty chooses to moisten his lips with the juice of the grape.
The seventh day after the Epiphany, that is, the Octave of tbis festival, is called the day of the black kings, or of the kings with their faces smutted. The king is drawn for with beans, but by the eldest in company-in an inverse order to that of the first draw. ing,—that is, beginning with the youngest, and finishing with the eldest. He, whom the fortune of the day has ordained to be king, must submit to have his face blacked, and to be otherwise disguised. They usually take a cork of a wine bottle, burn it in the candle, and with this they draw on the king's face mustachios, and other figures, in order to render the countenance as hideous as possible: towels are put upon the head, round the neck, and about other parts of the body, so as to render the figure of the king as grotesque as they can, and a never-failing subject of