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as 1809. The young people are particularly interested in its continuance; for, in the evening, they make a collation of the different presents put into the baskets, and the remainder of the day is spent in feasting and merriment. The parents also meet their children at this fête, which towards the close of the evening becomes public.

17.SAINT PATRICK, The tutelar Saint of Ireland, died about the year 460, at an advanced age : see T. T. for 1824, p. 69. In one of the islets of Loughderg, in Donegal county, there is a spot called “Patrick's Purgatory.' This seems to have been of old a place of some celebrity, where an exhibition of the penalties of purgatory were got up in high theatric style, pretty much on wbat has been supposed to be the plan of the old Eleusinian or Samothracian mysteries. It is still the object of pilgrimage, and the scene of severe mortification.

The island is about half a mile from the shore, and there are two chapels on it; one for confession, and another for general worship. At what is called 'Station Time,' the place is frequented by immense numbers of persons.

Every pilgrim strips off his shoes, stockings, and bat, before he enters the chapel (some before they come into the yard), and must fancy that he is entering a place as holy as Mount Sinai. On entering the chapel door, he prostrates himself, kisses the ground, and must imagine that he receives the prior's blessing, who is at Loughderg; then crossing himself on the forehead, moutb, &c. be kneels before the cross and repeats three paters, three aves, a gloria patri, and a creed; after kissing the ground he rises, leans bis shoulders against the cross, and goes through a ceremony called the taking up of the cross,' bawling out three times, I renounce the world, the devil, and the flesh;' then he kisses it, in imitation of the angel's cleansing the lips of the prophet Isaial with a burping coal; be next repeats three paters, three aves, &c., to obtain from God the three most necessary things for rendering his station acceptable—1st, The fear of God, by which our sips are expelled; 2d, humility, by which our prayers penetrate the very clouds; and 3d, patience, by which we possess our souls. Then, after kissing the ground and the cross, he walks seven times round the chapel-floor, in honour of the seven times the Priests went round the walls of

Jericho ! repeating a decade each time, in satisfaction for the sins committed during the seven days of the week. After this, he crosses himself again; bows as often as he passes by the altar, especially if the consecrated wafer be placed on it, to be adored by the pilgrims. Then he goes to one of the small circles, and walks round it outside, until he has said five paters, five aves, a gloria patri, and a creed, in honour of the five bleeding wounds of our Saviour;' he next struggles round the inside of it, until he finishes as many more paters, &c. to atone for the sins committed by the five senses;' and then repeats the same number on his knees inside and outside ; tben, after kissing the ground, he goes through the same repetitions and gesticulation at each of the two other smaller circles. After that, he walks round the great circle of St. Patrick, outside, until he has repeated seven decades (i. e. seven paters, seventy aves, seven gloria patri's, and one creed !) 'in satisfaction for the seven deadly sins;' then kneeling at the entrance of the circle, and kissing the ground, with more than ordinary devotion, he faces the altar and cross, and, after paying them the usual bonours, he repeats five decades standing. Then he salutes the cross, altar, &c., goes round the inside of the circle on his knees, and repeats seven decades; he next proceeds to the three small circles on the opposite side, and goes round them almost in the same manner, repeating the same number of decades, and performing the same ceremonies of bowing, kissing the ground, &c. Then he goes to a place marked, .in imitation of a stone dedicated to the Virgin Mary,' in Loughdery, which is a considerable distance from the shore, called in Irish · Clogh Wirtbe,' and must fancy, as he passes to it, that he is at Loughderg, wading through the water, and going to drown bis sins in it, as Moses did his enemies in the Red Sea;' then he repeats three paters and three bail Mary's, &c., in honour of the Holy Trinity, that his station may be acceptable to God, through the intercessions of all the saints, to whom the various circles are dedicated. Then be goes to the altar, and kisses the steps of it, if the crowd permit him to come so near it; be then retires to some private corner, and repeats fifteen decades, and finishes what is called a station, which he repeats three times again during his pilgrimage. This unprofitable drudgery is continued for three, six, and, by some, for nine days and one night spent in prison; the penitents living on a single meal of bread and water each day, the prison day excepted, on wbich they must neither eat, drink, or sleep! To make their situation as comfortable as that of the parent station, they must fancy that the water of a neighbouring spring is changed into wine !Dublin Warder, 1827.

An account of the usual celebration of St. Patrick's Day in Ireland, may be seen in our last volume, p. 66.

18.-EDWARD, KING OF THE WEST SAXONS,

Was stabbed at Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire, on this day, in the year 978, by order of Elfrida, his stepmother.—See T. T. for 1824, p. 69.

20.—MIDLENT THURSDAY. Every year at Bonneval, on this day, to the time of the Revolution, all the children had a custom of going into the fields to look for the half-devoured carcass of a horse, or some other animal; the different parts were then tied together, and the whole was dragged through the streets of the town, amid the cries of “La Mi-Carême, La Mi-Carême,' (the MidLent). This ceremony was called the dragging of the Mid-Lent;' and when night came, the carcass was hung up at the door of some person whom the youngsters had reason to dislike.

21.-SAINT BENEDICT. An Italian devotee of great austerity of manners : he died in the year 542.

23.-FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. This was called Passion Sunday, as the church now began to advert to the sufferings of Christ. 25.- ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN

MARY, OR LADY DAY. · For a description of some very singular customs on this day, we refer to T.T. for 1823, p. 63; T.T. or 1824, p. 71; and our last volume, p. 67. · *29. 1827.-CHARLES DIGNUM DIED, ÆT. 62;

The well known siuger, and composer of several pleasing ballads; he also published, by subscription, à collection of popular vocal music. His brilliant wit and splendid conversational talents will, it is said, be long remembered by those who had the happiness of his acquaintance.

30.-PALM SUNDAY. This day commemorates our Lord's triumphal entry into Jerusalem: see our former volumes. -The inhabitants of the district of Sologne keep the • festival of torches' on this day. In the evening, they go abroad, provided with lighted brands of straw, making the circuit of their corn-fields, and calling out, like the Bacchants of old, 'sbake your torches, and burn them along the vineyards and the meadows. Mice, come out of the corn, and go and forage in the woods : if a priest comes, send him about his business; if a capucin, give him a slice of bread; if a thief, give him a good beating: shake your torches, &c. While the procession is going its rounds, the mistress of the farm prepares the repast, of which millet forms the principal dish: she keeps the door shut, and only opens it after reiterated demands, intermixed with songs and dialogues. If the peasants who carry the torches belonging to two different farms meet, they generally have a skirmish together. The feast is concluded by the young women and men adjourning to a neighbouring winehouse, where they pass the night in drinking, singing, and dancing.

*31. 1827.- L. VON BEETHOVEN DIED. He was born at Baun, where his father was the tenor singer in the Elector's chapel. His earliest instructions in music were received from Neefe, the court organist; and so rapid was his progress, that, at the early age of eleven, he was able to play the far-famed preludes and fugues of the great Sebastian Bach. Beethoven received a regular classical edu. cation; Homer and Plutarch were his great favourites among the ancients; and of the native poets, Schiller and Goëthe (the latter of whom was his personal friend) he preferred to all others. For a considerable time, he also studied more abstruse subjects, such as Kant's Philosophy, &c. There are not fewer than 120 of Beethoven's performances, the greater part of which are allowed to be productions of the highest order. In the loftier strains of composition he was almost without a rival. In many of his orchestral symphonies, overtures, quartettos for the violin, concertos, trios, and sonatas for the piano-forte, he may

be ranked with Haydn and Mozart. Beethoven was a fervent admirer of Handel and Mozart. Of Handel he was once heard to exclaim, “I would uncover my head and kneel down on his tomb! To the works of modern composers he seems to have paid but little attention: when asked about • Der Freischutz,' his answer was, "I believe one Weber has written it.' Of his own productions he thought his second mass was the best. In their neglect of living genius, the feelings of the Germans appear to assimilate but too closely with those of their brethren in this country; for, although Beethoven was allowed to languish and expire in poverty, his remains were honoured with a splendid and ostentatious funeral.

Astronomical Occurrences

In MARCH 1828. . SOLAR PHENOMENA. The Sun enters Aries at 47 m. after 2 in the afternoon of the 20th of this month, and he rises and sets, during the same period, as in the following

TABLE
Of the Sun's Rising and Setting for every fifth Day.
March 1st, Sun rises 36 m. after 6. Sets 24 m. past 5

6th ........ 25 ........ 6
lith ........ 16 ........
16th ........ 6 ........ 6 ......

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21st ........ 56 26th ........ 46 31st ........ 36

........ 5
........ 5
........ 5

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Equation of Time. To convert apparent into mean time, the numbers must be used as stated in the following Table. Those to be employed for any intermediate days, or times of the day, must be found by proportion :

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