« 前へ次へ »
REMARKS, &c.--LESSON 12.
Application of the simile. Similes are properly employed in almost every kind of composition. They tend to illustrate the subjects to which they refer, or to place them in a commanding point of view: or they impart strength to the impression which they stamp upon the mind.
"As wax would not be adequate to the purposes of signature if it had not the power to retain the impression as well as to receive it; so the same holds good of the soul with respect to sense and imagination. Sense is its receptive power, imagination, its retentive. Had the soul sense without imagination, it would not be as wax, but as water;-in which, though all impressions are instantly made, they are as instantly lost."
“She never told her grief,
Smiling at grief." 6The music of Carrol was like the memory of joys that are past;—pleasant and mournful to the soul.”
“The troops, exulting, sat in order round,
ciments and foster a regard for the principles of the revolu. tion. Human beings are composed, not of reason only, but also of imagination and sentiment; and that is neither wasted nor misapplied, which is appropriated to the purpose of give ing a right direction to sentiment, and opening proper springs of feeling in the heart.
2. Let it not be supposed that our object is to perpetuate national hostility, or even to cherish a military spirit:--our object is higher, purer, nobler. We consecrate our work to the spirit of national independence; and we wish that the light of peace may rest upon it forever. We rear a memorial of our conviction of that unmeasured benefit, which has been conferred on our own land, and the happy influences which have been produced, by the same events, on the general interests of mankind.
3. We come, as Americans, to mark a spot, which must forever be dear to us and to our posterity. We wish, that, whosoever, in all coming time, may turn his eye to this height, shall see that the place where the first battle of the revolution was fought, is not undistinguished.We wish that this structure may proclaim the magnitude and importance of that event to every class and to every age. We wish that infancy may learn the purpose of its erection from maternal lips, and that weary and withered age, may behold it, and be solaced by the recollections which it suggests. We wish that labour may look up here and be proud in the midst of toil.
4. We wish, that, in those days of disaster, which, as they come upon all nations, must be expected to come on us also, desponding patriotism may turn his eye to this hill and be assured that the foundations of our national power still stand strong. We wish that this column, rising toward heaven, among the pointed spires of so many temples dedicated to God, may contribute also to produce, in all minds, pious emo. ions of gratitude and love. We wish, that the last object on the sight of him who leaves his native shore, and the first to gladden him who revisits it, may be something that shall remind him of the liberty and glory of his country. Let it rise, then, till it meet the sun in his coming;-let the earliest light of the morning gild it, and the departing day linger and play on its summit.
MENSURATION.LESSON 15. Circles. Circles are plain figures, from the centre of whic
all right lines drawn to their circumference, are equal, and are called radii, or semidiameters. Thus:
The figure A, B, D, E, is called a circle, and C is its centre. The lines C A, C B, C D, and C E, are radii, or semidiameters, and are all equal. But the lines A, C, D, and
22.61 E, C, B, are diameters, either of which divides the figure into semicircles, and both divide it into quar
B . ters. As, A, C, B, &c.
Every circle is equal to a parallelogram, whose length equals half the circumference; and whose breadth equals half the diameter;- the area, therefore, is found by the following
RULE. Multiply the circumference by the diameter, and divide the product by 4, the quotient will be the area.
Suppose the circle A, B, D, E, is 74 feet, and the diameter, A, C, D, 22.6ft.; what is the area? Ans. 417.14ft.
22.6 X 74=1662.4+4=417.14 sqr. ft. Case 1. When the diameter of a circle is given to find the circumference, adopt the following
RULE. As 113 is to 355, so is the given diameter to the circumference. Or, Multiply the given diameter by 3,14159, and the product will be the answer. Thus:-
What is the circumference of 14ft. diameter? As 113: 355 : : 14; 43.9824, Or, 14X3.14159–43.9824.
Note. 3.14159 is the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, and at arises from dividing 113 by 355. This, however, is not the exact ratio, nor is it probable that the true ratio can ever be determined.
Case 2. When the circumference is given to find the diameter, adopt the following
Rule. As 355 is to 113, so is the given circumference to its diameter. Or divide the circumference by 3.14159. Thus:
What is the diameter of a circle whose circumference is 43.9824ft.? As 355 : 113 :: 43.9824 : 14. Or, 43.9824-3.14159=14.
Obs. 1. The area of a circle may be found, when the diameter is given, by the following
RULE. Multiply the square of the diameter by .7854 which is the ratio of the square of the diameter to the circumference. Thus:-
What is the area of a circle whose diameter is 14ft.!
14 x 14=196.X.7854=153.9384, Ans. OBS. 2. The area of a circle may be found without the aid of the diameter, by the following
Rule. Multiply the square of the circumference by .07958 and the product will be the answer. Thus:What is the area of a circle whose circumference is 44st.?
44 X 44=1936 X.07958=154.06638, Ans. OBs. 3. The diameter of a circle may be found from the area by the following
RULE. Divide the area by .7854, and the square root of the quotient will give the diameter.
Obs. 4. The circumference may also be found froin the area by the following
RULE. Divide the area by .07958, and the square root of the quotient will be the circumference.
REMARKS, &c.—LESSON 16. Personification. This is a figure of very general use. Human nature manifests a strong propensity under the influence of emotion to animate every thing within the reach of the senses;. and the mind exercises an astonishing fertility in transferring the properties and qualities of living objects to those that are inanimate.
“Thou Sun, said I, fair light!
“Nature, Great Parent, whose directing hand
"I weep for joy