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chivalrous manners of the age, and displays that generosity which reconciles us even to their ferocity upon other occasions.

Bruce had enjoined Randolph, who commanded the left wing of his army, to be vigilant in preventing any advanced parties of the English from throwing succours into the castle of Stirling.

“ Eight hundred horsemen, commanded by Sir Robert Clifford, were detached from the English army; they made a circuit by the low grounds to the east, and approached the castle. The king perceived their motions, and coming up to Randolph, angrily exclaimed, Thoughtless man! you have suffered the enemy to pass. Randolph hasted to repair his fault, or perish. As he advanced, the English cavalry wheeled to attack him. Randolph drew up his troops in a circular form, with their spears resting on the ground, and protended on every side. At the first onset, Sir William Daynecourt, an English commander of distinguished note, was slain. The enemy, far superior in numbers to Randolph, environed him, and pressed hard on his little band. Douglas saw his jeopardy, and requested the king's permission to go and succour him. • You shall not move from your ground, cried the king; • let Randolph extricate himself as he best may. I will not alter my order of battle, and lose the advantage of my position. • In truth,' replied Douglas, “I cannot stand by and see Randolph perish; and, therefore, with your leave, I must aid him.' The king unwillingly consented, and Douglas flew

to the assistance of his friend. While approaching, he perceived that the English were falling into disorder, and that the perseverance of Randolph had prevailed over their impetuous courage. 'Halt,' cried Douglas, 'those brave men have re. pulsed the enemy ; let us not diminish their glory by sharing it.'"-DALRYMPLE's Annals of Scotland, 4to, Edinburgh, 1779, pp. 44, 45.

Two. large stoneś erected at the north end of the village of Newhouse, about a quarter of a mile from the south part of Stirling, ascertain the place of this memorable skirmish. The circumstance tends, were confirmation necessary, to support the opinion of Lord Hailes, that the Scottish line had Stirling on its left flank. It will be remembered, that Randolph commanded infantry, Daynecourt cavalry. Supposing, therefore, according to the vulgar hypothesis, that the Scottish line was drawn up, facing to the south, in the line of the brook of Bannock, and consequently that Randolph was stationed with his left flank resting upon Milntown bog, it is morally impossible that bis infantry, moving from that position, with whatever celerity, could cut off from Stirling a body of cavalry who had already passed St Ninians,' or, in other words, were already between them and the town. Whereas, supposing Randolph's left to have approached St Ninians, the short movement to

.' Barbour says expressly, they avoided the New Park, (where Bruce's arıny lay,) and held " well neath the Kirk,” which can only mean St Ninians.

Newhouse could easily be executed, so as to intercept the English in the manner described.

Note XV.,

. Responside from the Scottish host,

Pipe-clang and bugle-sound were toss'd.-St. XX. p. 249. There is an old tradition, that the well-known Scottish tune of “ Hey, tutti taitti," was Bruce's march at the battle of Bannockburn. The late Mr Ritson, no granter of propositions, doubts whether the Scots had any martial music, quotes Froissart's account of each soldier in the host bearing a little horn, on which, at the onset, they would make such a horrible noise, as if all the devils of hell had been among them. He observes, that these horns are the only music mentioned by Barbour, and concludes, that it must remain a moot point whether-Bruce's army were cheered by the sound even of a solitary bagpipe.--Historical Essuy prefixed to Ritson’s Scottish Songs.

It may be observed in passing, that the Scottish of this period certainly observed some musical cadence, even in winding their horns, since Bruce was at once recognised by his followers from his mode of blowing. See Note X. on Canto IV.

But the tradition, true or false, has been the means of securing to Scotland one of the finest lyrics in the language, the celebrated war-song of Burns

Scots, wba hae wi' Wallace bled.

Note XVI. Now onward, and in open view, The countless ranks of England drew.–St. XXI. p. 250. Upon the 24th of June, the English army advanced to the attack. The narrowness of the Scottish front, and the nature of the ground, did not permit them to have the full advantage of their numbers, nor is it very easy to find out what was their proposed order of battle. The vanguard, however, appeared a distinct body, consisting of archers and spearmen on foot,

manded, as already said, by the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford. Barbour, in one place, mentions that they formed nine BATTLES, or divisions; but from the following passage, it appears that there was no room or space for them to extend themselves, so that, except the vanguard, the whole army appeared to form one solid and compact body :

and comm

“ The English men, on either party,
That as angels shone brightly,
Were not arrayed on such manner :
For all their battles samyn' were
In a schiltrum. But whether it was
Through the great straitness of the place

1

Together. 2 Schiltrum.-This word has been variously limited or extended in its signification, In general, it seems to imply a large body of men drawn up very closely together. But it has been limited to imply a round or circular body of men so drawn up. I cannot

That they were in, to bide fighting ;
Or that it was for abaysing ;'
I wete not. But in a schiltrum
It seemed they were all and some ;
Out ta'en the vaward anerly, ?
That right with a great company,
Be them selwyn, arrayed were.
Who had been by, might have seen there
That folk ourtake a mekill feild
On breadth, where many a shining shield,
And many a burnished bright armour,
And many a man of great valour,
Might in that great schiltrum be seen :
And many a bright banner and sheen.”

BARBOUR'S Bruce, vol. II. p. 137.

Note XVII.

See where yon bare-foot Abbot stands, And blesses them with lifted hands.-St. XXI. p. 251. « Maurice, abbot of Inchaffray, placing himself on an eminence, celebrated: mass in sight of the Scottish army. He then passed along the front, bare-footed, and bearing a crucifix in his hands, and exhorting the Scots in few and forcible

understand it with this limitation in the present case. The schil. trum of the Scottish army at Falkirk was undoubtedly of a circular form, in order to resist the attacks of the English cavalry, on whatever quarter they might be charged. But it does not appear how, or wby, the English advancing to the attack at Bannockburn, should have arrayed themselves in a circular form. It seems more probable, that, by Schiltrum in the present case, Bar.' bour means to express an' irregular mass into which the English army was compressed by the unwieldiness of its numbers, and the carelessness or ignorance of its leaders. | Frightening.

2 Alone.

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