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accumulation acquired Adam Smith advance advantage afford agricultural amongst amount augmented benefit burthen capitalist cause cent circumstances classes commodities competition consequence consumed consumption contribute cultivation degree demand derived diminished duction duties effect employed employment equal exertion existing expenditure expense fall funds greater higher improvements income increase indirect taxes individuals injury kind labour and capital land landlord larger less lessen lower manufactures means ment nature necessary occasion occupations owners paid payment persons poor population portion possession present procure produce productiveness of industry profits of capital proportion protection public debt purchase quantity raised rate of interest rate of profit real property reduced remuneration rendered rent revenue rewards of labour saving sinking fund society soil subsistence sumers supply taxation tenant things tillage tion tivation trade vidual wealth Wealth of Nations whole workmen yield
322 ページ - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
150 ページ - THE WHOLE of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock must, in the same neighbourhood, be either perfectly equal or continually tending to equality. If in the same neighbourhood there was any employment evidently either more or less advantageous than the rest, so many people would crowd into it in the one case, and so many would desert it in the other, that its advantages would soon return to the level of other employments.
243 ページ - Our merchants and mastermanufacturers complain much of the bad effects of high wages in raising the price, and thereby lessening the sale of their goods both at home and abroad. They say nothing concerning the bad effects of high profits. They are silent with regard to the pernicious effects of their own gains. They complain only of those of other people.
422 ページ - When national debts have once been accumulated to a certain degree, there is scarce, I believe, a single instance of their having been fairly and completely paid. The liberation of the public revenue, if it has ever been brought about at all, has always been brought about by a bankruptcy ; sometimes by an avowed one, but always by a real one, though frequently by a pretended payment.
265 ページ - That portion of his revenue which a rich man annually spends is, in most cases, consumed by idle guests and menial servants who leave nothing behind them in return for their consumption. That portion which he annually saves, as for the sake of the profit it is immediately employed as a capital, is consumed in the same manner and nearly in the same time, too, but by a different set of people, by labourers, manufacturers, and artificers, who reproduce with a profit the value of their annual consumption.
219 ページ - By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
279 ページ - But the principle which prompts to save is the desire of bettering our condition, a desire which, though generally calm and dispassionate, comes with us from the womb, and never leaves us till we go into the grave.
378 ページ - An injudicious tax offers a great temptation to smuggling. But the penalties of smuggling must rise in proportion to the temptation. The law, contrary to all the ordinary principles of justice, first creates the temptation, and then punishes those who yield to it ; and it commonly enhances the punishment, too, in proportion to the very circumstance which ought certainly to alleviate it, the temptation to commit the crime.
279 ページ - An augmentation of fortune is the means by which the greater part of men propose and wish to better their condition.
221 ページ - Great Britain there is a distinction, even in the lowest species of labour, between summer and winter wages. Summer wages are always highest. But on account of the extraordinary expense of fuel, the maintenance of a family is most expensive in winter. Wages therefore being highest when this expense is lowest, it seems evident that they are not regulated by what is necessary for this expense; but by the quantity and supposed value of the work.