first, that the interrogatory point has two inflections, the rising and the falling one. The rising, when the question is formed without an interrogative word : the falling, when an interrogative word commences it. Example of the first :

Suppose a person, generally well informed, can he say that his education is perfect, if, when asked to read or recite, he feel inadequate ?"

Of the last " Who is here so base, that would be a bondman?” “Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman?” “ Who is here so vile, that would not love his country?'

When the two parts of a question are connected hy the conjunction or, the first has the rising, and the last the falling inflection. Example :

“Who was the greater man, Cæsar or Alexander ?"

The same rule exists when an affirmative and a negative are opposed to each other. Example : - He deserves censure, not eulogy."

Breaks arepauses which cut a subject short before the meaning is fully developed. They generally occur when extreme grief, or violent rage, agitates the human breast.


" Darkness and demons!



train together :
Degenerate viper-I'll not stay with thee!
1 yet have left a daughter-Serpent! monster!
Lessen my train, and call them riotous !
All men approv'd-of choice and rarest parts,
That each particular of duty know.”


« Yes :-'tis Emilia :by and by.--She's dead.
Tis like she comes to speak of Cassio's death ;

The noise was high.-Ha! no more moving?
Still as the grave. Shall she come in? wer't good?
I think she stirs again :-No.-What's the best?
If she come in, she'll sure speak to my wife :-
My wife! my wife! what wife?--I have no wife.”


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The period should be marked by a depression of voice, sufficient to denote the completion of the sense ; but great care must be taken not to lower the tone to such a degree as to endanger the loss of the last word of the line, or sentence : a fault frequently observable even in some eminent publie speakers.

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Irony is a rhetorical figure, which gives a meaning directly contrary to the words expressed, and is productive of very great effect, if not too frequently used. Irony should be read or spoken in monotone.



Examples. They boast they come but to improve our state, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the yoke of error! Yes, they will give enlightened freedom to our minds, who are themselves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride. They offer us their protection; yes, such protection as vultures give to lambs, covering and devouring them.”


“What drugs, what charms, what conjuration, and what mighty magic

" Fair sir, you spit on me on Wednesday last,
You spurn'd me such a day: another time
You callid me dog ; and for these courtesies
I'll lend you thus much monies."

“ Charming house, and charming lady of the house, ha!
ha! ha!”


XIV. ALLITERATION. Alliteration is a figure which occurs when several words, commencing with the same letter, immediately follow each other. If too often used it will pall; but if seldom resorted to, it will give a pleasing variety to the subject into which it is introduced. This figure is also read or spoken in monotone.

Examples “ The sun, the soil, but not the slave the same.”


" And hath a sound, And sense, and sight of sweetness.”

Ibid. ** He rush,d into the field, and foremost fighting fell."


“ Man is *obnoxious to pain, penury, and pestilence."

“ The hamanity, harmony, and happiness, “ Mind, manners, magnanimity, mercy, Make the man.

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“ Intrepid tars, who wind, and wave, and world defy."


Of all figures this is the most overwhelming and rapid; but it should never be employed in unfolding the principles upon which a discourse is established; for it causes obscurity, and a species of declamation, cifensive to persons of good taste. The success of interrogation is infallible, when properly employed. A memorable example of it occurs, when Tully, unble to express the lively indignation of his patriotic ceal, rushes abruptly upon Catiline, and instantly

* This word is often improperly used both in speaking ind writing for noxious.

overwhelms him by the vehemence of his interrogations.

" How long, Oh Catiline, wilt thou abuse our patience? How long also shall thy madness elude us? Whither will thy ungovernable audacity impel thee? Could neither the nightly garrison of the citadel, nor the watch of the city, nor the general consternation, nor the congress of all good men, nca this strongly fortified place where the Senate is held, nor the enraged countenances of those senators, deter thee from thy impious designs? Dost thou not perceive that thy counsels are all discovered? Thinkest thou that there are any of us ignorant of thy transactions the past night, the place of rendezvous, thy collected associates?”

By using such language as this, the orator leaves not a moment's time for false or evasive replication, but paralyzes the accused, by irresistibly showing the extent and enormity of his guilt, thus rendered as apparent to the astonished auditor, as it is overwhelming to the trembling criminal. Di. Blair says, “ Interrogations are passionate figures. They are, indeed, on so many occasions, the native language of passion, that their use is extremely frequent; and, in ordinary conversation, when men are heated, they prevail as much as in the most sublime oratory. The unfigured literal use of interrogation is to ask a ques-tion ; but when men are prompted by passion, whatever they would affirm, or deny, with great vehemence, they naturally put in the form of a question; expressing thereby the strongest confidence of the truth of their own sentiments, and appealing to their hearers for the impossibility of the contrary. Thus, in scripture :

“God is not a man that he should lie, neither the son of man that he should repent. Hath he said? and shall be not do it? or hath !e spoken ? and shall he not make it good ?

Demosthenes addressing himself to the Athenians; says,

“ Tell me, will you still go about and ask one another, what news ? What can be more astonishing news than this, that the man of Macedon makes war upon the Athenians, and dişposes of the affairs of Greece? Is Phillip dead? No, but he is sick. What signifies it to you whether he be dead or alive? For, if any thing happen to this Phillip, you will immediately raise up another.”

All this, delivered without interrogation, had been faint and ineffectual; but the warmth and eagerness which this questioning method expresses, awaken the hearers, and strike them with much greater force."



Iteration serves to strengthen and enforce argument, and, in many instances, produces great force and beauty. Iteration should be read or spoken in the same manner as the subject from which the repetition occurs.

Examples. 66 As Cæsar loved me,


weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but as he was ambitious, I slew him."

“There are tears for his love; joy for his fortune ; honor for his valor; and death for his ambition."

JULIUS CÆSAR. “If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, whi e a foreign troop was landed in my country, I never would lay down my arms, never, never, never.

LORD CHATHAN. "There still remains that which is even paramount to ile law--That great tribunal which the wisdom of our ances tors raised in this country for the support of the people's rights-That tribunal which has made the law. That tribu nal which has given me you to look at-That tribunal whiri: is surrounded with a hedge as it were set about it-Thai tribunal which from age to age has been fighting for the liherties of the people, and without the aid of which it woula

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