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the technical terms of the science, in has added are from the Chinese Dicwhich many improvements have been tionary entitled Tching-tsetong. The attempted; the whole illustrated by publication of the work was ordered figures drawn under the eye of the by the Emperor Napoleon at the end authors. And, 4. Practical direc- of 1809, and terminated in 1813, tions for collecting, preserving, &c. under the auspices of his Minister of the objects of this department of na the Interior. tural history.

By the law against the Liberty of Mr George Douglas has ready for the Press in France, as published Oct. the

press, the Eleventh and Twelfth 21,1814, every writing of more than Books of Euclid, demonstrated in a twenty sheets of printing, may be concise, clear, and perspicuous man- published without examination or prener; to which are added, the Princi- vious censure, and whatever be the ples of Spherical Trigonometry, dis- number of sheets, with respect to-1. tinctly demonstrated in all the cases, Writings in dead tongues and foreign and the figures raised in perspective. languages. 2. Mandates, pastoral let

Miss Williams, the ci devant cham- ters, catechisms, and books of prayer. pion of liberty, is about to commence

3. Memoirs in law and processes. 4. a periodical work in France, under Memoirs of literary and scientific sothe sanction of the Bourbon court, cieties, established or acknowledged and the special patronage of the Duke by the king. 5. The opinions of of Wellington, whom she flatters in members of the two chambers. With courtly strains in her first number. respect to writings of twenty sheets

M. de Guignes, late French resi. and under, if two censors at the least dent in China, has published at Paris are of opinion that the writing is a his Chinese, French, and Latin Dic- defamatory libel, or that it may distionary. Chinese writing, says he, is turb the public tranquillity, or that it composed of six elementary traces or is contrary to the constitutional char. strokes, which, added to two hundred ter, or that it offends against moraand eight primitive characters, form lity, the director general may stop two hundred and fourteen keys, un the printing ; but there is to be formder which all the characters are clas- ed, at the commencement of each sessed. The dictionaries published by sion of the two chambers, a committhe Chinese themselves are composed tee formed of three peers, three deaccording to this system, that is, all puties of the departments, and three the characters are placed according commissioners of the king; and if this to the order of the keys, commencing committee judge that the motives of with the key of one single trace, and suspension are insufficient, it shall be finishing with that of seventeen traces, removed. No person to be a printer which is the last. Father. Basil had or bookseller without a licence from also arranged his Chinese and Latin the king, and without taking the Dictionary in this manner ; but sub- oath ; and the licence may be taken sequently changed his plan, and rang. from any printer or bookseller who ed all the words according to the dis- shall have been convicted, by a legal tribution of the Chinese sounds, and judgment, of violating the laws and according to the order of the letters regulations. The omission by the of our alphabet. The number of printer of his name, and place of characters, including the duplicates, abode, to be punished by a fine of amounts in the table of Father Basil's three thousand francs. The insertion Dictionary to 9959. M. de Guignes of a false name, and false place of has made them amount to nearly abode, to be punished with a fine of 14000. All the characters which he six thousand francs, without prejudice

to

MEMOIRS OF THE PROGRESS OF MA

AND THE FINE ARTS.

to the imprisonment decreed by the way, by erasure of the original text, penal code. Three other ordinances for their homilies and compositions. of subsequent dates contain various appointments and regulations. By the Ist, the general direction of tlie bookselling trade is placed under the superintendance of the Chancellor of NUFACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, France. By the 2d, nineteen ordinary censors, and twenty-two honorary censors are appointed, the former al- LORD Dundonald, who is as relowed a salary of 1200 francs each, markable for his eccentricity as for and to have a further remuneration his genius, has at different times inannually, in proportion to the labour troduced the following discoveries and they may have performed. By a 3d, improvements to the world : none can exercise the trades of print 1. A superior ink, that does not er or bookseller without a licence. run into lumps, and never changes its The licences heretofore granted are colour; twenty per cent, cheaper than confirmed ; the conditions on which common ink. licences will in uture be issued, will 2. A permanent black dye, that be determined by a new regulation. never turns brown or rusty. Printers are to keep a regular register 3. A method of purifying common of all the works printed by them, for vinegar, and making cheap vinegar the inspection of the proper officers, of a superior quality. and are to deposit one copy in the 4. À new method of preparing Royal Library, a second with the verdigrease. chancellor, a third with the minister 5. To obtain saltpetre from putrid of the interior, a fourth with the die substances. rector-general of the book trade, and 6. A method of improving coarse to deliver a fifth to the censor ap- cloth. pointed to examine the work !!! And

7. To procure gum

from the stagsuch is the deliverance of Europe - horned lichen, equal to gum senegal, As a commentary, the Tribunal of for calico printing. Paris have condemned to five years

8. A method of curing herrings imprisonment, and a fine of five thou- equal to the Dutch. sand francs, Auguise, Ferra, Froulle, 9. A method of depriving salted and Marre Roguin, the two former as provisions of their salt, by boiling in editors, and the two latter as printers, steam. of a libel entitled, “ Extrait du Mo 10. The use of rock salt, instead aiteur."

of sea salt, in the making of plate Volney and the other literati in glass, and saving one third of the Paris are busily employed in collec- quantity of pearl.ash. ting whatever remains of the records 11. The pyro-ligneous acid purified destroyed by the fire of Alexandria in from all its essential oil and other the time of Julius Cæsar ; also such matters. as escaped the conflagration by order 12. A cheap method of feeding of the Caliph Oinar, and, if possible, poultry, which gives them the flavour some of those Greek authors whose of

game. works were devoted to oblivion by 13. An expeditious method of prePope Gregory. To these may be paring and hardening fresh wood, for added, the prodigious number of vo- ihe immediate use of ships and other lumes defaced by the monks, to make purposes.

-Yet,

-Yet, O tempora! O mores! this the first time about thirty-two minobleman has long been suffering un nutes. During the immersion he sent up der all the privations of galling penu- twoswans, and made frequent signals to ry.

shew that he was safe. It appeared Mr Accum stated to the House of however on his reascending that he Lords, on the subject of the Gas must have experienced considerable Light Bill, that from reiterated ex

uneasiness, as his pulse was at 164. periments he found that a hundred On his second attempt he remained weight of Newcastle coals produces twenty-four minutes under water, and from two hundred and fifty to three traversed three fourths of the space hundred cubic feet of gas; and with between the Pont Royaland the bridge regard to the light that is obtained of Louis XVI. It is supposed that from the combustion of this quantity he supported respiration by some new of gas, nineteen cubic feet of the gas mode of disengaging oxygen gas in is equal to a pound of tallow candles. the diving bell. A hundred pounds of coal produce also from four to five pounds of tar upon

On the Inexhaustibility of the British

Coal Mines. an average; and a chaldron of coals produces sixty pounds of pitch, and From Thomson's Journal for December. thirty-two pounds of essential oil. To form an idea, says Dr Thomson, The quantity of asphaltum from one of the quantity of coal contained in chaldron of coals is from twenty-eight the Newcastle coal formation alone, to thirty-two pounds, and of ammoni- let us suppose it to extend in length acal liquor one hundred and eighty from north to south 23 miles, and pounds.

that its average breadth is eight miles. It is determined by observation, This makes a surface amounting to rathat the mean annual quantity of rain ther more than 180 square miles, or is greatest at the equator, and de- 557,568,000 square yards.

The utcreases gradually as we approach the

most thicknes of all the beds of coal poles. Thus at

put together does not exceed 44 feet; Granada 12° N. lat. 126 inches. but there are 11 beds not workable, Cape François 19° 46

120

the thickness of each amounting only Calcutta 22 23 81

to a few inches. If they be deducted, Rome 41 54 39

the amount of the rest will be 36 feet, England 33 00 32

or 12 yards. Perhaps five of the other Petersburgh 59 16 16

beds likewise should be struck off, as The precipitate of gold has been they amount altogether only to 6 feet, extolled by some surgeons in France and therefore at present are not consias a specific for Syphilis. ' In the dered as worth working; the remainder most desperate cases, half a grain, ex will be 10 yards : so that the whole hibited twice a day, has, say they, coal in this formation amounts to completely eradicated the disease in 5,575,680,000, cubic yards. How four days. It does not disorder the much of this is already removed by stomach, and, instead of disturbing mining I do not know; but the Newthe general health, seems to improve castle colleries have been wrought for

so many years to an enormous extent, At Paris, on the 23d of October, that the quantity already mined mus a M. Malleville made two experi. be considerable. I conceive the quanments in the Seine with a diving bell, tity of coals exported yearly from this upon a new principle, having no com formation exceeds two millions of chalmunication with the external atmos. drons : for the county of Durham phere. He remained under water alone exports one one-third million

А

it.

A chaldron weighs 1.4 tons, so that compound substances which organic 2.8 millions of tons of coai are an bodies, stagnani waters, and all bodies nuaily raised in these counties out of while under decomposition, exhale this formation. Now a ton of coal is without ceasing, and which are lost very near one cubic yard; so that the in the air without our knowing any yearly loss from mining amounts to thing as to what they become. It is 2.8 millions, or (adding a third for therefore fair to inquire what are the Waste) to 3.7 millions of yards. Ac methods resorted to by nature to cording to this statement, the New- counterbalance this perpetual evaporacastle coals may be mined to the pre- tion, and to purify the atmosphere sent extent for 1500 years before they from all those volatilized substances ? be exhausted. But from this number In fact, it is probable that nature emwe must deduct the amount of the ploys other methods of purifying the years during which they have been air, though probably the organic boalready wrought. We need not be

We need not be dies are the most powerful to which afraid, then, of any sudden injury to she resorts. Such are the principal Great Britain from the exhaustion of proofs, or rather the most constant facts, the coal-mines. It is necessary to keep which render probable the hypothesis in mind likewise, that I have taken of aêrolites being formed in our atmosthe greatest thickness of the coal beds. phere." Now, as this thickness is far from uni Coloured snow, and a coloured hoar form, a considerable deduction ([ frost, took place at Arezzo, March should conceive one-third of the 1813. “ Pliny and Livy bave men*hole) must be made in order to ob- tioned showers of burnt bricks, and tain the medium thickness ; so that much ridicule has been thrown upon we may state, in round numbers, that them for it. During the evening, the this formation, at the present rate of ground being almost entirely covered Faste, will supply coal for 1000 with snow, there fell some snow or years; but its price will be continu. rather hail, not very compact, of a redally on the increase, on account of dish-yellow colour, which the people the continually increasing expence of improperly called red. Lightning was mining

visible during the night: the north wind M Marcel de Serres, who has writ, blew with considerable force at inten a history of the Fall of Stones tervals, and a dull uniform noise was from the clouds, printed in the late heard in the atmosphere, similar to numbers of the Philosophical Maga- to what is produced at a great diszine, concludes with the following tance from the sea by a tempest. The observations, exactly according with sky seemed to threaten snow, and those in our last number: The some persons thought it was variegacauses of these phenomena, in appear. ted with reddish-yellow clouds. It ance so remote, have nevertheless resulted, from various observations : some approximation : thus rain is no 1. That this snow or bail derived thing but the precipitation of the its colour from a very fine earthy subwater which is continually rising in- stance, interposed with uniformity beto the air ; and acrolites probably on tween the small crystals of the hail, ly depend on the precipitation of an without however being inclosed in infinity of substar.ces which are inces. their nucleus.-2. That this substance santiy evaporating, and the reaction is composed almost entirely of aluof which upon each other may form mine, very little corbonated lime, and dew combinations. This hypothesis a still less quantity of iron, manganese, will not appear gratuitous, if we pay and silex; finally, of a very feeble attention to the immense quantity of animal or vegetable principle, cap

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able of being carbonized by the action encouragement to home manufactures. of sulphuric acid and of putrefying The duty of 120 francs per quintal, water."

proposed by the projet of the law, appeared to the committee to be insufficient.

Portuguese Decree. COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE. By order of the royal council of Now French Tariff:

commerce, the following edict, bear

ing upon our commerce to all nations HE following are the most inter is made known :T esting articles in the new tariff

Most Excellent and most Reverpresented by the committee to the end Sir- The hostility between the chamber of deputies, and founded on belligerent powers having been hapthe principle, that goods imported by pily concluded by divine grace, unFrench ships should be subjected to der the most fortunate circumstances less duty than those imported in fo- to the allied forces armed against reign bottoms :

France, and being enabled by the reCoffee from the French

storation of tranquillity to renew our colonics, imported by

ancient relations, which had been terFrench vessels, per me

minated by the calamities of war, bis trical quintal.............. 60 francs.

Royal Highness has been pleased to Foreign ditto,

..75

order that the ports of these kingdoms Raw sugar, of the French

should in future be open to cargoes colonies, imported in

from France, and from every other French ships, .............40 Foreign ditto.................60

power, which was under its authority,

dominion, or influence, and which Clayed sugar, of the French

may not be considered the enemy of colonies, imported in

Portugal, as heretofore : it being deFrench ships..............70

termined that such cargoes shall be Foreign ditto, .......95

received as those of friendly states, R finel Sugars Prohibited.

and that such facilities shall be af. Cocoa, of the French colo

forded to the conductors and agents as nies,... ........90

have been hitherto granted to nations Foreign ditto,

.95

in profound peace with this governChocolate, ......

....150

ment. And, reciprocally, the PortuTea, of every sort, per kil

guese vessels are permitted without logramme..... .........3

breach of law, to convey their ships Pepper,....

.SO cents. into the harbours of the said nations. Ditto, imported in foreign

I communicate the above to your bottoms,.....................85 Excellency, that you may acquaint the Cloves,per metrical quintal,..2 francs. government therewith, and that you Imported in foreign bottoms,.3 may cause it to be published in all the Cinnamon,.....

4

ports of these kingdoms. lo foreign bottoms, . ..6

" A DE A AZEVEDO. Bark of every kind, .......... 3

J. A. DAS NEVES. The committee did not accede to • Palace of Rio Janeiro, &c. the request of reducing the duties on " To the Patriarch of Lisbon, raw sugars from the French Antilles, Lisbon, October 11, 1814." even though their quality might be The following document extends inferior. The prohibition of refined the free trade which had been granted sugar was advised on the ground, to the European ports of Portugal, that it was necessary to give every

to all the harbours of the empire :

Royal

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