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kimself at the head of his countrymen, whose prize was to be the measureless plunder of this king and his temple. But the surrounding caciques must be first conquered ; and their daring and continued resistance cost long hostilities. Still, the Spaniards advanced ; and even from their encounters with the natives, they derived new stimulants for their frenzy of gold. An alliance with Comogre, a gallant mountain chiettain, at the head of three thousand warriors, gave them additional confidence. His son met the Spanish troops with a present of sixty slaves, and four thousand pieces of gold. A picturesque incident now occurred. Balboa, after deducting the fifth of the treasure for the King, ordered the rest to be weighed and distributed among the troops. Some dissatisfaction arose, and swords were drawn. The young Indian looked on, first with astonishment, and then with scorn. Advancing to the scales, with a contemptuous smile, he threw them on the ground, exclaiming, • Is it for this trifle that Spaniards quarrel? If you care for gold, go seek it where it grows. I can show you a land where you may gather it by handfuls.

This intelligence brought all the Spaniards round him, and he proceeded to detail his knowledge.

' A cacique, very rich in gold,' said he, lies to the south, six suns off.' He pointed in the direction. There,' said he, you will find the

But there you will find ships as large as your own, with sails and oars.'

If this announcement made the Spaniards pause, his next must have kindled them into all their original flame.

• The men of these lands,' said he, are so rich, that their common eating and drinking vessels are of gold.'

This was their first knowledge of Peru!

The time was now come, when the second great discovery of the Western World was to be made. Balboa, formally appointed governor of the Darien, determined to ascertain for himself and the world the wonders that lay beyond the mountains. He rapidly collected a hundred and ninety Spanish soldiers, a thousand Indians, and with some bloodhounds, which were deemed a necessary part of an Indian enterprise, and which sometimes proved a formidable one to the unfortunate patives, he marched into the wilderness.

The Indian tribes were instantly roused ; and the Spaniards had scarcely reached the foot of the Sierra, when they found their warriors, headed by their caciques, drawn up in a little army. The Indians, like the ancient Greeks, first defied the enemy by loud reproaches and expressions of scorn. They then commenced the engagement. Torecha, their king, who, if the Indians had found a bard or historian, might have been a Hector or a Leonidas, stood forth in front of his people, clothed in a regal mantle, and gave the word of attack. The Indians rushed on with shouts ; but the Spanish crossbows and muskets were terrible weapons to their naked courage. The Indians were met by a shower of shafts and balls, which threw them into confusion. They saw before them the bearers of what to their conceptions were the thunder and lightning, followed by a more certain and sweeping death than was ever inflicted by those weapons of angry Ileaven. Their heroic king, and six hundred of their warriors, were soon left dead on the spot; and over their bodies Balboa marched to the plunder of their city.

Balboa now commencel the ascent of the mountains. The distance

from sea to sea is, at its extreme width, but eighteen leagues, and, at its narrowest, but seven. The distance to the Pacific from Careta, the commencement of their march, is but six days' journey ; but with them it cost twenty days. The great mountain chain, which forms the spine of the New World from north to south, composes the Isthmus; and the march of the Spaniards was impeded by all the difficulties of a mountainous region, in a burning and unhealthy climate, and in a soil overgrown with the wild and undisturbed vegetation of ages. But the moment that was to repay, and more than repay, all these fatigues, was at hand. Of all the strong and absorbing pleasures of the human mind, there is none equal to the pleasure of new knowledge. Discovery, in whatever form of science, fills the mind with something more pearly approaching to an ecstasy, than any other delight ofwhich our nature is capable. The sudden opening of these portals, which have hitherto hopelessly excluded us from the peculiar knowledge that we longed to possess—the vast region of inquiry, feeling, fame, and truth, that often seems to be given for our especial dominion by a single fortunate stepthe new and brilliant light that flashes over the whole spirit of man, in the sudden seizure of one of those great principles which are the key to knowledge, all together make a combination of high and vivid impulses, unrivalled in the history of human enjoyment. Philosophers and kings might envy the feelings of Balboa, when, after toiling through forests that seemed interminable, his Indian guides, the Quarequonos, pointed out to him, among the misty summits of the hills before him, the one from which the object of all his toils, the Pacific, was visible. Balboa proudly reserved the honor of this magnificent discovery for himself. He commanded his troops to halt at the foot of the hill. He ascended alone, with his sword drawn, like a conqueror takng possession of acitadel, won after some arduous siege; and, having reached the summit, cast his eyes around. The Pacific spread out before him.

The fierce religion of the Spaniards mingled in all the transactions of the time, and they were superstitious in the midst of massacre. But the view which now opened on the heroic discoverer's eyes--the multitude of visions and aspirations of grandeur, dominion, and honor, called up with that view—the sight of these waves, which led to realms richer than all that the Old World had dreamed of wealth, and teeming with strange and splendid products of every kingdom of nature-the waves, on whose borders lay Mexico and Peru almost at his feet, on whose remoter shores lav China and Hindostan, countries which nature and fable had alike delighted to fill with wonders, the sents of mysteries, of wealth, religion, kingly state, and fantastic, yet high-toned superstitionall justified the influence of a noble feeling, the gratitude of a heart astonished and overwhelmed by his high fortunes. Balboa fell on his knces, and weeping, offered his thanksgiving to Heaven, for the bounty that had suttered him to see this glorious sight. His troops had watched his ascent of the mountain with the eagerness of men who felt their fates bound up in his success, but when they saw his gestures of delight and wonder, followed by his falling on his knees, and prayers, they became incapable of all restraint ; they rushed up the hill, exultingly, saw the matchless prospect for the nselves, and, sharing the spirit of their leader, offered their thanksgivings along with him. Balboa’s address to the troops was worthy of his vigorous mind; brief, bold, and powerful, it touched upon all the true points of excitement, and was the sounding of the trumpet to those victories which were

yet to transfer the wealth of Mexico and Peru into the hands of his country.

Castilians,' exclaimed he,' there lies the object of all your desires, and the reward of all your labors. There roll the waves of that ocean of wbich you have so long heard, and which enclose the incalculable wealth that has so long been promised to you. You are the first who have reached these shores, and looked upon these waves.

Yours alone, then, are the treasures; yours alone the glory of bringing these immense and untravelled dominions under the authority of our king, and to the light of our holy religion. Onward, then, and the world will not see your equals in wealth and in glory!:

This stately ceremonial was not yet at an end. A great tree was cut down upon the spot, stripped of its branches, formed into a cross, and fixed on the sunimit of the inountaio, in sign of the faith of Spain.

But the coast was still to be reached. Balboa fought a battle with the Indian chief who defended the lower passes of the Cordillera, defeated him, and at last stood upon the shore of the ocean. On the rising of the tiile, the Spanish leader, in complete armor, with his unsheathed sword in one hand, and a banner in the other, on which was painted the Virgin, with the armes of Castile at her feet, marched into the surges, crying out, ' Long live the high and mighty sovereigns of Castile! In their names I take possession of these seas and regions; and if any other prince, whether Christian or Infidel, pretend any right to them, I am ready and resolved to oppose him, and assert the just claims of my sovereigns.'

Balboa had still one brilliant moment of life to come, the reception by his countrymen. On the 19th of January, 1514, he reached his colony of Darien ; his expedition had occupied four months and a half; bis triumph was complete. The whole population poured down to the shore to meet him, to hail him as the honor of the Spanish name, as the author of their fortunes, as less a man than a gift of Heaven, to guide them into the possession of glories and riches incalculable. All the titles of Spanish admiration were lavished on the hero, and a popular homage, never more nobly employed, proclaimed him Conqueror of the Mountains, Pacificator of the Isthmus, and Discover of the Austral Ocean; not, like other warriors of the Old World or the New, the vanquisher of men, but the conqueror of nature.

It is but justice to this celebrated man, to acknowledge that he exhibited himself worthy of his splendid popularity. Success only invigorated his high natural qualities; prosperity never made him arrogant, power tyrannical, nor wealth avaricious. He was singularly respected by his people, and beloved by the Indians, during his whole career. Long after its close, it was said of him, that in conciliating the general esteem, 'no Captain of the Indies had ever done better than Vasco Nunez.'

But the jealousy of the court of Spain, at all times the most incapable of governing by the generous qualities of power, soon marked Balboa for its vengeance. His virtues and talents were bis accusers. His authority was now superseded by the arrival of Pedrarias, a man of singular craft and cruelty. Whether his indignation at this insult was his crime, or the determination of the Court to ruin him drove him into treason, is still doubtful. But after a long train of angry remonstrance on his side, and sullen artifice on that of the new governor, in the course of which Pedrarias even gave him his daughter, Balboa, with some of his principal friends, was beheaded as a traitor, and usurper of the dominions of the Crown.' He died at forty-two. His country, with the usual tardiness of public gratitude, did him honor when it was too late, and Spain has ever since reckoned him among the most memorable of those memorable men who gave her a new world.

LETTER FROM PARIS, BY HENRY PELHAM, ESQ. You ask me, my dear to tell you something of our dear Paris. Very well—anything to oblige you—even to the writing a letter. Having had a great desire to visit those scenes in which I once played so notable a part, I landed at Calais about six weeks ago. Being, as you know, of a very conjugal turn of mind, and wishing to save my dear wise the fatigue of a journey undertaken only for amusement, I very considerately left Mrs. Pelham at home. I transported myself from Calais to Boulogne,-a very charming place, filled by persons of distinction, who live chietly upon the interest of the debts they owe to other people. The men have established a singular sort of freemasonry in costume at this town,—to wit, a cap and moustaches,—a white fustian coat and a black velvet waistcoat;-ornaments,-chain, walking-stick, and cigar. Another set, chiefly literati, wear little blue jackets without skirts,—the trowsers very tight in the quartier de Liston; probably these gentlemen, being scholars, retain the immemorial system of our friend Dr. Keates,—that there is an affinity between the two human extremes, and a sympathetic electricity communicating from the seat of honor to that of learning. It is pleasant to sec early impressions thus practically displayed in the habits of later life.

I was informed at the library that some malicious papers in your periodical, entitled • Asmodeus at large,' had been very severe on the good people of Boulogne,-and that there had been a violent dispute whether or not the New Monthly should not, therefore, be excluded the reading room-a proposition somewhat after the ingenious device of the bird that shuts its eyes that it may not be seen. To banish the New Monthly from the reading-room at Boulogne, would of necessity prevent its being read by the rest of the world.

I entered Paris at the most fortunate hour in the whole day for the end of a journey,-viz. about half an hour before dinner-time. I paid a visit to the Bains Chinois—and thence took a solitary excursion to the Rocher!Quantum mutatus ab illo Rochero !-Ah! my dear friend, the d-d revolution has not even spared that consecrated spot. These modern commotions are terribly devastating-even Demetrius made no war on the Fine Arts.He spared Protogenes:—the glorious three days have been less merciful to the Chef of the Rocher. You remember the escallopes de gammon,-you remember the laitances de carpes,-you forget not, I am sure, the exquisite rôli of Chevreuil. Fancy the first smoked, the second sour, the third having a slight resemblance to broiled leather.

• Mon brave homme!' said I to the garçon, tearfully, 'things are very much changed since I was at Paris.'

• Monsieur is very right.'
• Your cook has been a great sufferer.'

6

“There are so few English, sir!'

What, you were in the habit of roasting them, were you?'

• Point d'argent, point de cuisine!-- but,' continued the garçon, with that stupid vein of philosophy the French are so fond of,—but Monsieur's palate is five years older than it was.'

• And the brown cat ?'—said I, changing a subject capable of producing such uncivil observations, I see hiin not.'

“Ah, sir, he has been poisoned.'

"Oh, le cher chat! le chat du bon goût!-doubtless he took some of these laitances by mistake!'

But, seriously and sadly-fancy the brown cat dead !--there expired the genius loci. What the Oread was to the mountain—the Naiad to the wave-the Brown Cat was to the Rocher,—and he is dead! In these matter of fact times, there is no spot which can retain the spirit of its ancient poetry! As I could not, like honest Syrus, look in the patinas' for pleasurable observation, I turned from the dead to the living:

A stout genileman had just brought his son, a tall youth, to Paris. “Bob, said he, 'they say this be the best place in the world for grub. Let's have the carte!'

• Now, damn it, Bob,' quoth he, hitting the table a thump that woke the saltcellar from that patent reverie peculiar to the saltcellars of France, "We'll try these French fellows-Garçon, a beefsteak,—a perdrix avec du pain sauce-et-et-plusieurs pommes de terre tres bien bouillis.'

After all, the gentleman showed his judgment. He did not, like Diderot, try mortality by too severe a standard. We three were alone. The stout gentleman was disposed to be sociable.

•I see, sir,' said he, turning to me, that you know this place.' • It is certainly among my acquaintance!'

. And pray, sir, may I make bold to ask what are the dishes you most recommend

*Why, sir,-for something substantial-grenouilles aux poulet-and a saute de limacons.'

La, father,' qucth the youth, grinning, the gentleman jests—that means frogs and snails.'

• You are quite right, sir,-frogs and snails—they form an agreeable contrast to our light English fare!'

The old gentleman looked at me very suspiciously, but I was gravity itself. “In fact, sir,' continued I, wishing to give the gentleman an appetite for his pommes de terre, which I saw at that moment arriving, they generally boil a few snails with the potatoes, in order to give them a flavor.'

I did not wait to see the effect I had produced—the benevolent man loves not to witness painful emotions-accordingly I sauntered out of the room, and left my countrymen to their gastronomic experiments.

But the change in the Rocher is not that trifling occurrence which it would seem to the inconsiderate-when her restaurateurs grow careless, the posterity of Paris trembles. The moment money is plentiful in France -the moment the négociant—the tradesman-the workman gets something to spare—he considers it as something to enjoy, not something to save. He treats his family to a dinner at a celebrated restaurants—or a trip to Tivoli—or a play at the Théâtre des Variétiés. And thus the condition of all places of entertainment-restaurateurs among the many

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