Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature Measurements: Cryostat Design, Material Properties and Superconductor Critical-Current Testing

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OUP Oxford, 2006/10/12 - 673 ページ
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This book presents a highly integrated, step-by-step approach to the design and construction of low-temperature measurement apparatus. It is effectively two books in one: A textbook on cryostat design techniques and an appendix data handbook that provides materials-property data for carrying out that design. The main text encompasses a wide range of information, written for specialists, without leaving beginning students behind. After summarizing cooling methods, Part I provides core information in an accessible style on techniques for cryostat design and fabrication - including heat-transfer design, selection of materials, construction, wiring, and thermometry, accompanied by many graphs, data, and clear examples. Part II gives a practical user's perspective of sample mounting techniques and contact technology. Part III applies the information from Parts I and II to the measurement and analysis of superconductor critical currents, including in-depth measurement techniques and the latest developments in data analysis and scaling theory. The appendix is a ready reference handbook for cryostat design, encompassing seventy tables compiled from the contributions of experts and over fifty years of literature.
 

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目次

CRYOSTAT DESIGN AND MATERIALS SELECTION
1
Introduction to Measurement Cryostats and Cooling Methods
3
12 Cryogenic liquids
6
13 Introduction to measurement cryostats
14
14 Examples of measurement cryostats and cooling methodslow transport current 1A
18
15 Examples of measurement cryostats and cooling methodshigh transport current 1A
30
safety and cryogen handling
37
17 References
45
reference compendium of cryogenicthermometer properties and application techniques
214
56 References
223
Properties of Solids at Low Temperatures
226
61 Specific heat and thermal diffusivity
227
62 Thermal expansioncontraction
233
63 Electrical resistivity
240
64 Thermal conductivity
248
65 Magnetic susceptibility
252

Heat Transfer at Cryogenic Temperatures
49
22 Heat conduction through solids
50
23 Heat conduction through gases and liquids
52
24 Radiative heat transfer
55
25 Heat conduction across liquidsolid interfaces
59
26 Heat conduction across solidsolid interfaces
62
27 Heat conduction across solidgas interfaces
67
28 Other heat sources
69
29 Examples of heattransfer calculation
72
210 References
82
Cryostat Construction
87
32 Material selection for cryostat parts
88
33 Joining techniques
98
34 Construction example for a basic dipper probe
109
35 Sizing of parts for mechanical strength
113
36 Mechanical motion at cryogenic temperature
120
37 Vacuum techniques and seals for cryogenic use
122
high and ultrahigh vacuum techniques
131
39 References
146
Wiring and Connections
150
42 Wire selection
154
43 Insulation selection
157
45 Solder connections
161
techniques for minimizing thermoelectric voltages
163
47 Vacuum electrical leadthroughs
166
48 Radiofrequency coaxial cables
172
49 Highcurrent leads
174
410 Flexible current leads
181
411 References
182
Temperature Measurement and Control
185
51 Thermometer selection 1300 K
186
52 Selection of thermometers for use in high magnetic fields
198
53 Thermometer installation and measurement procedures
202
54 Controlling temperature
210
66 Mechanical properties
255
67 References
265
ELECTRICAL TRANSPORT MEASUREMENTS SAMPLE HOLDERS AND CONTACTS
271
Sample Holders
273
72 Fourlead and twolead electrical transport measurements
274
73 Bulk sample holders
276
74 Thinfilm sample holders
301
75 Addenda
312
76 References
315
Sample Contacts
317
82 Definition of specific contact resistivity and values for practical applications
318
83 Contact techniques for highcurrent superconductors
320
84 Contact techniques for film superconductors
333
85 Example calculations of minimum contact area
341
86 Spreadingresistance effect in thin contact pads and example calculations
346
87 References
349
SUPERCONDUCTOR CRITICALCURRENT MEASUREMENTS AND DATA ANALYSIS
351
CriticalCurrent Measurements
353
92 Instrumentation
361
93 Measurement procedures
366
94 Examples of criticalcurrent measurement cryostats
377
95 References
392
CriticalCurrent Data Analysis
395
101 Practical criticalcurrent definitions
396
102 Currenttransfer correction
404
103 Magneticfield dependence of critical current
408
104 Temperature dependence of critical current
424
105 Straininduced changes in the critical current
432
106 Transformation method for simplified application of scaling relations
456
107 Unified strainandtemperature scaling law and transformations
464
108 References
485
Data handbook of material properties and cryostat design
491
INDEX
627
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著者について (2006)


Jack Ekin
NIST
Div. 818.03
325 Broadway St.
Boulder, CO 80305, USA
Jack Ekin is a Research Physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, where his contributions have spanned a wide range of topics in low-temperature physics, including studies of fundamental conduction processes in normal metals, electro-mechanical properties of both high- and low-Tc superconductors, and interface conduction in thin films and nanostructures. He completed a B.S. degree at the University of Michigan, conducted his early graduate work in physics at the University of Heidelberg as a Fulbright Scholar, and received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Cornell University. Currently, he also holds an appointment as Lecturer at the University of Colorado. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has published over 150 cryogenic research articles, textbook chapters, and patents, and has lectured and consulted internationally in the field of low-temperature measurements.

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