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HISTORY OF EUROPE

FROM THE

FALL OF NAPOLEON

IN MDCCCXV

TO THE

ACCESSION OF LOUIS NAPOLEON

IN MDCCCLII

BY

SIR ARCHIBALD ALISON, BART., D. C. L.

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CONTENTS OF VOL. III.

CHAPTER XXVII.

munication to the Diet.-Change in the public

Mind in Germany toward material Objects.-
CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF GERMANY, FROM Refusal of the Diet to restore the Constitution of
THE TERMINATION OF THE WAR OF LIBERA-

Hanover.-Dispute between the Prússian Gov-
TION IN 1814 TO THE GREAT CONVULSIONS OF

ernment and the Pope regarding the Archbishop
1818.

of Cologne.-Immense Sensation excited by this
Peace necessary to Germany after the Efforts of Event. -Wise internal Regulations of the Prus.

the War.-Extreme Moderation of the German sian Government.--Amnesty on the 300th An-
Demands on the Peace.-Dangers to German niversary of the Reformation, and Treaty of Rec-
Independence on the Dissolution of the Empire. iprocity with Holland.-Death of the King of
-Sage Constitution and immense Strength of Prussia, and Revival of the Question of the Con-
the German Confederacy.-Military Forces of stitution.-Answer of the King-Adiustment
the Confederacy.-External and internal Peace, of the Dispute with the See of Rome.--Opening
and great Prosperity this has secured to Germa of the provincial Estates, and great Excitement
ny. Great Material Prosperity of the Country: with which it was attended.-Extension of the
its Statistics,-Splendor of its Capitals and chief Zollverein, and increasing intellectual Strength
Cities. - Universal Education of the People. of Prussia.—Vast System of Railways in North-
Anomalous Result of Education on Crime. ern Germany.-Inanguration of the Cathedral
Statistics of Education and Crime in Austria. of Cologne, and King's Speech at it.-Meeting
Seeds of Discontent arising out of this very Pros of the general Estates at Berlin.--Secret Views
perity. - Manner in which this was brought of the Government in this step. - Progress of
about.-Universal Expectation of liberal Insti constitutional Ideas in 1843.–Progress of 1844.
tutions which prevailed in Germany after the -Important Religious Movement in Germany in
Peace.-Evidence from Public Acts of the Prom 1845.-Constitutional Progress during the Year
ise to give Germany Constitutional Government. 1845. — The Year 1846 and its constitutional
- Delay in performing these Promises on the Struggles.-- Increased Demand for Reform.-
part of the German Governments.—States estab Progress in 1847, and Convocation of a general
lished in Hanover, Würtemberg, and Baden, but Diet.- Opening of the States-General of Prus-
not in Prussia.--Tardy Promises of the Prussian sia, and King's Speech.-Extraordinary politi-
Government.-Important Resolution of the Diet cal Situation of Germany.-Effect of the Revo-
regarding the internal Affairs of the Confedera lutionary War on the two Parties which divided
tion.-Great Effect of these Provisions.-Effect it, and in increasing the Passion for Freedom.-
of the Spanish and Italian Revolutions of 1819 Great Effect of general Education in increasing
and 1820 on Germany.--Resolution of the Diet on this Desire.-Great Difficulties arising from the
the Propositions of Austria.-Supreme Austregal Want of foreign commercial Colonies.-Causes
Court. -Assassination of Kotzebue.-Execution which held Germany together: Constitution of
of Sand, and immense Sensation it created. - the Diet, the Federal Union.--Effect of the Pre-
Consequences of this Event highly injurious to ponderance of Catholics in the Confederacy.--
Freedom.-Circular of the Cabinet of Berlin. The Army is the Expression of general Opinion.
Reflections on this Picture of Germany.-Circu -Influence of Russia on Prussia and the lesser
lar of Metternich detailing the Effect of the re States.-Influence of the Want of Employment
pressive Measures.-Circular of Metternich on in forcing Men to become Government Em-
the Neapolitan Revolution.--Final Act of Con ployés.-Disastrous Effects in Germany of the
federation.-Effect of this Final Act on German Revolutions of 1820 and 1830.--Counteracting
Liberty.-Illusory Edict of Prussia regarding Influence of these Causes.-The Triumph of the
provincial Diets.-Refusal of the Diet to sanc Conservatives left the Seeds of Revolution in all
tion the Demand of Holstein for a Constitution. the European States.-Influence of these Causes
-Import of the Constitution of the provincial on German Literature.-Advantages of the Ger-
Estates of Prussia by the Edict of June 5, 1823. man Confederacy to the Peace of Europe.-E-
-Count Bernstorff's Circular on the subject. fect of the German Confederacy on domestic
Regulations against the secret Societies in Prus Peace and the Progress of Freedom.--What of a
sia. -The real Worth of the provincial Estates. federal Union for the Interests of Mankind ?-
Causes which prevented an Outbreak.-Wisdom What may be hoped for federal Unions in future.
of the internal Government of Prussia.-Specific --Causes which shipwrecked German Liberty.
Measures introduced. - The ultimate Effect of
these Changes would have favored Freedom.-

CHAPTER XXVIII.
Great Effect of the French Revolution in check-

LITERATURE OF GERMANY IN THE FIRST HALF
ing German Freedom.- Increase of this Feeling
with the Belgian and Polish Revolutions.-El-

OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
fect of the Siege of Antwerp in 1832.-Stringent Great Importance of the German Literature in the
Measures of the Diet against the Press.-Decree early part of the nineteenth Century.-Litera-
of July 5 of the Diet.- Immense Sensation pro ture is thus the Index to general Opinion.-
duced by these Decrees over Europe. Riot in Cause of its romantic Character in Germany.-
Frankfort, and its Occupation by the Austrians. Dawn of German Literature. – Causes of the
-Congress of Sovereigns at Münchengratz. Backwardness of its Literature. - Science and
Fresh Riot at Frankfort, which is put under Mar Learning in Germany before the middle of the
tial Law.-Decrees of 1835 in the Diet.Death eighteenth Century.—Lessing and Winkelman.
of the Emperor Francis, and his Successor's Com-! -Wieland.-His Defects and Excellences. -

Goethe.-"Faust." —His marvelous Contradic-1 Extravagance of the Civil List.-Great Increase
tions.-His moral and religious Deficiencies. of the general Expenditure.-Conspiracy of No-
- His prodigious Versatility. — His Versatility tre Dame and the Rue Prouvaires. —Conspiracy
has rendered him rather universally popular at Grenoble.-Expedition to Ancona resolved on,
than supremely great.-Goethe's Picture of the and its Reasons. State of Affairs in Italy.-Dis-
Influence of the Stage.-Schiller: parallel be turbances in Romagna, and Austrian Interfer-
tween him and Goethe.-Character of his Dra ence.--Intervention of the Austrians, and their
mas.-His Powers of the Pathetic and of Rheto Entry into Bologna.-Occupation of Ancona.-
ric.-His Merits as a lyric Poet: as a Historian. Effects of this Stroke in Italy and Europe.-First
-Klopstock. “The Messiah.”—His Merits as Appearance of the Cholera in Paris. — Its ex-
a lyric Poet.-Oehlenschlager.-His elevated traordinary and unlooked-for Symptoms.-Un-
Picture of Love. — Grillparzer. - Kotzebue, - certainty in its Mode of Treatment.-Commis-
Werner. - German Comedy: its Defects. – sions in Paris on the subject. --Real Ravages of
Causes of these Defects: Structure of its Socie the Epidemic. -Noble Instances of Fortitude
ty. - Tieck. --Körner. - Körner as a dramatic and Benevolence.-Death of Casimir Périer and
Poet.-Burger.-Freiligrath.-Uhland.-Ruck Cuvier.-Character of Casimir Périer.-Attempt
hårt.-Redwitz.--Kinkel.-Prose of Germany: of the Duchess de Berri to raise the West.--The
its Character. The Youth of their Literature is Duchess de Berri determines on an Effort in
the Cause of this.-Causes of this Defect.—Nie France, and repairs to Massa. -She leaves Mas-
buhr. — Heeren. - Müller. - Von Hammer, - sa, and makes a Descent on France.-Landing
Herder.-Schlosser.-Ranke.-Schlegel.-Mili of the Princess.--Abortive Rising at Marseilles.
tary Historians: the Archduke Charles, Clause - The Duchess resolves to cross France to La
witz. - German Memoir - writers : Bartholdy, Vendée. She escapes into La Vendée.—Disqui-
Varnhagen von Ense, and Baron Stein.-German etude, and Measures of the Royalists at these
Autobiographies. — Autobiography of Goethe, Events. —Vain Attempt at an Insurrection,
Oehlenschlager, and Andersen. — Romances in The Princess resolves on a Rising, which proves
Germany: their general Character.—The philo abortive.-Incidents of the civil War.-Adven-
sophic Novelists. — Countess Hahn-Hahn. - tures of the Duchess de Berri, and Extinction of
Haklander.-Andersen.-Jean Paul Richter. the Insurrection.—The Princess'takes refuge in
Philosophic School of Germany.-Kant.—Fichte Nantes, when she is at length discovered.--
and Schelling.-Frederick Schlegel.-Jacobi. Treachery of Deutz toward the Princess.-Her
Religious Character of Germany: its Origin. Arrest.--Her Imprisonment in the Chateau of
Reaction against these Doctrines : Rationalism. Blaye. — Extreme Discontent and Democratic
-Strauss's Life of Jesus Christ. The Alarm Movement in Paris. — Death of General La-
thence arising is unfounded. - Reflections on marque.-His Funeral, and Commencement of
German Literature.-General Character of Ger. the Insurrection.-Preparations of the Govern-
man Literature.--Its romantic and sentimental ment.--Commencement of the Insurrection.--
Character. Object of the Fine Arts in Germa The Insurrection breaks out.–Vigorous Meas-
ny. - Thorwaldsen. – Danneker and Kiss. — ures on the part of the Government.--Mysteri.
Painting in Germany.-Its romantic Character. ous Meeting at Lafitte's at Night. --Progress and
- German Architecture. — General Passion for alarming Aspect of the Insurrection. — Moral
Music in Germany. - Beethoven. — Mozart. — Chances on either side.-Measures and Forces
Haydn.- Handel. - Mendelssohn.-Spohr and of the Government.-Marshal Soult's military
Glück.-Reflections on the Influence of recent Measures.-Great Successes of the Insurgents,
Disasters on the German Mind.

and Consternation of the Military Chiefs. —

Forces on both sides, and Theatre of the Com-
CHAPTER XXIX.

bat. Successes of the Troops.-Storming of the

Cloister of St. Méri.—The king rides along the
FRANCE FROM THE EXTINCTION OF THE HERED-

Boulevards: Results of the Conflict.-Deputa-
ITARY PEERAGE IN DECEMBER, 1831, TO THE

tion of the Chamber to the King.--Answer of
ESTABLISHMENT OF MILITARY GOVERNMENT

the King, and Paris declared in a State of Siege.
BY THE SUPPRESSION OF THE REVOLT IN THE

-Resistance to the State of Siege, and legal De-
CLOISTER OF ST. MERI IN JUNE, 1832, AND THE

cision on its Effect. --Arrest of MM. de Chateau-
TREATY WITH HOLLAND IN MAY, 1833.

briand, Fitzjames, Hyde de Neuville, and Ber-

ryer.-Proceedings of the Courts-Martial.- War
Great Increase of the Power of the Crown from to the Knife with the Press.-Increased Consid-

these Changes.-Social Dangers of the Govern. eration of the French Government by the Sup-
ment of France.-Louis Blanc's Picture of the pression of the Revolt.-Improved Condition of
Working Classes in France at this Period.-

the Country and the Revenue. — Marriage of
Miserable Condition of the Working Classes. Leopold, King of Belgium, to the Princess Louise
Wretchedness of the Working Classes, and their of France. Changes in the Ministry, and new
consequent Profligacy:-The Revolution was not Creation of Peers. Preparations for a War with
the Cause of these Evils, but it aggravated them.

Holland by England and France.-Convention
--Commencement of the Lyons Insurrection, between France and England for Cession of Ant-
and Condition of the Workmen there.-Absurd werp to Belgium.-Negotiations on the Subject.
Measures of the Governor and Prefect for fixing -Want of Preparations in England, and great
a Tariff. – Progress of the Strife between the Preparations for War in France.-Preparations
Masters and Work men,Commencement of the

of England and France for the Siege of Antwerp.
Insurrection. - The Insurrection spreads, and -Description of the Citadel of Antwerp.-Com-
proves successful. — Half the National Guard mencement of the Siege.-Progress of the Siege,
join the Insurgents, who make the Prefect Pris and Capture of the Lunette St. Laurent.--Gal-
oner.-Desperate Strife in the Streets of Lyons. lant Defense, and Fall of the Citadel.-Reflec-
-Extreme Alarm at Paris, and vigorous Meas tions on this Siege. Effect of this Success in
ures of the Government.-Extraordinary State France and England. --Causes which forced the
of Lyons after the Revolt.-Arrival of Marshal Continental Powers to remain quiet.--Treaty
Soust and the Duke of Orleans, and Submission of May 19, 1833, between Holland and Belgium.
of Lyons.-False Views on this Insurrection gen --Abandonment of the Barrier Treaty.-Great
erally entertained in France.-Renewed Efforts Addition to the Power of France by these.
of the Republicans. Armand Carrel.-Garnier Events, and of Russia.-Influence on England's
Pagès : his Character.-Strength of the Repub Power. Vindication of Polignac's Coup d'état
lican Press, and Extravagance of the Court.- by subsequent Events,

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