sought his ruine. He expresst an earnest desire to restore the people's liberties, and to take and pursue more safe and sober councells, and wound up all with a very fair courtship of the collonell to engage with him, offering him any thing he would account worthy of him. The collonell told him, he could not be forward to make his owne advantage, by serving to the enslaving of his country. The other told him, he intended nothing more then the restoring and confirming the liberties of the good people, in order to which he would employ such men of honor and interest as the people should rejoyce, and he should not refuse to be one of them. And after, with all his arts, he had endeavour'd to excuse his publique actions, and to draw in the collonell, he dismist him with such expressions as were publickely taken notice of by all his little courtiers then about him; when he went to the end of the gallery with the collonell, and there, embracing him, sayd allowd to him, Well, collonell, satisfied or dissatisfied, you shall be one of us, for wee can no longer exempt a person so able and faithfull from the publique service, and you shall be satisfied in all honest things.' The collonell left him with that respect that became the place he was in; when of them past him by without knowing him when immediately the same courtiers, who had some he came in, although they had bene once of his familiar acquaintance; and the rest, who had look'd upon him with such disdainfull neglect as those liitle people use to those who are not of their faction, now flockt about him, striving who should officiousnesse, redeeme their late slightings. Some expresse most respect, and, by an extraordinary of them desir'd he would command their service in any businesse he had with their lord, and a thousand such frivolous compliments, which the collonell smiled att, and, quitting himselfe of them as soone There he had not long bene but that he was inas he could, made haste to returne into the country. form'd, notwithstanding all these faire shewes, the protector, finding him too constant to be wrought


After Collonell Hutchinson had given Fleet-upon to serve his tirannie, had resolv'd to secure his person, least he should head the people, who wood that caution, he was going into the country, when the protector sent to search him out with all now grew very weary of his bondage. But though the earnestnesse and haste that could possibly be, he was afraid of his honesty and freedome, and it was certainly confirm'd to the collonell how much and the collonell went to him; who mett him in one that he was resolv'd not to let him longer be att of the galleries, and receiv'd him with open armes liberty, yet, before his guards apprehended the and the kindest embraces that could be given, and collonell, death imprison'd himselfe, and confin'd complain'd that the collonell should be so unkind as never to give him a visitt, professing how well- all his vast ambition, and all his cruell designes into come he should have bene, the most wellcome the narrow compasse of a grave."-pp. 340-342. person in the land; and with these smooth insinuations led him allong to a private place, giving him thankes for the advertisement he had receiv'd from Fleetwood, and using all his art to gett out of the collonell the knowledge of the persons engag'd in the conspiracy against him. But none of his cunning, nor promises, nor flatteries, could prevaile with the collonell to informe him more than he thought necessary to prevent the execution of the designe; which when the protector perceiv'd, he gave him most infinite thankes for what he had told him, and acknowledg'd it open'd to him some misteries that had perplext him, and agreed so with other intelligence he had, that he must owe his preservation to him: 'But,' says he, deare collonell, why will not you come in and act among us?' The collonell told him plainly, because he liked not any of his wayes since he broke the parliament, as being those which led to certeine and unavoydable destruction, not only of themselves, but of the whole parliament party and cause, and thereupon tooke occasion, with his usuall freedom, to tell him into what a sad hazard all things were put, and how apparent a way was made for the restitution of all former tyranny and bondage. Cromwell seem'd to receive this honest plainnesse with the greatest affection that could be, and acknowledg'd his precipiratenesse in some things, and with teares complained how Lambert had put him upon all those violent actions, for which he now accus'd him and

"When he came to Nottingham, Coll. Hutchin- | son went to see him, whom he embrac'd with all the expressions of kindnesse that one friend could make to another, and then retiring with him, prest him to tell him what thoughts his friends, the levellers, had of him. The collonell, who was the freest man in the world from concealing truth from his friend, especially when it was requir'd of him in love and plainnesse, not only told him what others thought of him, but what he himselfe conceiv'd, and how much it would darken all his glories, if he should become a slave to his owne ambition, and be guilty of what he gave the world iust cause to suspect, and therefore begg'd of him to weare his heart in his face, and to scorne to delude his enemies, but to make use of his noble courage, to maintaine what he believ'd iust, against all greate oposers. Cromwell made mighty professions of a sincere heart to him, but it is certeine that for this and such like plaine dealing with him, he dreaded the collonell, and made it his particular businesse to keepe him out of the armie; but the collonell, never desiring command, to serve himselfe, but his country, would not use that art he detested in others, to procure himselfe any advan'age."-pp. 285-287.

An after scene is still more remarkable, and more characteristic of both the actors. After Cromwell had possessed himself of the sovereignty, Colonel Hutchinson came accidentally to the knowledge of a plot which had been laid for his assassination; and was moved, by the nobleness of his own nature, and his regard for the Protector's great qualities-though he had openly testified against his usurpation, and avoided his presence since the time of it-to give such warning of it to Fleetwood, as might enable him to escape that hazard, but at the same time without betraying the names of any of the conspirators.

Two other anecdotes, one very discreditable to Cromwell, the other affording a striking proof of his bravery and knowledge of mankind, may be found at p. 308. and 316. But we dismiss the subject of this "great bad man," with the following eloquent representation of his government after he had attained the height of his ambition;-a representation in which the keen regrets of disappointed patriotism are finely mingled with an indignant contempt for those who submitted to tyranny, and a generous admission of the talents and magnanimity of the tyrant.


In the interim Cromwell and his armie grew wanton with their power, and invented a thousand tricks of government, which, when nobody oppos'd, they themselves fell to dislike and vary every day. First he calls a parliament out of his owne pockett, himselfe naming a sort of godly men for every county, who meeting and not agreeing, a part of them, in the name of the people, give up the sovereignty to him. Shortly after, he makes up severall sorts of mock parliaments, but not finding one of them absolutely for his turne, turn'd them off againe. He soone quitted himselfe of his triumvirs, and first thrust out Harrison, then tooke away Lambert's commission, and would have bene king


but for feare of quitting his generallship. He weeded, in a few months time, above a hundred and fifty godly officers out of the armie, with whom many of the religious souldiers went off, and in their roome abundance of the king's dissolute souldiers were entertain'd, and the armie was almost chang'd from that godly religious armie, whose vallour God had crown'd with triumph, into the dissolute armie they had beaten, bearing yett a better name. wife and children too, were setting up for principality, which suited no better with any of thein than scarlett on the ape; only, to speak the truth of himselfe, he had much naturall greatnesse, and well became the place he had usurp'd. His daughter Fleetewood was humbled, and not exalted, with these things; but the rest were insolent fooles. Cleypoole, who married his daughter, and his son Henry, were two debauch'd ungodly cavaliers. Richard was a peasant in his nature; yet gentle and vertuous; but became not greatnesse. His court was full of sinne and vanity, and the more abominable, because they had not yett quite cast away the name of God, but prophan'd it by taking it in vaine upon them. True religion was now almost lost, even among the religious party, and hipocrisie became an epidemicall disease, to the sad griefe of Collonell Hutchinson, and all true-hearted Christians and Englishmen. Almost all the ministers every where fell in and worshipt this beast, and

courted and made addresses to him. So did the

city of London, and many of the degenerate lords of the land, with the poore spirited gentry. The cavaliers, in pollicy, who saw that while Cromwell reduc'd all the exercise of tirannicall power under another name, there was a doore open'd for the restoring of their party, fell much in with Cromwell, and heighten'd all his disorders. He at last ex

ercis'd such an arbitrary power, that the whole land grew weary of him, while he sett up a companie of silly meane fellows, call'd maior-generalls, as governors in every county. These rul'd, accord. ing to their wills, by no law but what seem'd good in their owne eies; imprisoning men, obstructing the course of iustice betweene man and man, perverting right through partiallity, acquitting some that were guilty, and punishing some that were innocent as guilty. Then he exercised another proiect to rayse mony, by decimation of the estates of all the king's party, of which actions 'tis said Lambert was the instigator. At last he tooke upon him to make lords and knights; and wanted not many fooles, both of the armie and gentry, to accept of and strutt in his mock titles. Then the Earle of Warwick's grandchild and the Lord Falconbridge married his two daughters; such pittifull slaves were the nobles of those dayes. Att last Lambert, perceiving himselfe to have bene all this while deluded with hopes and promises of succession, and seeing that Cromwell now intended to confirme the government in his own famely, fell off from him, but behav'd himselfe very pittifully and meanely, was turn'd out of all his places, and return'd againe to plott new vengeance at his house at Wimbledon, where he fell to dresse his flowers in his garden, and worke at the needle with his wife and his maides! while he was watching an oppertunity to serve againe his ambition, which had this difference from the protector's; the one was gallant and greate, the other had nothing but an unworthy pride, most insolent in prosperity, and as abiect and base in adversity."-p. 335–338.

In making these miscellaneous extracts, for the amusement of our readers, we are afraid that we have too far lost sight of the worthy colonel, for whose honour the whole record was designed; and though the biography of a private person, however eminent, is seldom of much consequence to the general reader, except where it illustrates the manners of the times, or connects with the public history of

the nation, there is something in this account of Colonel Hutchinson which appears to us deserving of notice with reference to both these particulars.

Soon after his marriage, he retired to his house at Owthorpe, where he took to the study of divinity; and having his attention roused massacres of Ireland, in 1641, set himself to the state of public affairs, by the dreadful diligently to read and consider all the disputes which were then begun between the King and Parliament; the result of which was, a steady conviction of the justice of the pretensions maintained by the latter, with a strong anxiety for the preservation of peace. His first achievement (we are sorry to say) was, to persuade the parson of his parish to deface the images, and break the painted glass in the windows of his church, in obedience to an injunction of the parliament; his next, to resist Lord Newark in an illegal attempt to carry off the ammunition belonging to the county, for the use of the King. His deportment upon this last occasion, when he was only twenty-five years of age, affords a very singular proof of temper and firmness, perfect good breeding, and great powers of reasoning.

When the King set up his standard at Nottingham, Mr. Hutchinson repaired to the camp of Essex, the parliamentary general; but "did not then find a clear call from the Lord to join with him." His irresolution, however, was speedily dissipated, by the persecutions of the Royalists, who made various efforts to seize him as a disaffected person. He accordingly began to consult with others in the same predicament: and having resolved to try to defend the town and castle of Nottingham against the assaults of the enemy, he was first elected governor by his associates, and afterwards had his nomination confirmed by Fairfax and by the Parliament. A great deal too much of the book is occupied with an account of the petty enterprises in which this little garrison was engaged; the various feuds and dissensions which arose among the different officers and the committees who were appointed as their council; the occasional desertion and treachery of various individuals, and the many contrivances, and sacrifices, and exertions by which Colonel Hutchinson was enabled to maintain his post till the final discomfiture of the Royal party. This narrative contains, no doubt, many splendid examples of courage and fidelity on both sides; and, for the variety of intrigues, cabals, and successful and unsuccessful attempts at corruption which it exhibits, may be considered as a complete miniature of a greater history. But the insig nificance of the events, and the obscurity of the persons, take away all interest from the story; and our admiration of Colonel Hutchinson's firmness, and disinterestedness and valour, is scarcely sufficient to keep our attention alive through the languishing narrative of the obscure warfare in which he was employed.

It has often been remarked, and for the honour of our country can never be too often

late King. Such were the liberal pursuits and elegant recreations of one whom all our recent histories would lead us to consider as a gloomy fanatic, and barbarous bigot!


repeated, that history affords no example of a civil contest carried on for years at the point of the sword, and yet producing so little ferocity in the body of the people, and so few instances of particular violence or cruelty. Upon the death of the Protector, he again No proscriptions-no executions-no sacking took his seat in Parliament, for the county of of cities, or laying waste of provinces--no Nottingham; and was an indignant spectator vengeance wreaked, and indeed scarcely any of the base proceedings of Monk, and the severity inflicted, upon those who were noto-headlong and improvident zeal of the people riously hostile, unless found actually in arms. in the matter of the restoration. In the course Some passages in the wars of Henry IV., as of the debate on the treatment to be dealt to narrated by Sully, approach to this character; the regicides, such of them as were members but the horrible massacres with which that of the House rose in their places, and made contest was at other stages attended, exclude such a defence of their conduct as they reit from all parallel with the generous hostility spectively thought it admitted of. The folof England. This book is full of instances, not lowing passage is very curious, and gives us merely of mutual toleration, but of the most a high idea of the readiness and address of cordial friendship subsisting between indi- Colonel Hutchinson in a situation of extraorviduals actually engaged in the opposite par- dinary difficulty. ties. In particular, Sir Allan Apsley, Mrs. Hutchinson's brother, who commanded a troop of horse for the King, and was frequently employed in the same part of the country where Colonel Hutchinson commanded for the Parliament, is represented throughout as living on a footing of the greatest friendship came in, and was told what they were about, and and cordiality with this valiant relative. Un-that it would be expected he should say something. der the protection of mutual passes, they pay He was surpriz'd with a thing he expected not; yet frequent visits to each other, and exchange neither then, nor in any the like occasion, did he various civilities and pieces of service, with- ever faile himselfe, but told them, That for his out any attempt on either side to seduce the actings in those dayes, if he had err'd, it was the other from the cause to which his conscience inexperience of his age, and the defect of his judgement, and not the malice of his heart, which had had attached him. In the same way, the ever prompted him to persue the generall advantage houses and families of various royalists are of his country more then his owne; and if the sacrileft unmolested in the district commanded by fice of him might conduce to the publick peace and Colonel Hutchinson's forces; and officers con- settlement, he should freely submit his life and fortunes to their dispose; that the vain expence of his ducting troops to the siege of the castle, are age, and the greate debts his publick employments repeatedly invited to partake of entertain- had runne him into, as they were testimonies that ments with the garrison. It is no less curious neither avarice nor any other interest had carried and unique to find Mrs. Hutchinson officiating him on, so they yielded him iust cause to repent as a surgeon to the wounded; and the Colonel that he ever forsooke his owne blessed quiet, to administering spiritual consolation to some embarque in such a troubled sea, where he had of the captives who had been mortally hurt and as to that particular action of the king, he demade shipwrack of all things but a good conscience; by the men whom he had led into action.

"When it came to Inglesbies turne, he, with many teares, profest his repentance for that murther; and told a false tale, how Cromwell held his hand, and fore'd him to subscribe the sentence! and made a most whining recantation; after which he retir'd, Hutchinson, who was not there at the beginning, and another had almost ended, when Collonell

sir'd them to believe he had that sence of it that befitted an Englishman, a Christian, and a gentleman.' Assoone as the collonell had spoken, he retir'd into a roome, where Inglesbie was, with his ceed his whinings, and embracing Collonell Huteies yet red, who had call'd up a little spirit to suc

After the termination of the war, Colonel Hutchinson was returned to Parliament for the town which he had so resolutely defended. He was appointed a member of the High Court of Justice, for the trial of the King;-chinson, O collonell,' say'd he, 'did I ever imagine and after long hesitation, and frequent prayer to God to direct him aright in an affair of so much moment, he deliberately concurred in the sentence which was pronounced by it; Mrs. Hutchinson proudly disclaiming for him the apology, afterwards so familiar in the mouths of his associates, of having been overawed by Cromwell. His opinion of the Protector, and of his government, has been pretty fully explained in the extracts we have already given. During that usurpation, he lived in almost unbroken retirement, at Owthorpe; where he occupied himself in superintending the education of his children, whom he himself instructed in music and other elegant as any man.”—pp. 367–369. accomplishments; in the embellishment of his residence by building and planting; in administering justice to his neighbours, and in making a very choice collection of painting and sculpture, for which he had purchased a number of articles out of the cabinet of the

wee could be brought to this? Could I have suspected it, when I brought them Lambert in the other day, this sword should have redeem'd us from being dealt with as criminalls, by that people, for The collonell told him, he had forescene, ever since whom we had so gloriously exposed ourselves." those usurpers thrust out the lawfull authority of the land, to enthrone themselves, it could end in nothing else; but the integrity of his heart, in all he had done, made him as chearefully ready to suffer as to triumph in a good cause. The result of the house that day was to suspend Collonell Hutchinson and the rest from sitting in the house. Monke, after all his greate professions, now sate still, and had not one word to interpose for any person, but was as forward to sett vengeance on foot

He was afterwards comprehended in the act of amnesty, and with some difficulty obtained his pardon; upon which he retired to the country; but was soon after brought to town, in order to see if he could not be prevailed on to give evidence against such of the

regicides as it was resolved to bring to trial. The Inglesby who is commemorated in the preceding extract, is known to have been the chief informer on that occasion; and Colonel Hutchinson understood, that it was by his instigation that he also had been called as a witness. His deportment, when privately examined by the Attorney-General, is extremely characteristic, and includes a very fine and bitter piece of irony on his base associate, who did not disdain to save himself by falsehood and treachery. When pressed to specify some overt acts against the prisoners,

the collonell answered him, that in a businesse transacted so many years agoe, wherein life was concern'd, he durst not beare a testimony;

having at that time bene so little an observer, that he could not remember the least title of that most eminent circumstance, of Cromwell's forcing Collonell Inglesby to sett to his unwilling hand, which, if his life had depended on that circumstance, he could not have affirm'd! And then, sir,' sayd he, if I have lost so great a thing as that, it cannot be expected lesse eminent passages remaine with me.' p. 379.


It was not thought proper to examine him on the trial; and he was allowed, for about a year, to pursue his innocent occupations in the retirement of a country life. At last he was seized, upon suspicion of being concerned in some treasonable conspiracy; and, though no formal accusation was ever exhibited against him, and no sort of evidence specified as the ground of his detention, was conveyed to London, and committed a close prisoner to the Tower. In this situation, he was treated with the most brutal harshness; all which he bore with great meekness of spirit, and consoled himself in the constant study of the Scriptures, and the society of his magnanimous consort, who, by the powerful intercession of her brother, was at last admitted to his presence. After an imprisonment of ten months, during which the most urgent solicitations could neither obtain his deliverance, nor the specification of the charges against him, he was suddenly ordered down to Sandown castle in Kent, and found, upon his arrival, that he was to be closely confined in a damp and unwholesome apartment, in which another prisoner, of the meanest rank and most brutal manners, was already established. This aggravated oppression and indignity, however, he endured with a cheerful magnanimity; and conversed with his wife and daughter, as she expresses it, "with as pleasant and contented a spirit as ever in his whole life. Sir Allen Apsley at last procured an order for permitting him to walk a certain

time every day on the beach; but this mitigation came too late. A sort of aguish fever, brought on by damp and confinement, had settled on his constitution; and, in little more than a month after his removal from the Tower, he was delivered by death from the mean and cowardly oppression of those whom he had always disdained either to flatter or betray.

England should be proud, we think, of having given birth to Mrs. Hutchinson and her husband; and chiefly because their characters are truly and peculiarly English; according to the standard of those times in which national characters were most distinguishable. Not exempt, certainly, from errors and defects, they yet seem to us to hold out a lofty example of substantial dignity and virtue; and to possess most of those talents and principles by which public life is made honourable, and privacy delightful. Bigotry must at all times debase, and civil dissension embitter our existence; but, in the ordinary course of events, we may safely venture to assert, that a nation which produces many such wives and mothers as Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson, must be both great and happy.

For the Reverend Julius Hutchinson, the editor of these Memoirs, it is easy to see that he is considerably perplexed and distracted, between a natural desire to extol those illustrious ancestors, and a fear of being himself mistaken for a republican. So he gives us alternate notes in laud of the English levellers, and in vituperation of the atheists and jacobins of France. From all this, our charity leads us to infer, that the said Reverend Julius Hutchinson has not yet obtained that preferment in the church which it would be convenient for him to possess; and that, when he is promoted according to his merits, he will speak more uniformly in a manner becoming his descent. In the mean time, we are very much obliged to him for this book, and for the pains he has taken to satisfy us of its authenticity, and of the accuracy of its publication. We do not object to the old spelling, which occasions no perplexity; but when the work comes to another edition, we would recommend it to him to add a few dates on the margin, to break his pages into more paragraphs, and to revise his punctuation. He would make the book infinitely more saleable, too, if, without making the slightest variation in what is retained, he would omit about two hundred pages of the siege of Nottingham, and other parish business; especially as the whole is now put beyond the reach of loss or corruption by the present full publication.

(October, 1829.)

Memoirs of LADY FANSHAWE, Wife of the Right Honourable Sir Richard Fanshawe, Baronet, Ambassador from Charles the Second to the Court of Madrid in 1665. Written by herself. To which are added, Extracts from the Correspondence of Sir Richard Fanshawe. 8vo. pp. 360. London: 1829.

THERE is not much in this book, either of voted attachment, and participated not unindividual character, or public story. It is, worthily in all his fortunes and designs, was, indeed, but a small affair-any way; but yet consequently, in continual contact with the pleasing, and not altogether without interest movements which then agitated society; and or instruction. Though it presents us with no had her full share of the troubles and triumphs traits of historical importance, and but few of which belonged to such an existence. Her personal passion or adventure, it still gives us memoirs ought, therefore, to have formed an a peep at a scene of surpassing interest from interesting counterpart to those of Mrs. Hutcha new quarter; and at all events adds one inson; and to have recalled to us, with equal other item to the great and growing store of force and vivacity, the aspect under which those contemporary notices which are every those great events presented themselves to a day familiarizing us more and more with the female spectatress and sufferer, of the oppoliving character of by-gone ages; and without site faction. But, though the title of the book, which we begin, at last, to be sensible, that we and the announcements of the editor, hold can neither enter into their spirit, nor even un-out this promise, we must say that the body of derstand their public transactions. Writings it falls far short of performance: and, whether not meant for publication, nor prepared for it be that her side of the question did not admit purposes of vanity or contention, are the only of the same force of delineation or loftiness of memorials in which the true "form and pres- sentiment; or, that the individual chronicler sure" of the ages which produce them are has been less fortunately selected, it is certain ever completely preserved; and, indeed, the that, in point both of interest and instruction; only documents from which the great events in traits of character, warmth of colouring, or which are blazoned on their records can ever exaltation of feeling, there is no sort of combe satisfactorily explained. It is in such parison between these gossiping, and, though writings alone,-confidential letters-private affectionate, yet relatively cold and feeble, diaries-family anecdotes-and personal re- memoranda, and the earnest, eloquent, and monstrances, apologies, or explanations, that graphic representations of the puritan heroine. the true springs of action are disclosed-as Nor should it be forgotten, even in hinting at well as the obstructions and impediments, such a parallel, that, in one important respect, whether in the scruples of individuals or the the royalist cause also must be allowed to general temper of society, by which their have been singularly happy in its female repoperation is so capriciously, and, but for these resentative. Since, if it may be said with revelations, so unaccountably controlled. some show of reason, that Lucy Hutchinson They are the true key to the cipher in which and her husband had too many elegant tastes public annals are almost necessarily written; and accomplishments to be taken as fair speciand their disclosure, after long intervals of mens of the austere and godly republicans; time, is almost as good as the revocation of it certainly may be retorted, with at least equal their writers from the dead-to abide our in- justice, that the chaste and decorous Lady terrogatories, and to act over again, before us, Fanshawe, and her sober diplomatic lord, in the very dress and accents of the time, a shadow out rather too favourably the general portion of the scenes which they once guided manners and morals of the cavaliers. or adorned. It is not a very striking portion, perhaps, that is thus recalled by the publication before us; but whatever interest it possesses is mainly of this character. It belongs to an era, to which, of all others in our history, curiosity will always be most eagerly directed; and it constantly rivets our attention, by exciting expectations which it ought, in truth, to have fulfilled; and suggesting how much more interesting and instructive it might so easily have been made.

After all, perhaps, the true secret of her inferiority, in all at least that relates to political interest, may be found in the fact, that the fair writer, though born and bred a royalist, and faithfully adhering to her husband in his efforts and sufferings in the cause, was not naturally, or of herself, particularly studious of such matters; or disposed to occupy herself more than was necessary with any public concern. She seems to have followed, like a good wife and daughter, where her parents or her husband led her; and to have adopted their opinions with a dutiful and implicit con

Lady Fanshawe was, as is generally known, the wife of a distinguished cavalier, in the Heroic Age of the civil wars and the Protec-fidence, but without being very deeply moved torate; and survived till long after the Res- by the principles or passions which actuated toration. Her husband was a person of no those from whom they were derived; while mean figure in those great transactions; and Lucy Hutchinson not only threw her whole she, who adhered to him with the most de- heart and soul into the cause of her party,

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