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box the day preceding, and by false keys and seals had taken all the papers out of it, and replaced them by harmless and insignificant letters, which they had fabricated in the course of one day, to the amount of near seven hundred. The King, therefore, found nothing to justify immediate execution; but kept the Prince a close prisoner at Custrin, and shut the Princess up in her own chamber. His son and Katt were afterwards tried for desertion, before a court-martial composed of twelve officers: Two were for sparing the life of the Prince, but all the rest were base enough to gratify the sanguinary insanity of their master by condemning them both to death. All Germany, however, exclaimed loudly against this sentence; and made such representations to the King, that he was at last constrained to spare his son. But the unhappy Katt was sacrificed. His scaffold was erected immediately before the window of his unhappy master, who was dressed by force in the same funeral garment with his friend, and was held up at the window by two soldiers, while the executioner struck off the head of his companion. There is no record of such brutal barbarity in the history of Nero or Domitian.

destiny pursues her. The fatal evening ar rives; and the Princess, with a train forty-five feet in length, and the spousal crown placed on twenty-four twisted locks of false hair, each thicker than her arm, enters the grand saloon, and takes the irrevocable vow!-and her mother has just put her to bed, when she hears that her courier has arrived, and leaves her in rage and anguish.

The humours of the rest of the family appear to no great advantage during the bridal festivities. In the first place, the Princess' sister, Charlotte, falls in love with the bridegroom, and does her possible to seduce him. Then old Frederic cheats the bride in her settlements, which amount to a gross sum of near 5001. a year;-and, finally, her brotherin-law, the Margrave of Anspach, rallies her husband so rudely upon his mother's gallantries, that the latter gives him a brave defiance in the face of the whole court; at which the poor Margrave is so dreadfully frightened, that he bursts out into screams and tears, and runs for refuge into the Queen's apartment, where he hides himself behind the arras, from which he is taken in a filthy condition, and carried to his apartments, où il exhala sa colère par des vomissemens et un diarrhée qui pensa l'envoyer à l'autre monde."-Yet the good Princess assures us, that this reptile had "a good heart and a good understanding," -with no fault but being a little passionate; and then, in the very next page, she records a malignant and detected falsehood which he had vented against her husband, and which rendered him odious in the eyes of the whole court. Being dissatisfied with her settlements, she puts the King in a good humour by giving a grand dinner to him and his officers, at which they are all "ivres morts;" but having mentioned her distresses through the Queen, he is so much moved with them, that he calls for the settlements, and strikes off

After this, the family feuds about his daughter's marriage revive with double fury. The Queen, whose whole heart is set on the English alliance, continues her petty intrigues to effect that object; while the King, rendered furious by the haughty language adopted by the English ministry on the subject of the insult offered to their ambassador, determines to have her married without a moment's delay; and after threatening the Queen with his cane, sends to offer her the hand of the Prince of Bareith; which she dutifully accepts, in spite of the bitter lamentations and outrageous fury of the Queen. That intriguing princess, however, does not cease to intrigue, though deserted by her daughter-about one fourth of her allowance. but sends again in greater urgency than ever to England-and that court, if we are to believe the statement before us, at last seriously afraid of losing a match every way desirable, sends off despatches, containing an entire and unqualified acquiescence in all Frederic's stipulations as to the marriagewhich arrive at Berlin the very morning of the day on which the Princess was to be solemnly betrothed to M. de Bareith, but are wickedly kept back by Grumkow and the Imperial Envoy, till after the ceremony had been publicly and irrevocably completed. Their disclosure then throws all parties into rage and despair; and the intriguers are made the ridiculous victims of their own baseness and duplicity. The indefatigable Queen, however, does not despair even yet; but sends off another courier to England, and sets all her emissaries to prepare the King to break off the match in the event of the answer being favourable; nay, the very night before the marriage, she takes her daughter apart, and begs her to live with her husband as a sister with her brother, for a few days, till the result of the embassage is known. But her usual

All this happened in autumn 1731; and in January 1732, the Princess being far advanced in pregnancy, and the roads almost impassable, it was thought advisable for her to set out for her husband's court at Bareith. She is overturned of course several times, and obliged to walk half the way :-But we pass over the disasters of the journey, to commemorate her arrival in this ancient principality. The first village she reached was Hoff, which is on the frontier-and has also the convenience of being within three miles of the centre of the territory: and here the grand marshal, and all the nobility of the province, are mustered to receive her at the bottom of the staircase, or, in other words, of the wooden ladder which led to her apartments. However, various guns were fired off very successfully, and the chief nobility were invited to dinner. The Princess' description of these personages is really very edifying. They had all faces, she says, which a child could not look on without screaming;-huge masses of hair on their heads, filled with a race of vermin as ancient as their pedigrees; clothed in old laced suits that had descended through many generations,

the most part in rags, and no way fitting their present wearers;-the greater part of them covered with itch;-and their conversation, of oxen. Immediately after dinner they began with the Princess' health in a huge bumper, and proceeded regularly in the same gallant manner through the whole of her genealogy; -so that in less than half an hour she found herself in the middle of thirty-four monsters, so drunk that none of them could articulate, "et rendant les boyaux à tous ces desastreux visages." Next day being Sunday, there was a sermon in honour of the occasion, in which the preacher gave an exact account of all the marriages that had happened in the world, from the days of Adam down to the last of the patriarchs-illustrated with so many circumstantial details as to the antecedents and consequents in each, that the male part of the audience laughed outright, and the female pretended to blush throughout the whole discourse. The dinner scene was the same as on the day preceding; with the addition of the female nobility who came in the evening, with their heads enveloped in greasy wigs like swallows' nests, and ancient embroidered dresses, stuck all over with knots of faded ribands.

damask all in tatters. Her bedchamber was also furnished with the same stuff-but in such a condition, that the curtains fell in pieces whenever they were touched. Half of the windows were broken, and there was no fire; though it was midwinter. The dinners were not eatable; and lasted three hours, with thirty flourishes of the old trumpets for the bumper toasts with which they were enlivened: Add to all this, that the poor Princess was very much indisposed-that the Margrave came and talked to her out of Telemaque and Amelot, five or six hours every day

and that she could not muster cash enough to buy herself a gown: and it will not appear wonderful, that in the very midst of the wedding revelries, she spent half her time in bed, weeping over the vanity of human grandeur.

By and by, however, she found occupa tion in quarrelling with her sisters-in-law, and in making and appeasing disputes between her husband and his father. She agrees so ill, indeed, with all the family, that her proposal of returning to lie-in at Berlin is received with great joy:-but while they are deliberating about raising money for this journey of two hundred miles, she becomes too ill to move. Her sister of Anspach, and her husband, come, and quarrel with her upon points of etiquette; the Margrave falls in love with one of her attendants; and in the midst of all manner of perplexities she is delivered of a daughter. The Margrave, who was in the country, not happening to hear the cannon which proclaimed this great event, conceives that he is treated with great disrespect, and gives orders for having his son imprisoned in one of his fortresses. He relents, however, at the christening; and is put in good humour by a visit from another son and a brother-the first of whom is des cribed as a kind of dwarf and natural fool, who could never take seriously to any employment but catching flies; and the other as a furious madman, in whose company no one was sure of his life. This amiable family

The day following, the Margrave, her fatherin-law, came himself to meet her. This worthy prince was nearly as amiable, and not quite so wise, as the royal parent she had left. He had read but two books in the world, Telemaque, and Amelot's Roman history, and discoursed out of them so very tediously, that the poor Princess fainted from mere ennui at the very first interview;-Then he drank night and day--and occasionally took his cane to the prince his son, and his other favourites. Though living in poverty and absolute discomfort, he gave himself airs of the utmost magnificence- went to dinner with three flourishes of cracked trumpets-received his court, leaning with one hand on a table, in imitation of the Emperor-and conferred his little dignities in harangues so pompous, and so awkwardly delivered, that his daughter-in-party is broken up, by an order on the Prin law at once laughed and was ashamed of cess' husband to join his regiment at Berlin, him. He was awkward, too, and embarrassed and another order from her father for her to in the society of strangers of good breeding pay a visit to her sister at Anspach. On her but made amends by chattering without end, way she visits an ancient beauty, with a rose about himself and his two books, to those like a beetroot, and two maids of honour so who were bound to bear with him. Under excessively fat that they could not sit down; the escort of this great potentate the Princess and, in stooping to kiss the Princess' hand, made her triumphal entry into the city of Ba- fell over, and rolled like balls of flesh on the reith the next morning: the whole procession carpet. At Anspach, she finds the Margrave consisting of one coach, containing the con- deep in an intrigue with the housemaid; and stituted authorities who had come out to meet consoles her sister under this affliction. She her, her own carriage drawn by six carrion then makes a great effort, and raises money post-horses, that containing her attendants, enough to carry her to Berlin; where she is and six or seven wagons loaded with furni- received with coldness and ridicule by the ture. The Margrave then conducted her from Queen, and neglect and insult by all her the palace gate in great state to her apart- sisters. Her brother's marriage with the ments, through a long passage, hung with Princess of Brunswick was just about to cobwebs, and so abominably filthy as to turn take place, and we choose to give in her own her stomach in hurrying through it. This words her account of the manner in which opened into an antechamber, adorned with she was talked over in this royal circle. old tapestry, so torn and faded that the figures on it looked like so many ghosts; and through that into a cabinet furnished with green

"La reine, à table, fit tomber la conversation sur la princesse royale future. Votre frère,' me dit-elle en le regardant, est au désespoir de l'épou

$

ser, et n'a pas tort: c'est une vrai bête; elle répond mother, and the slights of her whole genera

à tout ce qu'on lui dit par un oui et un non, action.
compagné d'un rire niais qui fait mal au cœur.'
Oh! dit ma sœur Charlotte, votre Majesté ne
connoit pas encore tout son mérite. J'ai été un
matin à sa toilette; j'ai cru y suffoquer; elle exha
loit une odeur insupportable! Je crois qu'elle a
pour le moins dix ou douze fistules-car cela n'est
pas naturel. J'ai remarqué aussi qu'elle est con-
trefaite; son corps de jupe est rembourré d'un
côté, et elle a une hanche plus haute que l'au-
tre. Je fus fort étonnée de ces propos, qui se te-
noient en présence des domestiques et surtout de
mon frère!
Je m'aperçus qu'ils lui faisoient de
la peine et qu'il changeoit de couleur. Il se
retira aussitôt après souper. J'en fis autant. I
vint me voir un moment après. Je lui demandai
s'il étoit satisfait du roi? Il me répondit que sa
situation changeoit à tout moment; que tantôt il
étoit en faveur et tantôt en disgrâce; que son plus
grand bonheur consistoit dans l'absence; qu'il me
noit une vie douce et tranquille à son régiment;
que l'étude et la musique y faisoient ses principales
occupations; qu'il avoit fait bâtir une maison et fait
faire un jardin charmant où il pouvoit lire et se
promener. Je le pria de me dire si le portrait que
la reine et ma sœur m'avoient fait de la Princesse
de Brunswick étoit véritable? 6
Nous sommes
seuls,' repartit-il, et je n'ai rien de caché pour
vous. Je vous parlerai avec sincérité. La reine,
par ses misérables intrigues, est la scule source
de nos malheurs. A peine avez-vous été partie
qu'elle a renoué avec l'Angleterre; elle a voulu
vous su stituer ma sœur Charlotte, et lui faire épou-
ser le Prince de Galles. Vous jugez bien qu'elle
a employé tous ses efforts pour faire réussir son
plan
et pour me marier avec la Princesse Amélie.'"*

Their domestic life, when these galas were over, was nearly as fatiguing, and still more lugubrious The good old custom of famishing was kept up at table; and immediately after dinner the King had his great chair placed right before the fire, and snored in it for three hours, during all which they were obliged to keep silence, for fear of disturbing him. When he awoke, he set to smoking tobacco;—and then sate four hours at supper, listening to long stories of his ancestors, in the taste of those sermons which are prescribed to persons afflicted with insomnolency. Then the troops began their exercise under the windows before four o'clock every morning, and not only kept the whole household awake from that hour by their firing, but sometimes sent a ramrod through the glass to assist at the Princess' toilette. One afternoon the King was seized with a sort of apoplexy in his sleep, which, as he always snored extremely loud, might have carried him off without much observation, had not his daughter observed him grow black in the face, and restored him by timely applications. She is equally unfortunate about the same time in her fatherin-law the Margrave, who is mischievous enough to recover, after breaking a bloodvessel by falling down stairs in a fit of drunkenness. At last she gets away with great difficulty, and takes her second leave of the parental roof, with even less regard for its inhabitants than she had felt on first quitting its shelter.

"

The poor Prince, however, confesses that he cannot say much for the intellect of his intended bride;-and really does not use a much nobler language than the rest of the family, even when speaking in her presence; for on her first presentation to his sister, finding that she made no answer to the compliments that were addressed to her, the enamoured youth encourages her bridal timidity by this polite exclamation, "Peste soit de la bete!-remercie donc ma sœur!" The account of the festivities which accompanied this marriage really excites our compassion; and is well calculated to disabuse any inexperienced person of the mistake of supposing, that there can be either comfort or enjoyment in the cumbrous splendours of a court. Scanty and crowded dinners at midday-and formal balls and minuets immediately after, in June, followed up with dull gaming in the evening;-the necessity of being up in full dress by three o'clock in the morning to see a review-and the pleasure of being stifled in a crowded tent without seeing any thing, or getting any refreshment for seven or eight hours, and then to return famishing to a dinner of eighty covers; at other times to travel ten miles at a footpace in an open carriage during a heavy rain, and afterwards to stand shivering on the wet grass to see fireworks-to pay twenty visits of ceremony every morning, and to present

On her return to Bareith, she finds the old Margrave quite broken in health, but extravagantly and honourably in love with a lame, dwarfish, middle-aged lady, the sister of her ancient governess, whom he proposes to marry, to the great discomfiture of the Princess and his son. They remonstrate with the lady, however, on the absurdity of such an union; and she promises to be cruel, and live single. In the mean time, one of the Margrave's daughters is taken with a kind of madness of a very indecorous character; which indicates itself by frequent improprieties of speech, and a habit of giving invitations, of no equivocal sort, to every man that comes near her. The worthy Margrave, at first undertakes to cure this very troublesome complaint by a brisk course of beating; but this not being found to answer, it is thought expedient to try the effect of marriage; and, that there may he no harm done to any body, they look out a certain Duke of Weimar, who is as mad as the lady—though somewhat in a different way. This prince's malady consisted chiefly in great unsteadiness of purpose, and a trick of outrageous and inventive boasting. Both the Princess and her husband, however, take great pains

i

and be presented in stately silence to persons to bring about this well-assorted match; and,

whom you hate and despise. Such were the general delights of the whole court;-and our Princess had the additional gratification of being forced from a sick-bed to enjoy them, and of undergoing the sneers of her

by dint of flattery and intimidation, it is actually carried through-though the bridegroom sends a piteous message on the morning of his wedding day, begging to be let off and keeps them from twelve till four o'clock

in the morning before he can be persuaded to go to bed. In the mean time, the Princess gives great offence to the populace and the preachers of Bareith, by giving a sort of masked ball, and riding occasionally on horseback. Her husband goes to the wars; and returns very much out of humour with her brother Frederic, who talks contemptuously of little courts and little princes. The old Margrave falls into a confirmed hectic, and writes billets-doux to his little lady, so tender as to turn one's stomach; but at last dies in an edifying manner, to the great satisfaction of all his friends and acquaintances. Old Frederic promises fair, at the same time, to follow his example; for he is seized with a confirmed dropsy. His legs swell, and burst; and give out so much water, that he is obliged for several days to sit with them in buckets. By a kind of miracle, however, he recovers, and goes a campaigning for several years after.

seems to have given her the worst opinion of him, was his impolite habit of making jokes about the small domains and scanty revenues of her husband. For the two following years she travels all over Germany, abusing all the principautés she meets with. In 1742, she goes to see the coronation of the new Emperor at Francfort, and has a long negotiation about the ceremony of her introduction to the Empress. After various projets had been offered and rejected, she made these three conditions:

1st, That the whole cortège of the Empress should receive her at the bottom of the staircase. 2dly, That the Empress herself should come to meet her at the outside of the door of her bed-chamber. And, 3dly, That she should be allowed an arm-chair during the interview. Whole days were spent in the discussion of this proposition; and at last the two first articles were agreed to; but all that she could make of the last was, that she should have a very large chair, without arms; and the Empress a very small one, with them! Her account of the interview we add in her

The Memoirs are rather dull for four or five years after the author's accession to the throne of Bareith. She makes various jour-own words. neys, and suffers from various distempershas innumerable quarrels with all the neighbouring potentates about her own precedence and that of her attendants; fits up several villas, gives balls; and sometimes quarrels with her husband, and sometimes nurses him in his illness. In 1740, the King, her father, dies in good earnest; and makes, it must be acknowledged, a truly heroic, though somewhat whimsical, ending. Finding himself fast going, he had himself placed early in the morning in his wheel-chair, and goes himself to tell the Queen that she must rise and see him die. He then takes farewell of his children; and gives some sensible advice to his son, and the ministers and generals whom he had assembled. Afterwards he has his best horse brought, and presents it with a good grace to the oldest of his generals. He next ordered all the servants to put on their best liveries; and, when this was done, he looked on them with an air of derision, and said, "Vanity of vanities!" He then commanded his physician to tell him exactly how long he had to live; and when he was answered, "about half an hour," he asked for a lookingglass, and said with a smile, that he certainly did look ill enough, and saw "qu'il ferait une vilaine grimace en mourant!" When the clergymen proposed to come and pray with him, he said, "he knew already all they had to say, and that they might go about their business." In a short time after he expired, in great tranquillity.

Though the new King came to visit his sister soon after his accession, and she went to return the compliment at Berlin, she says there was no longer any cordiality between them; and that she heard nothing but complaints of his avarice, his ill temper, his ingratitude, and his arrogance. She gives him great credit for talents; but entreats her readers to suspend their judgment as to the real character of this celebrated monarch, till they have perused the whole of her Memoirs. What

"Je vis cette Princesse le jour suivant. J'avoue qu'à sa place j'aurois imaginé toutes les étiquettes et les cérémonies du monde pour m'empêcher de paroître. L'Impératrice est d'une taille au-dessous boule; elle est laide au possible, sans air et sans de la petite, et puissante qu'elle semble une grace. Son esprit répond à sa figure; elle est bigotte à l'excès, et passe les nuits et les jours dans son oratoire: les vieilles et les laides sont ordinairement le partage du bon Dieu! Elle me reçut en remblant et d'un air si décontenancé qu'elle ne put me dire un mot. Nous nous assîmes. Après avoir gardé quelque temps le silence, je commençai la conversation en français. Elle me repondit, dans son jargon autrichien, qu'elle n'entendoit pas bien cette langue, et qu'elle me prioit de lui parler en allemand. Cet entretien ne fut pas long. Le dialecte autrichien et le bas-saxon sont si différens, qu'à moins d'y être accoutumê on ne se comprend point. C'est aussi ce qui nous arriva. Nous aurions préparé à rire à un tiers par les coq-à-l'âne que nous faisions, n'entendant que par-ci par-là un mot, qui nous faisoit deviner le reste. Cette princesse étoit si fort esclave de son étiquette qu'elle auroit nant dans une langue étrangère; car elle savoit le cru faire un crime de lèse-grandeur en m'entre efra çais! L'Empereur devoit se trouver à cene visite; mais il étoit tombé si malade qu'on craignoit même pour ses jours."—pp. 345, 346.

After this she comes home in a very bad humour; and the Memoirs break off abruptly with her detection of an intrigue between her husband and her favourite attendant, and her dissatisfaction with the dull formality of the court of Stutgard. We hope the sequel will soon find its way to the public.

Some readers may think we have dwelt too long on such a tissue of impertinencies;.and others may think an apology requisite for the tone of levity in which we have spoken of so many atrocities. The truth is, that we think this book of no trifling importance; and that we could not be serious upon the subject of it without being both sad and angry. Before concluding, however, we shall add one word in seriousness-to avoid the misconstructions to which we might otherwise be liable. We are decidedly of opinion, that Monarchy, and Hereditary Monarchy, is by far the best

form of government that human wisdom has yet devised for the administration of consider able nations; and that it will always continue to be the most perfect which human virtue will admit of. We are not readily to be suspected, therefore, of any wish to produce a distaste or contempt for this form of government; and beg leave to say, that though the facts we have now collected are certainly such as to give no favourable impression of the private manners or personal dispositions of absolute sovereigns, we conceive that good, rather than evil, is likely to result from their dissemination. This we hold, in the first place, on the strength of the general maxim, that all truth must be ultimately salutary, and all deception pernicious. But we think we can see a little how this maxim applies to the particular case before us.

In the first place, then, we think it of service to the cause of royalty, in an age of violent passions and rash experiments, to show that most of the vices and defects which such times are apt to bring to light in particular sovereigns, are owing, not so much to any particular unworthiness or unfitness in the individual, as to the natural operation of the circumstances in which he is placed; and are such, in short, as those circumstances have always generated in a certain degree in those who have been exposed to them. Such considerations, it appears to us, when taken along with the strong and irresistible arguments for monarchical government in general, are well calculated to allay that great impatience and dangerous resentment with which nations in turbulent times are apt to consider the faults of their sovereigns; and to unite with a steady attachment and entire respect for the office, a very great degree of indulgence for the personal defects of the individual who may happen to fill it. Monarchs, upon this view of things, are to be considered as persons who are placed, for the public good, in situations where, not only their comfort, but their moral qualities, are liable to be greatly impaired; and who are poorly paid in empty splendour, and anxious power, for the sacrifice of their affections, and of the many engaging qualities which might have blossomed in a lower region. If we look with indulgence upon the roughness of sailors, the pedantry of schoolmasters, and the frivolousness of beauties, we should learn to regard, with something of the same feelings, the selfishness and the cunning of kings.

THIS, on the whole, is an excellent book; and we venture to anticipate that it will be an enduring one. Neither do we hazard this prediction lightly, or without a full conscious

In the second place, we presume to think that the general adoption of these opinions as to the personal defects that are likely to result from the possession of sovereign power, may be of use to the sovereigns themselves, from whom the knowledge of their prevalence cannot be very long concealed. Such knowledge, it is evident, will naturally stimulate the better sort of them to counteract the causes which tend to their personal degradation; and enable them more generally to surmount their pernicious operation, by such efforts and reflections, as have every now and then rescued some powerful spirits from their dominion, under all the disadvantages of the delusions with which they were surrounded.

Finally, if the general prevalence of these sentiments as to the private manners and dispositions of sovereigns should have the effect of rendering the bulk of their subjects less prone to blind admiration, and what ma be called personal attachment to them, we do not imagine that any great harm will be done. The less the public knows or cares about the private wishes of their monarch, and the more his individual will is actually consubstantiated with the deliberate sanctions of his responsible counsellors, the more perfectly will the practice of government correspond with its admitted theory; the more wisely will affairs be administered for the public, and the more harmoniously and securely both for the sovereign and the people. An adventurous warrior may indeed derive signal advantages from the personal devotedness and enthusiastic attachment of his followers; but in the civil office of monarchy, as it exists in modern times, the only safe attachment is to the office, and to the measures which it sanctions. The personal popularity of princes, in so far as we know, has never done any thing but harm: and indeed it seems abundantly evident, that whatever is done merely for the personal gratification of the reigning monarch, that would not have been done at any rate on grounds of public expediency, must be an injury to the community, and a sacrifice of duty to an unreturned affection; and whatever is forborne out of regard to his pleasure, which the interest of the country would otherwise have required, is in like manner an act of base and unworthy adulation. We do not speak, it will be understood, of trifles or things of little moment; but of such public acts of the government as involve the honour or the interest

of the nation.

(September, 1828.)

History of the Life and Voyages of CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. BY WASHINGTON IRVING.

4 vols. 8vo. London: 1828.

ness of all that it implies. We are perfectly aware that there are but few modern works that are likely to verify it; and that it probably could not be extended with safety to so many

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