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dians, but that all such differences should be settled by twelve referees, six Indians and six planters; under the direction, if need were of the Governor of the province, and the Chief, or King of the Indians concerned. Under these wise and merciful regulations, three ships full of passengers sailed for the new province in the end of 1681. In one of these was Colonel Markham, a relation of Penn's, and intended to act as his secretary when he should himself arrive. He was the chief of several commissioners, who were appointed to confer with the Indians with regard to the cession or purchase of their lands, and the terms of a perpetual peace, and was the bearer of the following letter to them from the Governor, a part of which we think worthy of being transcribed, for the singular plainness, and engaging honesty, of its manner.
Now, I would have you well observe, that I am very sensible of the unkindness and injustice which have been too much exercised toward you by the people of these parts of the world, who have sought themselves to make great advantages by you, rather than to be examples of goodness and patience unto you. This I hear hath been a matter of trouble to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, sometimes to the shedding of blood. But I am not such a man; as is well known in my own country. I have great love and regard toward you, and desire to win and gain your love and friendship by a kind, just, and peaceable life; and the people I send are of the same mind, and shall in all things behave themselves accordingly; and if in any thing any shall offend you or your people, you shall have a full and speedy satisfaction for the same, by an equal number of just men on both sides, that by no means you may have just occasion of being offended against them.
I shall shortly come to see you myself, at which time we may more largely and freely confer and discourse of these matters. In the mean time I have sent my Commissioners to treat with you, about land, and a firm league of peace. Let me desire you to be kind to them and to the people, and receive the presents and tokens, which I have sent you, as a testimony of my good will to you, and of my resolution to live justly, peaceably, and friendly with you. I am, your loving Friend, "WILLIAM PENN." In the course of the succeeding year, he prepared to follow these colonists; and accordingly embarked, with about an hundred other Quakers, in the month of September, 1682. Before separating himself, however, from his family on this long pilgrimage, he addressed a long letter of love and admonition to his wife and children, from which we are tempted to make a pretty large extract for the entertainment and edification of our readers. There is something, we think, very
touching and venerable in the affectionateness of its whole strain, and the patriarchal simplicity in which it is conceived; while the language appears to us to be one of the most beautiful specimens of that soft and mellow English, which, with all its redundancy and cumbrous volume, has, to our ears, a far richer and more pathetic sweetness than the epigrams and apothegms of modern times. The letter begins in this manner
My dear Wife and Children,
My love, which neither sea, nor land, nor death itself, can extinguish or lessen toward you, most
endearedly visits you with eternal embraces, and will abide with you for ever: and may the God of good in this world and for ever!-Some things are my life watch over you, and bless you, and do you upon my spirit to leave with you in your respective capacities, as I am to one a husband, and to the rest a father, if I should never see you more in this world.
"My dear wife! remember thou wast the love of my youth, and much the joy of my life; the earthly comforts: and the reason of that love was most beloved, as well as most worthy of all my more thy inward than thy outward excellencies, which yet were many. God knows, and thou knowest it, I can say it was a match of Providence's making; and God's image in us both was the first thing, and the most amiable and engaging ornament in our eyes. Now I am to leave thee, and that without knowing whether I shall ever see thee more in this world, take my counsel into thy bosom, and let it dwell with thee in my stead while thou livest."
Then, after some counsel about godliness and economy, he proceeds
"And now, my dearest, let me recommend to thy care my dear children; abundantly beloved of me, as the Lord's blessings, and the sweet pledges of our mutual and endeared affection. Above all things endeavour to breed them up in the love of virtue, and that holy plain way of it which we have lived in, that the world in no part of it get into my family. I had rather they were homely than finely bred as to outward behaviour; yet I love sweetness mixed with gravity, and cheerfulness tempered with sobriety. Religion in the heart leads into this true civility, teaching men and women to be mild and courteous in their behaviour; an accomplishment worthy indeed of praise.
Next breed them up in a love one of another: tell them it is the charge I left behind me; and that it is the way to have the love and blessing of God upon them. Sometimes separate them, but not long; and allow them to send and give each other small things, to endear one another with. Once more I say, tell them it was my counsel they should be tender and affectionate one to another. For their learning be liberal. Spare no cost; for by such parsimony all is lost that is saved: but let it be useful knowledge, such as is consistent with truth and godliness, not cherishing a vain conversation or idle mind; but ingenuity mixed with industry is good for the body and the mind too. Rather
keep an ingenious person in the house to teach them, than send them to schools; too many evil impressions being commonly received there. Be sure to observe their genius, and do not cross it as to learning; let them not dwell too long on one thing; but let their change be agreeable, and all their diversions have some little bodily labour in for then there are more snares, both within and them. When grown big, have most care for them; without. When marriageable, see that they have worthy persons in their eye, of good life, and good fame for piety and understanding. I desire no dear, fervent, and mutual, that it may be happy for wealth. but sufficiency; and be sure their love be them. I choose not they should be married to earthly, covetous kindred and of cities and towns of concourse, beware: the world is apt to stick close to those who have lived and got wealth there: a country life and estate I like best for my children. I prefer a decent mansion of a hundred pounds per annum, before ten thousand pounds in London, or such like place, in a way of trade."
He next addresses himself to his children.
"Be obedient to your dear mother, a woman whose virtue and good name is an honour to you; for she hath been exceeded by none in her time for her integrity, humanity, virtue, and good under
standing; qualities not usual among women of her | tion, and solemnly to pledge his faith, and worldly condition and quality. Therefore honour to ratify and confirm the treaty, in sight both and obey her, my dear children, as your mother, of the Indians and Planters. For this purand your father's love and delight; nay, love her too, for she loved your father with a deep and upright love, choosing him before all her many suitors: and though she be of a delicate constitution and noble spirit, yet she descended to the utmost tenderness and care for you, performing the painfullest acts of service to you in your infancy you, before the Lord, honour and obey, love and cherish your
as a mother and a nurse too.
pose a grand convocation of the tribes had been appointed near the spot where Philadelphia now stands; and it was agreed that he and the presiding Sachems should meet and exchange faith, under the spreading branches of a prodigious elm-tree that grew on the bank of the river. On the day appointed, accordingly, an innumerable multitude of the Indians assembled in that neighbourhood; and were seen, with their dark visages and brandished arms, moving, in vast swarms, in the depth of the woods which then overshadowed the whole of that now cultivated region. On the other hand, William Penn, with a moderate attendance of Friends, advanced to meet them. He came of course unarmed-in his usual plain dress-without banners, or mace, or guards, or carriages; and only distinguished from his companions wearing a blue sash of silk network (which it seems is still preserved by Mr. Kett of Seething-hall, near Norwich), and by having in his hand a roll of parchment, on which was engrossed the confirmation of the treaty of purchase and amity. As soon as he drew near the spot where the Sachems were assembled, the whole multitude of Indians threw down their weapons, and seated themselves on the ground in groups, each under his own chieftain; and the presiding chief intimated to William Penn, that the nations were ready to hear him. Mr. Clarkson regrets, and we cordially join in the sentiment, that there is no written, contemporary account of the particulars attending this interesting and truly novel transaction. He assures us, however, that they are still in a great measure preserved in oral tradition, and that both what we have just stated, and what follows, may be relied on as perfectly accurate. The sequel we give in his own words..
After a great number of other affectionate counsels, he turns particularly to his elder boys.
"And as for you, who are likely to be concerned in the government of Pennsylvania, I do charge you before the Lord God and his holy angels, that you be lowly, diligent, and tender; fearing God, loving the people, and hating covetousness. justice have its impartial course, and the law free passage. Though to your loss, protect no man against it; for you are not above the law, but the law above you. Live therefore the lives yourselves you would have the people live, and then shall you have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Keep upon the square, for God sees you therefore do your duty, and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no lurchers; cherish no informers for gain or revenge; use no tricks; fly to no devices to support or cover injustice; but let your hearts be upright before the Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant you."
We should like to see any private letter of instructions from a sovereign to his heir-apparent, that will bear a comparison with the injunctions of this honest Sectary. He con
cludes as follows:
Finally, my children, love one another with a true endeared love, and your dear relations on both sides, and take care to preserve tender affection in your children to each other, often marrying within themselves, so as it be without the bounds forbidden in God's law, that so they may not, like the forgetting unnatural world, grow out of kindred, and as cold as strangers; but, as becomes a truly natural and Christian stock, you and yours after you, may live in the pure and fervent love of God towards one another, as becoming brethren in the spiritual and natural relation.
"So farewell to my thrice dearly beloved wife and children! "Yours, as God pleaseth, in that which no waters can quench, no time forget, nor distance wear away, but remains for ever, WILLIAM PENN."
"Worminghurst, fourth of sixth month, 1682."
Immediately after writing this letter, he embarked, and arrived safely in the Delaware with all his companions. The country assigned to him by the royal charter was yet full of its original inhabitants; and the principles of William Penn did not allow him to look upon that gift as a warrant to dispossess the first proprietors of the land. He had accordingly appointed his commissioners, the preceding year, to treat with them for the fair purchase of a part of their lands, and for their joint possession of the remainder; and the terms of the settlement being now nearly agreed upon, he proceeded, very soon after his arrival, to conclude the transac
Having been thus called upon, he began. The Great Spirit, he said, who made him and them, who ruled the Heaven and the Earth, and who knew the innermost thoughts of man, knew that he and his friends had a hearty desire to live in peace and friendship with them, and to serve them to the utmost of their power. It was not their custom to use hostile weapons against their fellow-creatures, for which reason they had come unarmed. Their object was not to do injury, and thus provoke the Great Spirit, but to do good. They were then met on the broad pathway of good faith and good will, so that no advantage was to be taken on either side, but all was to be openness, brotherhood, and love. After these and other words, he unrolled the parchment, and by means of the same interpreter conveyed to them, article by article, the conditions of the Purchase, and the Words of the Compact then made for their eternal Union. Among other things, they were not to be molested in their lawful pursuits, even in the territory they had alienated, for it was to be common to them and the English. They were to have the same liberty to do all things therein relating to the improvement of their grounds, and providing sustenance for their families, which the English had. If any disputes led by twelve persons, half of whom should be should arise between the two, they should be setEnglish, and half Indians. He then paid them for the land; and made them many presents besides, from the merchandize which had been spread before
them. Having done this, he laid the roll of parchment on the ground, observing again, that the ground should be common to both people. He then added, that he would not do as the Marylanders did, that is, call them Children or Brothers only; for often parents were apt to chastise their children too severely, and Brothers sometimes would differ: neither would he compare the Friendship between him and them to a Chain, for the rain might sometimes rust it, or a tree might fall and break it; but he should consider them as the same flesh and blood with the Christians, and the same as if one man's body were to be divided into two parts. He then took up the parchment, and presented it to the Sachem, who wore the horn in his chaplet, and desired him and the other Sachems to preserve it carefully for three generations; that their children might know what had passed between them, just as if he had remained himself with them to repeat it."-pp. 341-343. .
The Indians, in return, made long and stately harangues-of which, however, no more seems to have been remembered, but that "they pledged themselves to live in love with William Penn and his children, as long as the sun and moon should endure." And thus ended this famous treaty;-of which Voltaire has remarked, with so much truth and severity, "that it was the only one ever concluded between savages and Christians that was not ratified by an oath-and the only
one that never was broken!"
Such, indeed, was the spirit in which the negotiation was entered into, and the corresponding settlement conducted, that for the space of more than seventy years-and so long indeed as the Quakers retained the chief power in the government, the peace and amity which had been thus solemnly promised and concluded, never was violated;—and a large and most striking, though solitary example afforded, of the facility with which they who are really sincere and friendly in their own views, may live in harmony even with those who are supposed to be peculiarly fierce and faithless. We cannot bring ourselves to wish that there were nothing but Quakers in the world-because we fear it would be insupportably dull;-but when we consider what tremendous evils daily arise from the petulance and profligacy, and ambition and irritability, of Sovereigns and Ministers, we cannot help thinking that it would be the most efficacious of all reforms to choose all those ruling personages out of that plain, pacific, and sober-minded sect.
William Penn now held an assembly, in which fifty-nine important laws were passed in the course of three days. The most remarkable were those which limited the number of capital crimes to two-murder and high treason and which provided for the reformation, as well as the punishment of offenders, by making the prisons places of compulsive industry, sobriety, and instruction. It was likewise enacted, that all children, of whatever rank, should be instructed in some art or trade. The fees of law proceedings were fixed, and inscribed on public tables; and the amount of fines to be levied for offences also limited by legislative authority. Many admirable regulations were
added, for the encouragement of industry, and mutual usefulness and esteem. There is something very agreeable in the contentment, and sober and well-earned self-complacency, which breathe in the following letter of this great colonist-written during his first rest from those great labours.
"I am now casting the country into townships for large lots of land. I have held an Assembly, in which many good laws are passed. We could not stay safely till the spring for a Government. I have annexed the Territories lately obtained to the Province, and passed a general naturalization for strangers; which hath much pleased the people.As to outward things, we are satisfied; the land good, the air clear and sweet, the springs plentiful, and provision good and easy to come at; an innumerable quantity of wild fowl and fish: in fine, here is what an Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob would be well contented with; and service enough for God, for the fields are here white for harvest. 0, how sweet is the quiet of these parts, freed from the anxious and troublesome solicitations, hurries, and perplexities of woful Europe!"-pp. 350, 351.
We cannot persuade ourselves, however, to pursue any farther the details of this edifying biography. W. Penn returned to England after a residence of about two years in his colony-got into great favour with James II.
and was bitterly calumniated as a Jesuit, both by churchmen and sectaries-went on doing good and preaching Quakerism-was sorely persecuted and insulted, and deprived of his Government, but finally acquitted, and honourably restored, under King Williamlost his wife and son-travelled and married again-returned to Pennsylvania in 1699 for two years longer-came finally home to England-continued to preach and publish as copiously as ever-was reduced to a state of kindly dotage by three strokes of apoplexyand died at last at the age of seventy-two, in the year 1718.
He seems to have been a man of kind affections, singular activity and perseverance, and Yet we can well great practical wisdom. believe with Burnet, that he was "a little puffed up with vanity;" and that "he had a tedious, luscious way of talking, that was apt to tire the patience of his hearers." He was very neat in his person; and had a great horror at tobacco, which occasionally endangered his popularity in his American domains. He was mighty methodical, too, in ordering his household; and had stuck up in his hall a written directory, or General Order, for the regulation of his family, to which he exacted the strictest conformity. According to this rigorous system of discipline, he required
"That in that quarter of the year which included part of the winter and part of the spring, the members of it were to rise at seven in the morning, in the next at six, in the next at five, and in the last fast, twelve for dinner, seven for supper, and ten at six again Nine o'clock was the hour for breakto retire to bed. The whole family were to assemble every morning for worship. They were to be called together at eleven again, that each might read in turn some portion of the holy Scripture, or of the Martyrology, or of Friends' books; and in the evening. On the days of public meeting, no finally they were to meet again for worship at six one was to be absent, except on the plea of health
or of unavoidable engagement. The servants were to be called up after supper to render to their master and mistress an account of what they had done in the day, and to receive instructions for the next; and were particularly exhorted to avoid lewd dis courses and troublesome noises."
We shall not stop to examine what dregs of ambition, or what hankerings after worldly prosperity, may have mixed themselves with
the pious and philanthropic principles that were undoubtedly his chief guides in forming that great settlement which still bears his name, and profits by his example. Human virtue does not challenge, nor admit of such a scrutiny! And it should be sufficient for the glory of William Penn, that he stands upon record as the most humane, the most moderate, and the most pacific of all rulers.
A Selection from the Public and Private Correspondence of Vice-Admiral Lord Collingwood: interspersed with Memoirs of his Life. By G. L. NEWNHAM COLLINGWOOD, Esq. F. R. S. 2 vols. 8vo. Ridgway. London: 1828.
We do not know when we have met with of a still higher rectitude. Inferior, perhaps, so delightful a book as this, or one with to Nelson, in original genius and energy, and which we are so well pleased with ourselves in that noble self-confidence in great emerfor being delighted. Its attraction consists gencies which these qualities usually inspire, almost entirely in its moral beauty; and it he was fully his equal in seamanship and the has the rare merit of filling us with the deep- art of command; as well as in that devotedest admiration for heroism, without suborning ness to his country and his profession, and our judgments into any approbation of the that utter fearlessness and gallantry of soul vices and weaknesses with which poor mortal which exults and rejoices in scenes of treheroism is so often accompanied. In this re-mendous peril, which have almost ceased to spect, it is not only more safe, but more agree- be remarkable in the character of a British able reading than the Memoirs of Nelson; sailor. On the other hand, we think it will where the lights and shadows are often too scarcely be disputed, that he was superior to painfully contrasted, and the bane and the that great commander in general information antidote exhibited in proportions that cannot and accomplishment, and in those thoughtful but be hazardous for the ardent and aspiring habits, and that steadiness and propriety of spirits on which they are both most calculated personal deportment, which are their natural to operate. fruit. His greatest admirers, however, can It is a mere illusion of national vanity ask no higher praise for him than that he stood which prompts us to claim Lord Collingwood on the same lofty level with Nelson, as to that as a character peculiarly English? Certainly generous and cordial appreciation of merit in we must admit, that we have few English- his brother officers, by which, even more, permen left who resemble him; and even that haps, than by any of his other qualities, that our prevailing notions and habits make it great man was distinguished. It does one's likely that we shall have still fewer hereafter. heart good, indeed, to turn from the petty Yet we do not know where such a character cabals, the paltry jealousies, the splendid decould have been formed but in England;-tractions, the irritable vanities, which infest and feel quite satisfied, that it is there only almost every other walk of public life, and that it can be properly valued or understood. meet one, indeed, at every turn in all scenes The combination of the loftiest daring with of competition, and among men otherwise the most watchful humanity, and of the no- eminent and honourable,-to the brother-like blest ambition with the greatest disdain of frankness and open-hearted simplicity, even personal advantages, and the most generous of the official communications between Nelson sympathy with rival merit, though rare enough and Collingwood; and to the father-like into draw forth at all times the loud applause terest with which they both concurred in fosof mankind, have not been without example, tering the glory, and cheering on the fortunes in any race that boasts of illustrious ances- of their younger associates. In their noble tors. But, for the union of those high quali-thirst for distinction, there seems to be absoties with unpretending and almost homely lutely no alloy of selfishness; and scarcely simplicity, sweet temper, undeviating recti- even a feeling of rivalry. If the opportunity tude, and all the purity and sanctity of do- of doing a splendid thing has not come to mestic affection and humble content-we can them, it has come to some one who deserved look, we think, only to England,— -or to the it as well, and perhaps needed it more. fabulous legends of uncorrupted and unin- will come to them another day-and then the structed Rome. All these graces, however, heroes of this will repay their hearty congraand more than these, were united in Lord tulations. There is something inexpressibly Collingwood: For he had a cultivated and beautiful and attractive in this spirit of mageven elegant mind, a taste for all simple en- nanimous fairness; and if we could only bejoyments, and a rectitude of understanding- lieve it to be general in the navy, we should which seemed in him to be but the emanation gladly recant all our heretical doubts as to the
superior virtues of men at sea, join chorus to all the slang songs of Dibdin on the subject, and applaud to the echo all the tirades about British tars and wooden walls, which have so often nauseated us at the playhouses.
We feel excessively obliged to the editor of this book; both for making Lord Collingwood known to us, and for the very pleasing, modest, and effectual way he has taken to do it in. It is made up almost entirely of his Lordship's correspondence; and the few connecting statements and explanatory observations are given with the greatest clearness and brevity; and very much in the mild, conciliatory, and amiable tone of the remarkable person to whom they relate. When we say that this publication has made Lord Colling wood known to us, we do not mean that we. or the body of the nation, were previously ignorant that he had long served with distinction in the navy, and that it fell to his lot, as second in command at Trafalgar, to indite that eloquent and touching despatch which announced the final ruin of the hostile fleets, and the death of the Great Admiral by whose might they had been scattered. But till this collection appeared, the character of the man was known, we believe, only to those who had lived with him; and the public was generally ignorant both of the detail of his services, and the high principle and exemplary diligence which presided over their performance. Neither was it known, we are persuaded, those virtues and services actually cost him his life! and that the difficulty of finding, in our large list of admirals, any one fit to succeed him in the important station which he filled in his declining years, induced the government, most ungenerously, we must say, and unjustly, to refuse his earnest desire to be relieved of it; and to insist on his remaining to the last gasp, at a post which he would not desert so long as his country required him to maintain it, but at which, it was apparent to himself, and all the world, that he must speedily die. The details now before us will teach the profession, we hope, by what virtues and what toils so great and so pure a fame can alone be won; and by rendering in this way such characters less rare, will also render the distinction to which they lead less fatal to its owners: While they cannot fail, we think, to awaken the government to a sense of its own ingratitude to those who have done it the noblest service, and of the necessity of at last adopting some of the suggestions which those great benefactors have so long pressed on its attention.
We have not much concern with the genealogy or early history of Lord Collingwood. He was born in 1750, of an honourable and ancient family of Northumberland, but of slender patrimony; and went to sea, under the care of his relative, Captain, afterwards Admiral Brathwaite, when only eleven years old. He used, himself, to tell, as an instance of his youth and simplicity at this time, "that as he was sitting crying for his separation from home, the first lieutenant observed him; and pitying the tender years of
the poor child, spoke to him in terms of much encouragement and kindness; which, as Lord Collingwood said, so won upon his heart, that, taking this officer to his box, he offered him in gratitude a large piece of plumcake which his mother had given him!" Almost from this early period he was the intimate friend and frequent associate of the brave Nelson; and had his full share of the obscure perils and unknown labours which usually form the noviciate of naval eminence. He was made commander in 1779; and being sent to the West Indies after the peace of 1783, was only restored to his family in 1786. He married in 1791; and was again summoned upon active service on the breaking out of the war with France in 1793; from which period to the end of his life, in 1810, he was continually in employment, and never permitted to see that happy home, so dear to his heart, and so constantly in his thoughts, except for one short interval of a year, during the peace of Amiens. During almost the whole of this period he was actually afloat; and was frequently, for a year together, and once for the incredible period of twenty-two months, without dropping an anchor. He was in almost all the great actious, and had more that his share of the anxious blockades, which occurred in that memorable time; and signalised himself in all, by that mixture of considerate vigilance and brilliant courage, which may be said to have constituted his professional character. His first great battle was that which ended in Lord Howe's celebrated victory of the 1st of June, 1794; and we cannot resist the temptation of heading our extracts with a part of the account he has given of it, in a letter to his father-in-law, Mr. Blackett-not so much for the purpose of recalling the proud feelings which must ever cling to the memory of our first triumph over triumphant France, as for the sake of that touching mixture it presents, of domestic affection and family recollections, with high professional enthusiasm, and the kindling spirit of war. In this situation he says:
"We cruised for a few days, like disappointed people looking for what we could not find, until the morning of little Sarah's birth-day, between eight and nine o'clock, when the French fleet, of twentyfive sail of the line was discovered to windward. We chased them, and they bore down within about five miles of us. The night was spent in watching and preparation for the succeeding day; and many a blessing did I send forth to my Sarah, lest I should never bless her more! At dawn, we made our approach on the enemy, then drew up, dressed our ranks, and it was about eight when the Admiral made the signal for each ship to engage her opponent, and bring her to close action, and then down we went under a crowd of sail, and in a manner that would have animated the coldest heart, and ship we were to engage was two a-head of the struck terror into the most intrepid enemy. The French Admiral, so that we had to go through his fire and that of the two ships next him, and received all their broadsides two or three times before we served to the Admiral, that about that time our fired a gun. It was then near ten o'clock. I obwives were going to church, but that I thought that the peal we should ring about the Frenchman's ears would outdo their parish bells! Lord Howe began