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Lord Mulgrave, and he tells me in reply, that he hopes I will stay, for he knows not how to supply my place. The impression which his letter made upon me was one of grief and sorrow: first, that with such a list as we have including more than a hundred admirals-there should be thought to be any difficulty in finding a successor of superior ability to me; and next, that there should be any obstacle in the way of the only comfort and happiness that I have to look forward to in this world."
be required of him.' When he moored in the harbour of Port Mahon, on the 25th February, he was in a state of great suffering and debility; and having been strongly recommended by his medical attendants to try the effect of gentle exercise on horseback, he went immediately on shore, accom. panied by his friend Captain Hallowell, who left his ship to attend him in his illness: but it was then too late. He became incapable of bearing the slightest fatigue; and as it was represented to him that his return to England was indispensably necessary for the preservation of his he, on the 3d of March, surrendered his command to Rear Admiral Martin. The two following days were spent in unsuccessful hon; but on the 6th the wind came round to the attempts to warp the Ville de Paris out of Port Mawestward, and at sunset the ship succeeded in clearing the harbour, and made sail for England. When Lord Collingwood was informed that he was again at sea, he rallied for a time his exhausted strength, and said to those around him, Then I may yet live to meet the French once more.' On the morning of the 7th there was a considerable swell, and his friend Captain Thomas, on entering his cabin, observed, that he feared the motion of the vessel disturbed him. No, Thomas,' he replied; I am now
In answer to Lord Mulgrave's statement, he afterwards writes, that his infirmities had sensibly increased; but "I have no object in the world that I put in competition with my public duty; and so long as your lordship thinks it proper to continue me in this command, my utmost efforts shall be made to strengthen the impression which you now have; but I still hope, that whenever it may be done with convenience, your lordship will bear in mind my request." Soon after he writes thus to his family:-"I am an unhappy creature-old and worn out. I wish to come to England; but some objection is ever made to it." And, in a state in which nothing in this world can disturb me more. I am dying; and I am sure it must be again, "I have been very unwell. The phy-consolatory to you, and all who love me, to see how sician tells me that it is the effect of constant comfortably I am coming to my end.' He told one confinement-which is not very comfortable, of his attendants that he had endeavoured to review, as there seems little chance of its being other- as far as was possible, all the actions of his past life, wise. Old age and its infirmities are coming and that he had the happiness to say, that nothing on me very fast; and I am weak and tottering gave him a moment's uneasiness. He spoke at on my legs. It is high time I should return test in which he was about to leave his country intimes of his absent family, and of the doubtful conto England; and I hope I shall be allowed to volved, but ever with calmness and perfect resigna do it before long. It will otherwise be too late." tion to the will of God; and in this blessed state of And it was too late! He was not relieved- mind, after taking an affectionate farewell of his atand scorning to leave the post assigned to him, in the evening of that day, having attained the age tendants, he expired without a struggle at six o'clock while he had life to maintain it, he died at it, of fifty-nine years and six months. in March, 1810, upwards of eighteen months after he had thus stated to the government his reasons for desiring a recall. The following is the editor's touching and affectionate account of the closing scene-full of pity and of grandeur and harmonising beautifully with the noble career which was destined there to be arrested :—
"After his decease, it was found that, with the exception of the stomach, all the other organs of life were peculiarly vigorous and unimpaired; and from this inspection, and the age which the surviving members of his family have attained, there is every lieved from his command, he would still have been in the enjoyment of the honours and rewards which would doubtless have awaited him on his return to England."
reason to conclude that if he had been earlier re
"Lord Collingwood had been repeatedly urged by his friends to surrender his command, and to seek in England that repose which had become so necessary in his declining health; but his feelings on the subject of discipline were peculiarly strong, and he had ever exacted the most implicit obedience from others. He thought it therefore his duty not to quit the post which had been assigned to him, until he should be duly relieved,—and replied, that his life was his country's, in whatever way it might
The remainder of this article, containing discussions on the practices of flogging in the Navy, and of Impressment (to both which Lord Collingwood, as well as Nelson, were opposed), is now omitted; as scarcely possessing sufficient originality to justify its republication, even in this Miscellany.
Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India from Calcutta to Bombay, 1824, 1825 (with Notes upon Ceylon); an Account of a Journey to Madras and the Southern Provinces, 1826; and Letters written in India. By the late Right Reverend REGINALD HEBER, Lord Bishop of Calcutta. Second Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. London: 1828.
THIS is another book for Englishmen to be proud of almost as delightful as the Memoirs of Lord Collingwood, and indebted for its attractions mainly to the same cause-the singularly amiable and exalted character of the
person to whom it relates-and that combination of gentleness with heroic ambition, and simplicity with high station, which we would still fondly regard as characteristic of our own nation. To us in Scotland the combination
seems, in this instance, even more admirable | the rank and opulence which the station imthan in that of the great Admiral. We have no Bishops on our establishment; and have been accustomed to think that we are better without them. But if we could persuade ourselves that Bishops in general were at all like Bishop Heber, we should tremble for our Presbyterian orthodoxy; and feel not only veneration, but something very like envy for a communion which could number many such men among its ministers.
plied, were likely to realise this character in those who should be placed in it, that our ancestors contended so strenuously for the abrogation of the order, and thought their Reformation incomplete till it was finally put down-till all the ministers of the Gospel were truly pastors of souls, and stood in no other relation to each other than as fellowlabourers in the same vineyard.
If this notion be utterly erroneous, the picture which Bishop Heber has here drawn of himself, must tend powerfully to correct it. If, on the other hand, it be in any respect just, he must be allowed, at all events, to have been a splendid exception. We are willing to take it either way. Though we must say that we incline rather to the latter alternative-since it is difficult to suppose, with all due allowance for prejudices, that our abstract idea of a Bishop should be in such flagrant contradiction to the truth, that one who was merely a fair specimen of the order, should be most accurately characterised by precisely reversing every thing that entered into that idea. Yet this is manifestly the case with Bishop Heber-of whom we do not know at this moment how we could give a better description, than by merely reading backwards all we have now ventured to set down as characteristic of his right reverend brethren. Learned, polished, and dignified, he was undoubtedly; yet far more conspicuously kind, humble, tolerant, and laboriouszealous for his church too, and not forgetful of his station; but remembering it more for the duties than for the honours that were attached to it, and infinitely more zealous for the religious improvement, and for the happiness, and spiritual and worldly good of his fellowcreatures, of every tongue, faith, and complexion: indulgent to all errors and infirmities-liberal, in the best and truest sense of the word-humble and conscientiously diffident of his own excellent judgment and neverfailing charity-looking on all men as the children of one God, on all Christians as the redeemed of one Saviour, and on all Christian teachers as fellow-labourers, bound to help and encourage each other in their arduous and anxious task. His portion of the work, accordingly, he wrought faithfully, zealously, and well; and, devoting himself to his duty with a truly apostolical fervour, made no scruple to forego, for its sake, not merely his personal ease and comfort, but those domestic affections which were ever so much more valuable in his eyes, and in the end, we fear, consummating the sacrifice with his life! If such a character be common among the dignitaries of the English Church, we sincerely congratulate them on the fact, and bow our heads in homage and veneration before them. If it be rare, as we fear it must be in any church, we trust we do no unworthy service in pointing it out for honour and imitation to all; and in praying that the example, in all its parts, may promote the growth of similar virtues among all denominations of Christians, in every region of the world.
The notion entertained of a Bishop, in our antiepiscopal latitudes, is likely enough, we admit, not to be altogether just:-and we are far from upholding it as correct, when we say, that a Bishop, among us, is generally supposed to be a stately and pompous person, clothed in purple and fine linen, and faring sumptuously every day-somewhat obsequious to persons in power, and somewhat haughty and imperative to those who are beneath himwith more authority in his tone and manner, than solidity in his learning; and yet with much more learning than charity or humility -very fond of being called my Lord, and driving about in a coach with mitres on the panels, but little addicted to visiting the sick and fatherless, or earning for himself the blessing of those who are ready to perish
Familiar with a round Of Ladyships-a stranger to the poor' decorous in manners, but no foe to luxurious indulgences-rigid in maintaining discipline among his immediate dependents, and in exacting the homage due to his dignity from the undignified mob of his brethren; but perfectly willing to leave to them the undivided privileges of teaching and of comforting their people, and of soothing the sins and sorrows of their erring flocks-scornful, if not openly hostile, upon all occasions, to the claims of the People, from whom he is generally sprung -and presuming every thing in favour of the royal will and prerogative, by which he has been exalted-setting, indeed, in all cases, a much higher value on the privileges of the few, than the rights that are common to all, and exerting himself strenuously that the former may ever prevail-caring more, accordingly, for the interests of his order than the general good of the church, and far more for the Church than for the Religion it was established to teach-hating dissenters still more bitterly than infidels-but combating both rather with obloquy and invocation of civil penalties, than with the artillery of a powerful reason, or the reconciling influences of an humble and holy life-uttering now and then haughty professions of humility, and regularly bewailing, at fit seasons, the severity of those Episcopal labours, which sadden, and even threaten to abridge a life, which to all other eyes appears to flow on in almost unbroken leisure and continued in dulgence!
This, or something like this, we take to be the notion that most of us Presbyterians have been used to entertain of a modern Bishop: and it is mainly because they believed that
But though the great charm of the book beed; and have for the most part seen even derived from the character of its lamented those, only in the course of some limited proauthor, we are not sure that this is by any fessional or official occupation, and only with means what will give it its great or most per- the eyes of their peculiar craft or profession. manent value. Independently of its moral They have been traders, or soldiers, or taxattraction, we are inclined to think it, on the gatherers-with here and there a diplomatic whole, the most instructive and important agent, an engineer, or a naturalist-all, too publication that has ever been given to the busy, and too much engrossed with the special world, on the actual state and condition of our object of their several missions, to have time Indian Empire: Not only exhibiting a more to look to the general condition of the countryclear, graphic, and intelligible account of the and almost all moving through it, with a reticountry, and the various races by which it is nue and accompaniment of authority, which peopled, by presenting us with more candid, excluded all actual contact with the People, judicious, and reasonable views of all the and even, in a great degree, the possibility of great questions relating to its destiny, and our seeing them in their natural state. We have interests and duties with regard to it, than are historical memoirs accordingly, and accounts any where else to be met with. It is the result, of military expeditions, of great value and no doubt, of a hasty and somewhat superficial accuracy; and are beginning to have reports survey. But it embraces a very wide and of the culture of indigo, of the general profits various range, and thus affords the means of of trade, and of the heights and structure of correcting errors, which are almost insepara-mountains, that may be depended on. But, ble from a narrower observation; and has, with the exception of Mr. Elphinstone's Cauabove all, the inestimable advantage of being bul and Sir John Malcolm's Central Indiagiven while the freshness of the first impres- both relating to very limited and peculiar dission was undiminished, and the fairness of tricts—we have no good account of the country the first judgment unperverted by the gradual or the people. But by far the worst obstrucaccumulation of interests, prejudices, and de- tion to the attainment of correct information ference to partial authorities; and given by is to be found in the hostility which has prea man not only free from all previous bias, vailed for the last fifteen or twenty years, bebut of such singular candour, calmness, and tween the adversaries and the advocates of deliberation of judgment, that we would, in the East India Company and its monopoly; almost any case, take his testimony, even and which has divided almost all who are now on a superficial view, against that of a much able and willing to enlighten us on its concleverer person, who, with ampler opportuni- cerns, into the champions of opposite factions; ties, had surveyed or reported with the feel- characterised, we fear we must add, with a ings, consciously or unconsciously cherished, full share of the partiality, exaggeration, and of an advocate, a theorist, a bigot, or a partisan. inaccuracy, which has at all times been Unhappily, almost all who have hitherto chargeable upon such champions. In so large had the means of knowing much about India, and complicated a subject, there is room of have been, in a greater or less degree, subject course, for plausible representations on both to these influences; and the consequence has sides; but what we chiefly complain of is, been, that though that great country is truly that both parties have been so anxious to a portion of our own-and though we may make a case for themselves, that neither of find, in every large town, whole clubs of in- them have thought of stating the whole facts, telligent men, returned after twenty or thirty so as to enable the public to judge between years' residence in it in high situations, it is them. They have invariably brought forward nearly impossible to get any distinct notion only what they thought peculiarly favourable of its general condition, or to obtain such in- for themselves, or peculiarly unfavourable for formation as to its institutions and capacities the adversary, and have fought to the utteras may be furnished by an ordinary book of ance upon those high grounds of quarrel; but travels, as to countries infinitely less important have left out all that is not prominent and reor easy of access. Various causes, besides markable—that is, all that is truly character
the repulsions of a hostile and jealous reli-istic of the general state of the country, and gion, have conspired to produce this effect. the ordinary conduct of its government; by In the first place, the greater part of our reve- reference to which alone, however, the real nans have been too long in the other world, magnitude of the alleged benefits or abuses to be able to describe it in such a way as to can ever be truly estimated. be either interesting or intelligible to the inhabitants of this. They have been too long familiar with its aspect to know how they would strike a stranger; and have confounded, in their passive and incurious impressions, the most trivial and insignificant usages, with practices and principles that are in the highest degree curious, and of the deepest moral concernment. In the next place, by far the greater part of these experienced and authoritative residents have seen but a very small portion of the mighty regions with which they are too hastily presumed to be generally acquaint
It is chiefly for these reasons that we have hitherto been shy, perhaps to a blamable excess, in engaging with the great questions of Indian policy, which have of late years engrossed so much attention. Feeling the extreme difficulty of getting safe materials for our judgment, we have been conscientiously unwilling to take a decided or leading part in discussions which did not seem to us to be conducted, on either part, in a spirit of perfect fairness, on a sufficient view of well-established facts, or on a large and comprehensive perception of the principles to which
they referred. With a strong general leaning the bath, after having spent the morning in against all monopoly and arbitrary restrictions, the offices of religion, on the 3d of April of we could not but feel that the case of India was peculiar in many respects; and that more The work before us consists of a very cothan usual deliberation was due, not only to pious journal, written for and transmitted to its vast practical importance, but to the weight his wife, during his long peregrinations; and of experience and authority that seemed ar- of several most valuable and interesting letrayed against our predilections; and we long-ters, addressed to her, and to his friends in ed, above all things, for a calm and dispas- England, in the course of the same journey; sionate statement of facts, from a recent and all written in a very pleasing, and even eleintelligent observer, unconnected, if possible, gant, though familiar style, and indicating in either by interest or any other tie, with either every line not only the clear judgment and of the parties, and untainted even by any various accomplishments of the writer, but preparatory study of their controversies; but the singular kindness of heart and sweetness applying his mind with perfect freedom and of temper, by which he seems to have been fairness to what fell under his own immediate still more distinguished. He surveys every observation, and recording his impressions thing with the vigilance and delight of a culwith that tranquil sincerity which can scarcely tivated and most active intellect-with the ever be relied on but where the record is eye of an artist, an antiquary, and a naturalist meant to be absolutely private, and is conse--the feelings and judgment of an English quently made up without any feeling of re- gentleman and scholar-the sympathies of a sponsibility, ambition, or deference. most humane and generous man-and the piety, charity, and humility of a Christian. The work is somewhat diffuse, and exhibits some repetitions, and perhaps some inconsistencies. It is not such a work, in short, as the author would himself have offered to the public. But we do not know whether it is not more interesting than any that he could have prepared for publication. It carries us more completely into the very heart of the scenes he describes than any such work could have done, and it admits us more into his intimacy. We pity those, we confess, who find it tedious to accompany such a man on such a journey.
It is difficult to select extracts from a work like this; or, rather, it is not worth while to stand on selection. We cannot pretend to give any abstract of the whole, or to transfer to our pages any reasonable proportion of the beauty or instruction it contains.. We can only justify our account of it by a few specimens, taken very much at random. The following may serve to show the unaffected and considerate kindness with which he treated his attendants, and all the inferior persons who came in contact with him; and the effects of that kindness on its objects.
Such a statement, and much more than such a statement, we have in the work before us; and both now, and on all future occasions, we feel that it has relieved us from the chief difficulty we have hitherto experienced in forming our opinions, and supplied the most valuable elements for the discussions to which we have alluded. The author, it must be admitted, was more in connection with the Government than with any party or individual opposed to it, and was more exposed, therefore, to a bias in that direction. But he was, at the same time, so entirely independent of its favours, and so much more removed from its influence than any one with nearly the same means of observation, and was withal of a nature so perfectly candid, upright, and conscientious, that he may be regarded, we think, as altogether impartial; and we verily believe has set down nothing in this private journal, intended only for his own eye or that of his wife, not only that he did not honestly think, but that he would not have openly stated to the Governor in Council, or to the Court of Directors themselves.
The Bishop sailed for India with his family, in 1823; and in June 1824, set out on the visitation of his Imperial Diocese, having been obliged, much against his will, to leave his wife and children, on account of their health, behind him. He ascended the Ganges to Dacca and Benares, and proceeded by Oude and Lucknow to Delhi and Agra, and to Almorah at the base of the Himalaya mountains, and so onward through the newly-acquired provinces of Malwah, to Guzerat and Bombay, where he had the happiness of rejoining Mrs. Heber. They afterwards sailed together to Ceylon; and after some stay in that island, re-myself ill, and said repeatedly that the sight of me in good health would be better to them than all turned, in October 1825, to Calcutta. In Jan- medicines. They seemed now free from disease, uary 1826. the indefatigable prelate sailed but recovered their strength more slowly than I did; again for Madras, and proceeded in March to and I was glad to find that the Soubahdar said he the visitation of the southern provinces; but was authorized, under such circumstances, to engage had only reached Tanjore, when his arduous a hackery at the Company's expense, to carry them and exemplary career was cut short, and all till they were fit to march. He mentioned this in his labours of love and duty brought to an end, which they were afraid of trying," consequence of my offering them a lift on a camel, by a sudden and most unexpected deathhaving been seized with a fit in stepping into
"Two of my sepoys had been ill for several days, in much the same way with myself. I had treated them in a similar manner, and they were now doing well: But being Brahmins of high caste, I had much difficulty in conquering their scruples and doubts about the physic which I gave them. They They scrupled at my using a spoon to measure their both said that they would rather die than taste wine. castor-oil, and insisted that the water in which their medicines were mixed, should be poured by themselves only. They were very grateful however, particularly for the care I took of them when I was
"I had a singular instance this evening of the fact how mere children all soldiers, and I think par
ticularly sepoys, are, when put a little out of their and occurrences; the price of passage in the bost usual way. On going to the place where my es- was only a few cowries; but a number of country cort was hutted, I found that there was not room for folk were assembled, who could not, or would no, them all under its shelter, and that four were pre-pay, and were now sitting patiently by the brink, paring to sleep on the open field. Within a hun-waiting till the torrent should subside, or, what was dred yards stood another similar hut unoccupied, a far less likely to happen, till the boatmen should little out of repair, but tolerably tenantable. Why take compassion on them. Many of these poor do you not go thither?' was my question. We people came up to beg me to make the boatmen like to sleep altogether,' was their answer. But take them over, one woman pleading that bet why not bring the branches here, and make your malik our bucher,' (literally master, or lord, and own hut larger? see, I will show you the way.' young one) had run away from her, and she wanted They started up immediately in great apparent de- to overtake them; another that she nd her two light; every man brought a bough, and the work grandchildren were following her son, who was a was done in five minutes-being only interrupted Havildar in the regiment which we had passed just every now and then by exclamations of Good, before; and some others, that they had been intergood, poor man's provider!"". cepted the previous day by this torrent, and had neither money nor food till they had reached their homes. Four anas purchased a passage for the whole crowd, of perhaps thirty people, and they were really very thankful. I bestowed two anas more on the poor deserted woman, and a whimsical scene ensued. She at first took the money with eagerness, then, as if she recollected herself, she blushed very deeply, and seemed much confused, then bowed herself to my feet, and kissed my hands, and at last said, in a very modest tone, it was not fit for so great a man as I was, to give her two anas, and she hoped that I and the 'chota Sahib,' (little lord) would give her a rupee each! She was an extremely pretty little woman, but we were inexorable; partly, I believe, in my own case at least, because we had only just rupees enough to take us to Cawnpoor, and to pay for our men's provisions; however, I gave her two more anas, my sole remaining stock of small change.'
"A little before five in the morning, the servants came to me for directions, and to say that the good careful old Soubahdar was very ill, and unable to leave his tent. I immediately put on my clothes and went down to the camp, in my way to which they told me, that he had been taken unwell at night, and that Dr. Smith had given him medicine. He opened a vein, and with much humane patience, continued to try different remedies while any chance remained; but no blood flowed, and no sign of life could be detected from the time of his coming up, except a feeble flutter at the heart, which soon ceased. He was at an advanced age, at least for an Indian, though apparently hale and robust. I felt it a comfort that I had not urged him to any exertion, and that in fact I had endeavoured to persuade him to lie still till he was quite well. But I was necessarily much shocked by the sudden end of one who had travelled with me so far, and whose conduct had, in every instance, given me satisfaction. Nor, while writing this, can I recollect without a real pang, his calm countenance and grey hairs, as he sate in his tent door, telling his beads in an afternoon, or walked with me, as he seldom failed to do, through the villages on an evening, with his own silver-hilted sabre under his arm, his loose cotfon mantle folded round him, and his golden necklace and Rajpoot string just visible above it.
"In the course of this evening a fellow, who said he was a gao-wala brought me two poor little leverets, which he said he had just found in a field. "The death of the poor Soubahdar led to the They were quite unfit to eat, and bringing them question, whether there would be still time to send was an act of cruelty of which there are few inon the baggage. All the Mussulmans pressed our stances among the Hindoos, who are generally immediate departure; while the Hindoos begged humane to wild animals. In this case, on my scoldthat they might be allowed to stay, at least, tilling the man for bringing such poor little things from sunset. I determined on remaining, as, in my opin- their mother, all the crowd of camel-drivers and ion, more decent and respectful to the memory of a camp-followers, of whom no inconsiderable number good and aged officer." were around us, expressed great satisfaction and an entire concurrence in my censure. It ended in the man promising to take them back to the very spot (which he described) where he had picked them up, and in my promising him an ana if he did so. To see him keep his word two stout waggoner's boys immediately volunteered their services, and I have no doubt kept him to his contract.
"The same adviser wanted me to take off a joint of Câbul's tail, under the hair, so as not to injure his appearance. 'It was known,' he said, that by how much the tail was made shorter, so much the taller the horse grew.' I said I could not believe that God gave any animal a limb too much, or one which tended to its disadvantage, and that as He had made my horse, so he should remain.' This speech, such as it was, seemed to chime in wonderfully with the feelings of most of my hearers; and one old man said, that during all the twenty-two years that the English held the country, he had not heard so grave and godly a saying from any of them before. I thought of Sancho Panza and his wise apophthegms!
Our elephants were receiving their drink at a well, and I gave the largest some bread, which, before my illness, I had often been in the habit of doing. He is glad to see you again,' observed the goomashta, and I certainly was much struck by the calm, clear, attentive, intelligent eye which he fixed on me, both while he was eating, and afterwards while I was patting his trunk and talking about him.
"In the way, at Futtehgunge, I passed the tents pitched for the large party which were to return towards Cawnpoor next day, and I was much pleased and gratified by the Soubahdar and the greater number of the sepoys of my old escort running into the middle of the road to bid me another farewell, and again express their regret that they were not going on with me to the world's end.' They who talk of the ingratitude of the Indian character, should, I think, pay a little more attention to cases of this sort. These men neither got nor expected any thing by this little expression of good-will. If I had offered them money, they would have been bound, by the rules of the service, and their own dignity, not to take it. Sufficient civility and respect would have been paid if any of them who happened to be near the road had touched their caps, and I really can suppose them actuated by no motive but good-will. It had not been excited, so far as I know, by any particular desert on my part: but I had always spoken to them civilly, had paid some attention to their comforts in securing them tents, firewood, and camels for their knapsacks, and had ordered them a dinner, after their own fashion, on their arrival at Lucknow, at the expense of, I believe, not more than four rupees! Surely if good-will is to be bought by these sort of attentions, it is a pity that any body should neglect them."
"In crossing a nuddee, which from a ford had become a ferry, we saw some characteristic groups
These few traits will do, we believe; but we must add a few more, to let the reader fully into the noble humanity and genuine softness of this man's heart.