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layer of earth, not wholly bare of grass, and very fertile of thistles. A small herd of cows grazes annually upon it in the summer. It seems never to have afforded to man or beast a permanent habitation.
We found only the ruins of a small fort, not so injured by time but that it might be easily restored to its former ftate. It seemis never to have been intended as a place of strength, nor was built to endure a liege, but merely to afford cover to a few soldiers, who perhaps had the charge of a battery, or were fationed to give signals of approaching danger. There is therefore no provision of water within the walls, though the spring is so near, that it might have been easily enclosed. One of the ftones had this inscription : “ Maria Reg. “ 1564.". It has probably been neglected from the time that the whole island had
the same king.
We left this little island with our thoughts employed awhile on the different appearance that it would have made, if it had been placed at the same distance from London, with the same facility of approach ; with what emulation of price a few rocky acres would have been purchased, and with what expensive industry they would have been cultivated and adorned.
When we landed, we found our chaise ready, and passed through Kinghorn, Kirkaldy, and Cowpar, places not unlike the small or straggling market-towns in those parts of England where commerce and manufactures have not yet produced opulence.
Though we were yet in the most
part of Scotland, and at fo small a distance from the capital, we met few palsengers.
The roads are neither rough nor dirty ; and it affords a fouthern stranger a new kind of pleasure to travel so commodiously without the interruption of toll.gates. Where the bottom is rocky, as it feems commonly to be in Scotland, a smooth way is made indeed with great labour, but it never wants repairs; and in those parts where adventitious materials are neceffary, the ground once confolidated is rarely broken; for the inland commerce is not great, nor are heavy commodities often transported otherwise that by water. The Carriages in common use are small carts, drawn each-by- one little horfe; and a man seems to derive fome degree of dignity and importance from the reputation of pofsefling a two-horse cart.
ST. AN DR E W S.
At an hour fomewhat late we came to St. Andrews, a city once archiepiscopal ; B 3
where that university still subfifts in which philofophy was formerly caught by Buchanan, whose name has as fair a claim to immortality as can be conferred by modern latinity, and perhaps a fairer than the inftability of vernacular languages admits.
We found, that by the interposition of fome invisible friend, lodgings had been provided for us at the house of one of the profeffors, whose easy civility quickly made us forget that we were strangers.; and in the whole time of our stay we were gratified by every mode of kindness, and en. tertained with all the elegance of lettered hospitality.
In the morning we rose to perambulate a city, which only history Thews to have once flourished, and surveyed the ruins of ancient magnificence, of which even the ruins cannot long be visible, unless foine care be taken to preserve them ; and where
is the pleasure of preserving such mournful memorials? They have been till very lately so much neglected, that every man carried away the stones who fancied that he wanted them.
The cathedral, of which the foundations may be still traced, and a small
of the wall is standing, appears to have been a spacious and majestick-building, not unsuitable to the primacy of the kingdom. Of the architecture, the poor remains can hardly exhibit, even to an artist, a sufficient specimen. It was demolished; as is well known, in the tumult and violence of Knox's reformation.
Not far from the cathedral, on the margin of the water, stands a fragment of the castle, in which the archbishop anciently resided. It was never very large, and was built with more attention to security. than pleasure. Cardinal Beatoun is said to have B 4