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der themselves. They replied, that “they had engaged by the most solemn oaths not to deliver up their persons to him on any condition ; and requested permission to retire to the mountains with their wives and children.” The Roman general, enraged at this insolence, ordered proclamation to be made, that not one of them should be spared, since they persisted in rejecting his last offers of pardon.
17. The daughter of Zion, or the lower city, was next abandoned to the fury of the Roman soldiers, who plundered, burnt, and massacred, with insatiable rage. The zealots next betook themselves to the royal palace, in the upper and stronger part of Jerusalem, styled also the city of David, on Mount Zion. As many of the Jews had deposited their possessions in the palace for security, they attacked it, killed eight thousand four hundred of their countrymen, and plundered their property.
18. The Roman army spent nearly twenty days in making great preparations for attacking the upper city, especial. ly the royal palace; during which time many came and made their submission to Titus. The warlike engines then played so furiously upon the zealots, that they were seized with a sudden panic, quitted the towers which were deemed impregnable, and ran like madmen towards Shiloah, intend. ing to have attacked the wall of circumvallation, and escaped out of the city. But being vigorously repulsed, they endea. vored to conceal themselves in subterraneous passages; and as many as were discovered, were put to death
19. The conquest of Jerusalem being now completed, the Romans placed their ensigns upon the walls with triumphan joy. They next walked the streets, with swords in their hands, and killed all they met. Amidst the darkness of that awful night, fire was set to the remaining divisions of the city, and Jerusalem, wrapped in flames, and bleeding on every side, sunk in utter ruin and destruction. During the siege, which lasted nearly five months, upwards of eleven hundred thousand Jew's perished. John and Simon, the two grand rebels, with seven hundred of the most beautiful and vigorous of the Jewish youth, were reserved to attend in the victor's triumphal chariot. After which Simon was put 1 to death; and John, who had stooped to beg his life, condemned to perpetual imprisonment.
How long did the siege last ? --How many Jews perished in it: 1
20. The number who were taken captive, during the fatal ntest with the Romans, amounted to ninety-seven thound, many of whom were sent into Syria, and other proaces, to be exposed on the public theatres, to fight like glaators, or to be devoured by wild beasts. The number of ose destroyed, during the war, which lasted seven years,
computed to have been one million four hundred and xty-two thousand. When the sword had returned to its :abbard, for want of objects whereon to exercise its fury, id the troops were satisfied with plunder, Titus commandI the whole city and temple to be demolished. Thus ere our Saviour's prophecies fulfilled—“ Thine enemies iall lay thee even with the ground, and there shall not be left ze stone upon another.”
ORDER OF NATURE.
1. See, through this air, this ocean, and this earth,
2. What if the foot, ordain'd the dust to tread,
3. All are but parts of one stupendous whole,
4. Cease, then, nor Order imperfection name;
THE FALL OF ROME.
1. AFTER various wars and competitions, Constantine, in the year of Christ 320, became sole master of the Roman empire. He certainly did whatever could be done, by an accomplished general and statesman, towards restoring the empire to its ancient glory. But, alas! he did not reign over the ancient Romans. His people had been often de
When did Constantine become master of Rome ?
feated, humbled, enslaved, and trampled in the dust. The true Roman spirit was long since utterly extinguished ; and as we have had occasion to observe, Italy itself was filled with a mighty heterogeneous mass of population, of no fixed character. His strong genius, for a moment, sustained, but could not ultimately save, the falling fabric.
2. The ambition of Constantine gave a more fatal blow to the Roman empire, than even the vices of Commodus. To secure to himself a glory equal to that of Romulus, he formed the resolution of changing the seat of empire. The place upon which he pitched as a new capital, and which should immortalize his name, was indeed well chosen. The ancient city of Byzantium enjoyed the finest port in the world, on the strait of the Thracian Bosphorus, which communicates with those inland seas, whose shores are formed by the most opulent and delightful countries of Europe and Asia. Thither Constantine caused the wealth of the empire to be conveyed; and directly a new and splendid city arose, which was able to rival ancient Rome. That proud capital, so long the mistress of empire, suddenly became but a satellite, and was forsaken of honor, wealth, and glory ; since the emperor, and all who were devoted to his interest, used every possible means to exalt the new seat of empire.
3. This wound was deadly and incurable. It proved fatal not only to one city, but to the western empire. Rome was utterly abandoned by Constantine ; nor was it much alleviated under his successors, among whom a permanent division of the empire taking place, Rome and Italy fell under the government of a series of weak, miserable, shortlived tyrants, who rose by conspiracy, and fell by murder, in rapid succession ; till, in the 476th year of the Christian æra, Augustulus, the last of the Roman emperors, was conquered and dethroned by Odoacer, king of the Heruli, who, at the head of an immense army of barbarians, overrun all Italy, and put a period to the western empire.
4. Thus ended Rome, after having stood 1229 years. When we consider the length of her duration, her character, and the nature and extent of her resources, we shall not
What method did Constantine adopt to immortalize his name? What was the original name of Constantinople ? - Who put a period to the Roman empire ?-When did he do it? How long had Rome hesitate to pronounce her the most powerful and important city which ever existed, and as standing at the head of the first rank of cities. But if this remark is true of Rome in the times of which we are now speaking, it will serve to awaken our admiration, when we consider that Rome survired even this shock; and, as though she was destined to bear rule, from being the head of a most powerful empire, she soon became the head of an ecclesiastical institution not less powerful. She spread her wing over all the powers of Europe. They trembled at her mandates. She deposed monarchs at her pleasure, trampled on crowns and sceptres, and, for ten centuries, exerted the most despotic sovereignty. She is, even to this day, one of the finest cities in the world.
then existed ?
RISE OF MAHOMETANISM.
1. WHATEVER might have been the extraction of Mahomet, his property was small. He engaged himself as a servant to a rich widow of Mecca, who bestowed on him her hand and her fortune, and raised him to the rank of an opl. lent citizen. He is said to have been a man of extraordinary bodily and mental accomplishments. The former part of his character is probable, the latter is unquestionable. The endowments of his mind, however, were the gifts of nature, not of education, since, as it is asserted, he was wholly illiterate.-Such was the man, who was destined to effect the greatest revolution in human ideas, as well as in human affairs, that has ever taken place since the establishment of Christianity. Inspired by enthusiasm or ambition, he withdrew to a cave about three miles from the city, and having there spent some time in silent contemplation, announced himself a prophet of the Most High, and proclaimed the re ligion of the Koran.
2. The religion then prevailing in Arabia was Zabaism, which, as in all other countries, had degenerated into the grossest idolatry; but as universal toleration and uncivilized
How did Mahomet acquire his riches ?-Where was the Koran written ?-What was the religion of Arabia when Mahomet began his career ?