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ble for him either to make a large front, or to give an equal depth to his battalions. He was obliged, therefore, to take his choice ; and he imagined, that he could gain the victory, no otherwise than by the efforts he should make with his two wings, in order to break and disperse those of the Persians; not doubting but, when his wings were once victorious, they would be able to attack the enemy's main flank, and complete the victory without much difficulty. This was the same plan as Hannibal followed afterwards at the battle of Cannæ, which succeeded so well with him, and which indeed can scarce ever fail of succeeding.
5. The Persians then attacked the main body of the Grecian army, and made their greatest efforts particularly upon their front. This was led by Aristides and Themistocles, who supported it a long time with an intrepid courage and bravery; but were at length obliged to give ground. At that very instant came up their two victorious wings, which had defeated those of the enemy, and put them to fight. No thing could be more seasonable for the main body of the Grecian army, which began to be broken, being quite borne down by the numbers of the Persians. The scale was quickly turned, and the barbarians were entirely routed. They all betook themselves to their heels, and fled, not towards their camp, but to their ships, that they might make their es. cape. The Athenians pursued them thither, took seven of their ships, and set many of them on fire. The Athenians had not above 200 men killed in this engagement; whereas of the Persians above 6,000 were slain, without reckoning those who fell into the sea as they endeavored to escape, or those that were consumed with the ships set on fire.
6. Hippias was killed in the battle. That ungrateful and perfidious citizen, in order to recover the unjust dominion usurped by his father, Pisistratus, over the Athenians, had the baseness to become a servile courtier to a barbarian prince, and to implore his aid against his native country. Urged on by hatred and revenge, he suggested all the means he could invent to load his country with chains; and even put himself at the head of its enemies, with design to reduce that city to ashes, to which he owed his birth, and against which he had
How many of the Athenians were slain in this battle ?—How many of the Persians ?
no other ground of complaint than that she would not acknowledge him for her tyrant. An ignominious death, together with everlasting infamy entailed upon his name, was the just reward of so black a treachery.
7. It is almost without example, that such a handful of men as the Athenians were, should not only make head against so numerous an army as that of the Persians, but should entirely rout and defeat them. One is astonished to see so formidable a power attack so small a city, and miscarry; and we are almost tempted to disbelieve the truth of an event that appears so improbable, and which, nevertheless, is very certain and unquestionable. This battle alone shows what wonderful things may be performed by an able general, who knows how to take his advantages ; by the intrepidity of soldiers, who are not afraid of death ; by a zeal for one's country; the love of liberty ; an hatred and detestation of slavery and tyranny; which were sentiments natural to the Athenians, but undoubtedly very much augmented and infamed in them by the very presence of Hippias, whom they dreaded to have again for their master, after all that had passed between them.
1. SENECA was born in Corduba, in Spain, about the beginning of the Christian era. Though he was bred to the law, his genius led him rather to philosophy, and he applied
his wit to morality and virtue. Notwithstanding his philoF, sophic studies, he was first made quæstor, then prætor, and
some say that he was chosen consul; but whether he bore those honors before or after his banishment, is uncertain.
2. In the first year of the emperor Claudius, he was banished into Corsica, when Julia, the daughter of Germanicus, was accused by Messalina of adultery ; Seneca being charged as one of the adulterers. But Messalina dying, and Agrippina being married to Claudius, she prevailed upon the femperor to recal Seneca, after he had lived in exile about
- Where was Seneca born ?-When ?-By whom was he banished
into Corsica? -For what was he banished:
eight years. She afterwards recommended him as tutor to her son Nero. Had that prince attended to the wisdom of his preceptor, through the course of his reign, as much as he did for the first five years of it, he would have been the delight instead of the detestation of mankind.
3. Nero condemned Seneca to die, under pretence that he had conspired with Piso, to deprive him of the government. The manner of his death is particularly related by Tacitus. “ Now follows," says he, “the death of Seneca, to Nero's great satisfaction ; not because it appeared that he was of Piso's conspiracy, but because Nero was resolved to do that by the sword, which he could not effect by poison ; for it is reported, that Nero had bribed Cleonicus, Seneca's freedman, to give his master poison, which did not succeed; for his diet was very simple. He lived chiefly upon vegetables, and seldom drank any thing but water..
4. “Natalis was sent upon a visit to him with a complaint, that he would not permit Piso to visit him. To whom Seneca answered, that meetings and conferences between them could do neither of them any good, but that he had a great interest in Piso's welfare. Upon this, Granius Silvanus, a captain of the guard, was sent to examine Seneca upon the discourse which had passed between him and Natalis, and to return his answer. He found Seneca at supper with his wife, Paulina, and two of his friends, and immediately gave him an account of his commission. Seneca told him that it was true, that Natalis had been with him in Piso's name, with 1; a complaint that Piso could not be admitted to see him, and that he excused himself by reason of his want of health.
5. “ This answer of Seneca was delivered to Cæsar in the presence of Poppea and Tigellinus, the intimate confidants of this barbarous prince; and Nero asked him, whether he could gather any thing from Seneca, as if he intended to kill himself. The tribune's answer was, that he did not find him at all affected with the message, nor so much as change countenance upon it. Go back to him, then, says Nero, and tell him that he is condemned to die ; but that the manner of his death is left to his own choice. Seneca received the
To whom was Seneca a tutor ?-Who condemned him to death? Why was he condemned ?
nessage without surprise or disorder ; and chose to die by aving his veins opened in a warm bath.
6. « On the day of his death, seeing his friends very much ffected, he said to them—Where is all your philosophy now? Vhere is all your premeditated resolutions against weakness f behavior ? Is there any man so ignorant of Nero's cruIty, as to expect, after the murder of his mother, and his rother, that he should spare the life of his tutor ?"
7. After some general expressions to this purpose, he took is wife in his arms, and having somewhat fortified her gainst the present calamity, he besought and conjured her o moderate her sorrows and betake herself to the contemplaion and comforts of a virtuous life, which would be ample ompensation to her for the loss of her husband. Paulina, →n the other hand, said, she was determined to bear him ompany; and ordered the executioner to do his duty.
8. Accordingly, the veins of both their arms were opened it the same time. But after Paulina had bled for a consilerable time, Nero gave orders to prevent her death, for fear iis cruelty should grow more insupportable and odious. Whereupon the soldiers gave all freedom and encouragement o her servants to bind up the wounds, and to stop the blood; but whether at the time they were doing it, she was sensible »f it, is a question. She survived her husband for some years, with all respect to his memory; but so miserably pale und wan, that every body might read the loss of her blood and spirits in her very countenance.
9. Seneca was an excellent moralist, and a sound philosopher ; but he does not make so considerable a figure as a poet, and a writer of tragedies. His sentiments, indeed, are sublime, and his images lively and poetical ; but both the fable and the execution of his plays are irregular. He wants that noble simplicity, and pathetic manner, which recommended Euripides ; and he seems to have written more for the use of the closet, than of the stage.
In what manner was Seneca executed ?
1. They praise and they admire they know not what,
2. They err who count it glorious, to subdue
THE CARTHAGINIANS. 1. It is supposed that Carthage had its origin about one hundred years before Romulus began the building of Rome, and eight hundred and fifty years before the Christian era. The founders of it were a company of Phænicians. Dido,
By whom, and when, was Carthage founded?