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strip him of them." “But, (which is still worse) if he hat held intelligence with your enemies, how would you trea him ?” Though I should pass sentence upon myself,” re plied the king," I must declare the truth ; I would put hin to death.” At these words Tigranes tore his hair from his head, and rent his garments ; the women burst out into la mentations and outcries, as if sentence was actually passet upon

him. 6. Cyrus having again commanded silence, Tigranes ad dressed himself to the prince to this effect: “Great prince can you think it consistent with your wisdom to put my fa. ther to death, even against your own interest ?” against my interest ?" replied Cyrus. " Because he was never so capable of doing you service.” “ How do you make that appear ? Do the faults we commit enhance our merit, and give us a new title to consideration and favor ?" They certainly do, provided they serve to make us wiser. For of inestimable value is wisdom ; are either riches, courage, or address to be compared to it? Now, it is evident this single day's experience has infinitely improved my father's wisdom. He knows how dear the violation of his word has cost him. He has proved and felt how much you are superior to him in all respects. He has not been able to succeed in any of his designs; but you have happily accomplished all yours, and with that expedition and secrecy, that he has found himself surrounded and taken before he expected to be attacked ; and the very place of his retreat has served only to ensnare him." “But your father,” replied Cyrus, “ has yet undergone no sufferings that can have taught him wisdom.” " The fear of evils,” answered Tigranes, “when it is so well founded as this is, has a much sharper sting, and is more capable of piercing the soul than the evil itself

. Besides, permit me to say, that gratitude is a stronger and more prevailing motive than any whatever ; and there can be no obligations in the world of a higher nature than those you will lay upon my father. His fortune, liberty, sceptre, life, wives, and children, all restored to him with such a generosity ; where can you find, illustrious prince, in one single person, so many strong and powerful ties to attach him to your service ?"

How were Tigranes and the women affected when the king con fessed himself guilty ?- Through whose solicitations did Cyrus spar the king?


1. "Well, then,” replied Cyrus, turning to the king, “ if hould yield to your son's entreaties, with what number of in, and what sum of money, will you assist us in the war ainst the Babylonians !" "My troops and treasures," says • Armenian king, are no longer mine; they are entirely urs. I can raise 40,000 foot, and 8,000 horse; and as to oney, I reckon, including the treasures which my father left 2, there are about 3,000 talents in ready money. All these e wholly at your disposal.” Cyrus accepted half the num:r of troops, and left the king the other half, for the defence

the country against the Chaldeans with whom he was at ar. The annual tribute which was due to the Medes he publed, and instead of 50 talents exacted 100, and borrowed le like sum over and above in his own name. “ But what ould you give me,” added Cyrus, “ for the ransom of your ives ?" "All that I have in the world,” answered the king. And for the ransom of your children ?"

"The same “ From this time, then, you are indebted to me the ouble of all your possessions! and you, Tigranes, at what rice would you redeem the liberty of your lady ?" Now e had but lately married her, and was passionately fond of

" At the price,” says he,“ of a thousand lives, if I had hem.” Cyrus then conducted them all to his tent, and enertained them at supper. It is easy to imagine what trans. orts of joy there must have been upon this occasion.

8. After supper, as they were discoursing upon various ubjects, Cyrus asked Tigranes, what was become of a goernor he had often seen hunting with him, and for whom le had a particular esteem. Alas,” says Tigranes," he is 10 more ; and I dare not tell you by what accident I lost aim." Cyrus pressing him to tell him, " My father," coninued Tigranes, “seeing I had a very tender affection for his governor, and that I was extremely attached to him, was ealous it might be of some ill consequence, and put him to heath. But he was so honest a man, that, as he was ready 10 expire, he sent for me, and spoke to me in these words * Tigranes, let not my death occasion any disaffection in you towards the king your father. What he has done to me did not proceed from malice, but only from prejudice and


Ex What did Tigranes propose to give for the liberty of himself and

life ?

a false notion wherewith he was unhappily blinded.” the excellent man !" cried Cyrus, never forget the last a vice he gave you."

9. When the conversation was ended, Cyrus, before the parted embraced them all, as in token of a perfect reconcili tion. This done, they got into their chariots, with their wive and went home full of gratitude and admiration. Nothin but Cyrus was mentioned the whole way; some extolling h wisdom, others his valor, some admiring the sweetness o his temper, others praising the beauty of his person and th majesty of his mien." And you,” says Tigranes, addressin himself to his lady, " what do you think of Cyrus' aspect an deportment ?". "I do not know," replied the lady, “ I di not observe him." Upon what subject then did you fi your eyes ?” “Upon him that said he would give a thou sand lives to ransom my liberty.”



1. The ambition of Cæsar and of Pompey had now evidently the same object ; and it seemed to be the only question in those degenerate times, to which of these aspiring leaders the republic should surrender its liberties. The term of Cæsar's government was nearly expiring ; but to secure himself against a deprivation of power, he procured a proposal to be made in the senate by one of his partisans, which wore the appearance of great moderation, namely, that Cæsar and Pompey should either both continue in their governments, or both be deprived of them, as they were equally capable of endangering the public liberty by an abuse of power.

2. The motion passed, and Cæsar immediately offered to resign, on condition that his rival should do so ; but Pompey rejected the accommodation'; the term of his government had yet several years duration, and he suspected the proposal to be a snare laid for him by Cæsar. He resolved to maintain his right by force of arms, and a civil war was

What strong expression of her gratitude did she make to her husband ? What proposition did æsar make ?-Did Pompey accede to it!

= necessary conséquence. The consuls and a great part

the senate were the friends of Pompey: Cæsar had on s side a victorious army, consisting of ten legions, and the dy of the Roman citizens, whom he had won by his libelity. Mark Antony and Cassius, at that time tribunes of e people, left Rome and repaired to Cæsar's camp. 3. The senate, apprehensive of his designs, pronounced a scree, branding, with the crime of parricide, any command· who should dare to pass the Rubicon, (the boundary beveen Italy and the Gauls) with a single cohort, without leir permission. Cæsar infringed the prohibition, and iarched straight to Rome. Pompey, to whom the senate ommitted the defence of the state, had no army. He quited Rome, followed by the consuls and a part of the senate, nd endeavored hastily to levy troops over all Italy and ireece; while Cæsar triumphantly entered the city, amidst he acclamations of the people, seized the public treasury, .nd possessed himself of the supreme authority without opYosition.

4. Having secured the capital of the empire, he set out to ake the field against his enemies. The lieutenants of Pompey had possession of Spain. Cæsar marched thither, and subdued the whole country in the space of forty days. He returned victorious to Rome, where, in his absence, he had been nominated dictator. In the succeeding election of magistrates, he was chosen consul ; and thus invested, by a double title, with the right of acting in the name of the republic. Pompey had, by this time, raised a numerous army, and Cæsar was anxious to bring him to a decisive engagement. He joined him in Illyria, and the first conflict was of doubtful issue ; but leading on his army to Macedonia, where they found a large reinforcement, he gave battle to Pompey in the field of Pharsalia, and entirely defeated him. Fifteen thousand were slain, and 24,000 surrendered themselves prisoners to the victor, A. U. C.* 705, B. C. 49.

What decree did the Roman senate pronounce at this time ?= What did Pompey, as Cæsar advanced to Rome ?--With what title

was Cæsar invested, after returning from Spain ?--At what battle, was Pompey defeated ?

* Anno Urbis Conditæ, or year of building the city,


1. As the armies approached, the two generals went from rank to rank, encouraging their troops. Pompey represented to his men, that the glorious occasion, which they had long besought him to grant, was now before them ; " and indeed,” cried he,“ what advantages could you wish over an enemy, that you are not now possessed of! Your numbers, your vigor, a late victory, all ensure a speedy and an easy conquest over those harassed and broken troops, composed of men worn out with age, and impressed with the terrors of a recent defeat, But there is a still stronger bulwark for our protection than the superiority of our strength-the justice of our cause. You are engaged in the defence of liberty, and of your country. You are supported by its laws, and followed by its magistrates. You have the world spectators of your conduct, and wishing you success.

On the contrary, he whom you oppose is a robber and oppressor of his country, and almost already sunk with the consciousness of his crimes, as well as the bad success of his arms. Show, then, on this occasion, all that ardor, and detestation of tyranny, that should animate Romans, and do justice to mankind."

2. Cæsar, on his side, went among his men with that steady serenity, for which he was so much admired in the midst of danger. He insisted on nothing so strongly, to his soldiers, as his frequent and unsuccessful endeavors for peace. He talked, with terror, on the blood he was going to shed, and pleaded only the necessity that urged him to it. He deplored the many brave men that were to fall on both si and the wounds of his country, whoever should be victorious. His soldiers answered his speech with looks of ardor and impatience; which observing, he gave the signal to begin. The word on Pompey's side was, Hercules the invincible ; that on Cæsar's, Venus the victorious. There was only so much space between both armies, as to give room for fighting ; wherefore, Pompey ordered his men to receive the first shock, without moving out of their places, expecting the enemy's ranks to be put into disorder by their motion. Cæsar's soldiers were now rushing on with their usual impetuosity, when, perceiving the enemy motionless, they all stopped short, as if by general consent, and halted in the midst of

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