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2. Antony and Cleopatra escaped to Alexandria, wher she put many great persons to death, fearing they might tak up arms against her on account of the defeat she had me with. To avoid falling into the hands of Cæsar, she forme the most extraordinary design of having her ships in th Mediterranean carried into the Red Sea, over the isthmu of seventy miles; but in this she was prevented by the Ara bians, who burnt them all. Antony finding himself deserte by all his followers, for some time secluded himself fron company in his house, which he called Timonium, wher he pretended to act the part of Timon the man-hater ; bu he soon returned to Cleopatra, and with her spent the re mainder of his life.
3. They agreed to send ambassadors to Cæsar, to sue fo peace; and Antony submitted to the meanness of demand ing life of him, on the shameful conditions of passing it a Athens, as a private person, if Cæsar would give Egypt to Cleopatra and her children. The queen, however, was so treacherous as to give private orders to her ambassadors, to mention her only in the treaty. Cæsar would not admit Antony's ambassadors to an audience; but he gave a favora: ble reception to those of the queen, being particularly desirous of securing her person to adorn his triumph, and her treasures to enable him to pay the debts he had contracted to defray the expense of the war.
4. The ambassadors proving unsuccessful, Antony endeavoured to extinguish in himself the sense of his present misfortunes, and the apprehension of those that threatened him, by abandoning himself to feasting and voluptuousness. Cleopatra and he regaled themselves alternately, and emulously contended to excel each other in the incredible magnificence of their banquets. Cleopatra, however, foresaw what might happen, and collecting all sorts of poison, discovered at length that the asp was the only one which caused neither torture nor convulsions, and which throwing the person bit into an immediate heaviness and stupefaction, attended with a slight perspiration upon the face, and a numbness of all the organs of sense, gently extinguishing life ; , so that those who were in that condition, were angry when any
What extraordinary measure did Cleopatra adopt to prevent falling into the hands of Cæsar?
one awakened them, or endeavoured to make them rise, like people exceedingly sleepy. This was the poison she fixed pon; but applied herself, with extraordinary solicitude, in aressing Antony, to dispel his suspicions and complaints.
5. Cæsar, being fully sensible that it was of the highest importance to him not to leave his victory unfinished, invested Pelusium, and summoned the governor to open the gates. Seleucus, who commanded there for Cleopatra, had received secret orders upon that head, and surrendered the place without waiting for a siege. Such was the wickedness of this queen, in whom the most odious vices were complicated. She absolutely renounced all modesty ; had a violent propensity to fraud, injustice, and cruelty; and, what was worse than all, was a most detestable hypocrite. While the rumor of this treason spread through the city, Cleopatra ordered her most precious moveables to be carried to a place of security.
6. Cæsar was in hopes of making himself master of Alexandria in a short time, by means of the intelligence he held with Cleopatra, on which he relied no less than on his army. Antony, being ignorant of her intrigues, prepared for an obstinate defence. He made a vigorous sally, and returned victorious into the city, which was the last effort of his expiring genius ; for, after this exploit, fortitude and sense of glory forsook him, or were of no more service to him. Instead of pursuing his victory, and keeping a watchful eye over Cleopatra who betrayed him, he flew to her in his armor, and threw himself at her feet. The palace echoed with acclamations, as though the siege had been raised; and Antony and Cleopatra spent that day, and part of the night, in the most abandoned folly. - 7. Antony now resolved to make the last attempt, both by sea and land, with a fixed resolution to conquer or die. He ordered his attendants to fill him out wine plentifully, saying, “This may be, perhaps, the last piece of service you will be able to do me ; for to-morrow you may change your master, when I, stretched on the ground, shall be no more."
On the approach of day, Antony drew up his forces on (some rising ground out of the city, and from thence beheld his galleys, which were rowing out of the port, and going to attack those of Cæsar ; but how shall I express his astonish
What was the character of Cleopatra ? ,
ment when he beheld his admiral delivering up his fleet t his enemy! At the same time his cavalry seeing this, de serted him and went over to Cæsar, when his infantry wé obliged to submit. Unhappy Antony! in vain do you fly t the palace to seek Cleopatra, that you may murder her fe her perfidy; she is not there ; the ignominious wretch i retired.
8. Cleopatra had secured herself from his fury among th tombs, which quarter was fortified with good walls, and th gates were shut. • She desired that Antony should be tol that she had destroyed herself. Struck with the idea of he death, he passed immediately from the excess of rage to th most violent transports of grief, and thought only of follow ing her to the grave. Having taken this resolution, he shu himself up in his apartment, with a freedman, whom he hai caused to take off his armor, and commanded him to plung his dagger into his bosom. But his servant, full of affection respect, and fidelity for his master, stabbed himself with it and fell dead at his feet. Antony looking upon this action as an example for him to follow, thrust his sword into his body, and fell upon the floor in a torrent of his blood, which he mingled with that of his faithful servant.
9. At that moment an officer came to let him know that Cleopatra was alive. He no sooner heard her name pronounced, than he opened his dying eyes, suffered his wounds to be dressed, and caused himself to be carried to the fort, where she had shut herself up. Cleopatra would not permit the gates to be opened to give him entrance, for fear of some surprise ; but she appeared at a lofty window, from whence she threw down chains and cords. Antony was made fast to these, and Cleopatra, assisted by two women, who were the only persons she had brought with her to the tombs, drew him up. Never was there a more moving sight. Ane tony, all bathed in his blood, with death painted in his face, was dragged up into the air, turning his dying eyes, and extending his feeble hands to Cleopatra, as if to conjure her to receive his last breath; while she, with her features distorted, and her arms strained, pulled the cord with her whole strength.
10. When she had drawn him up to her, and placed him
What induced Antony to destroy himself?
n a bed, she threw her clothes upon him, and making the nost mournful exclamations, cut off his hair, according to he superstition of the pagans, that that was a relief to those who died a violent death. Her cries recalling his fainting spirits, and seeing the affliction she was in, he told her, with a view to comfort her, that he should die in peace, since he would expire in her arms; and that he did not blush at his defeat, since he had been vanquished by Romans. Having thus spoken, he expired, being then in the fifty-third year of his age. His death put an end to all civil wars, and gave Cæsar an opportunity of completing his ambitious designs.
DEATH OF CLEOPATRA. ; I. Just about the time that Antony breathed his last, Proculeius, who had received particular orders to seize Cleopatra, arrived from Cæsar. He could not refrain from shedding tears on this melancholy occasion, which was aggravated by the bloody sword that was presented to him. The queen refused to go with him, but permitted him to speak to her from without
2. Proculeius, after having observed the situation of the sepulchre, went and informed Cæsar of his observations. Cæsar then sent Gallus to speak with her, which he did in ! the same manner as Proculeius. In the mean time, the latter, bringing a ladder, and being followed by two officers, got in at the window, where Antony had been drawn up, and went to the gate, where Cleopatra was talking with Gallus. One of her female attendants, seeing him, shrieked and cried, “ Ill-fated princess, thou art taken !" Cleopatra had raised a dagger to stab herself, when Proculeius, catch
ing her in his arms, thus addressed her—"You injure both · Cæsar and yourself, in attempting to deprive him of so no
ble an opportunity to exert his clemency." He seized her
dagger, and shook her robes, to discover if any poison was ? concealed under them. Cæsar then sent a freed-man to
Who received orders from Cæsar to seize Cleopatra ?- Did he succeed in seizing her ?-Who was then sent by Cæsar to take her? What did she attempt doing, when taken?
guard Cleopatra, ordering him to use her like a queen, but to prevent her from laying violent hands upon herself.
3. Cæsar then entered Alexandria without further opposition, and gave Cleopatra fair hopes of the kindest treatment; though he intended only to pervert her treasures to his own purposes, and reserve her person to grace his triumph. But when he had both in his power, he disregarded her, and she found she had no other means of avoiding the disgrace of adding to the glory of his triumph, than by putting a period to her life.
7. Cæsar went and paid her a visit, when she endeavored to captivate this young conqueror, as she had before captivated Julius Cæsar and Antony. But alas, the charm was now broken ! Cæsar, with the utmost coolness, only advised her not to despond, declaring that he would treat her with all possible tenderness.
5. He permitted her to dispose of her jewels as she thought proper ; and, after giving her the kindest assurances, he left her. Cæsar imagined he had artfully over-reached Cleopatra, by inspiring her with a love of life, which he, in fact, wished to prolong, only for the sake of his triumph; but herein he soon found his mistake. Cæsar had before given Cleopatra leave to bury Antony, which she did with the utmost magnificence. According to the custom of Egypt, she caused his body to be embalmed with the most exquisite perfumes of the east, and placed it among the tombs of the Egyptian kings.
6. Cleopatra hearing that Cæsar intended to send her away within three days, conjured him to let her pay her last obligations to the remains of Antony, which he granted. She then visited Antony's tomb, strewing it with flowers, and watering it with tears. She then returned to her chamber, went into a bath, and from thence to the table, where a splendid entertainment was prepared. When she arose from table, she wrote a letter to Cæsar, wherein she earnestly desired to be laid in the same tomb with Antony ; and having made all leave her chamber, except her two women, she shut the door, sat down upon the bed, and asked for a basket of sigs, which a peasant had lately brought. This
What were Cæsar's designs in regard to Cleopatra and her treas gures ?-What did she aim to do when visited by Cæsar?