ling print, seems fast sinking out of sight. I lavera's wars. I should say to myself:

The Comet has .completely eclipsed" there is a country that I want to invade him: the Lottery people have dropped “and subdue, but it is strong and rich. I the latter and taken up the former as a « must first exhaust it: I must drain catch-word to their puffs. -But, though "away its men and money : yet, how am the noble Viscount and his forces make “ I to do this, for I cannot get at any of less noise in the hired news.papers than “ its territories, and cannot meet its fleets formerly, they are, we may be assured, upon the sea ? If I could get my mighty not less efficient upon the pay list : it does armies to bear upon this country, I not require less expence, less taxation

is could

overwhelm it." How upon us, to keep them on foot, than it did should I bless my stars, if, in the midst many months ago. The people of Eng- of this difficulty, I was told of a scheme land sweat for the war in the Peninsula, for drawing the men out of this country whatever may be the pace at which that that I could not get at, to fight my arwar advances. -The French are said to mies in a third country, to which I had be sending forward reinforcements. To access by land! And, 'should I not be a any 'extent I do not believe this to be most stupid politician, if I did not take true; and the reason why I do not be care to feed and nurse such a war, until lieve it is, that recent events have shown my enemy should be completely exthat they have quite enough force already hausted; until all his ablest men had been. to kecp the Lord Marshal Conde de Vi- killed, and a great part of his wealth exmiera from advancing, and even to push pended in a way never to return to him him back when necessary, and that it is again ?--These are my reasons for not manifestly the most foolish thing that believing that any very great reinforce Napoleon can do to put an end to the ments have been sent into Spain by Nawars of Talavera, which cost us so many poleon. An attack will, I dare say, be thousands of men and so many millions of made upon the Lord Marshal long before money erery year; and which, though the end of the year; the French may, we have had many drains in our time, is perhaps, force him to retreat again io ilie the greatest that the country ever expe- lines of Torres Vedras, after having derienced. It must be the object of Napo- stroyed many thousands of his men and leon to exhaust England; to impoverish | caused a monstrous expenditure on our her; to cause as many of her able men part. This is possible, and, if possible, it as possible to be killed; to cause the peo- will be done; but, if they drive our army ple 10 be weighed down by tax upon tax; back to their old lodgings, there they will to cause the paper-money to increase leave them for a while ; nay, they will faster than in its natural progress; and, to invite them out again, as Massena did secure all this, what can equal the war in before; and thus they will keep up the the Peninsula ? -We have never seen war, as long it suits their purpose. This Napoleon indulge his passions at the ex. they will do, if they can; and, yet, there pence of his interests. We bave often are men, or, rather, two-legged brutes, in seen him patiently suffering what our England, to rejoice at what they deem the empty politicians, our miserable, petty, inability of the French to drive our army petulant crew of politicians called disgrace, out of Portugal !--More of this in my in order to be able to strike, at last, the next. heavy, the sure, the home, the mortal

W. COBBETT. blow. This we have seen in many

in- Stalc Prison, Newgate, Friday, stances; and, therefore, I see no reason September 13, 1811. why we should not conclude, that the prolonging of the war in the Peninsula,

AMERICA. which is so clearly pointed out by bis in. An Address to Robert Smith, late Secretary terest, does not make a part of his settled plan. For my own part, at any rate, I

of State to the President, on his publicamust do in this as in all similar cases;

tions against the latter. - - From the

New York Public Advertiser, 30th July, namely, judge of another's wishes by

1811. what would be my own; and, if I were in the place of Napoleon, especially if my

To Robert Smith, ultimate object were to invade and subdue THE people of the United States, to England or Ireland, I should deem it a whom you have appealed from the decigreat misfortune to see an end put to Ta- sion of their President, will not be un.

grateful to you for the compliment you performance is the extreme anxiety you have paid their understandings, in believ- | bave manifested to attract the favor of ing them capable of estimating the merits those who have charged the administraof the controversies, which have termi. tion with being under the controul or ins nated in your resigoation of the office of fluence of France. To the distempered Secretary of State. Until enlightened by jealousy of these men you have furnished your address, they could perceive nothing the aliment upon which it lives. You in that resignation but the change of one have fanned anew the dying flames of minister for another; a change, which their political zeal, and furnished them even had it been made by the direct au- with weapons, compared with which those thority of the President, he would have wielded by Randolph and Pickering, are owed no account of to any human being. puny indeed. You have stooped to the Both the theory and the practice of our degradation of propitiating the resentment constitution recognize him, subject to the of these men by attempting to offer them negative of the Senate only, as the ulti- in sacrifice the immolated reputation of mate judge of the propriety and expe: Mr. Madison. But the victim is not yet diency of exercising this authority. Re- bound-the sacrifice is not yet completed, sponsible as he is for the conduct of his and public indignation steps in between ministers, to public opinion, and to the you and your intended victim. Nor will law, it is immaterial whether it be defect you succeed in conciliating the favour of of talent or integrity discovered in them, ihose who have repeatedly branded you or a mere difference of opinion on public with the foul imputation of being sold to men and public measures.; whether it be France, by attempting to prove that Mr. the detection of gross incapacity or dis- Madison is more of a Frenchman than honesty, or a variance in judgment upon yourself. Notwithstanding the ardent a phrase in a public leiter, he is not bound zeal with which you have laboured to un. to assign to his constituents the reasons dermine his well earned reputation, your and motives which may induce him to own conscience must tell you that subserdisplace one agent, and appoint another. viency and submission France are not Still less does he owe an account of a the most flagrant errors of our policy.change effected by the voluntary resigna. The time was when you yourself could tion of an officer, over whose inclinations avow, that in aiming to wipe away this he can have no rightful controul. In such imputation, our government bad inclined a case, it is for the officer himself, if he more to the views and interests of Britain, deems his personal griefs in any way than to those of France; and that in the connected with ibe public interests, io apos comparative account current of injuries logize in the best mode in his power, for and insults, those inflicted by the former, deserting the service of his country. This greatly exceeded in amount, those retask you have undertaken to perform. ceived from the latter. No true American But instead of satisfactorily accounting will pretend to justify or palliate the misfor your resignation, which in my humble conduct of France. Her policy towards judgment you have failed to do, you have this country has been not only extremely iovoked the attention of the people to a flagitious and unjust, but to the last degree bill of accusation against Mr. Madison, foolish and absurd.—But our propensity which, though professing to be “ a plain has been rather to amplify and exag“unvarnished tale,” is drawn with all gerate, than rigorously to scan the nature the craftiness and subtility of a special of this injustice and this impolicy. All pleader, and whatever credit it may re. our ancient colonial ideas have been reflect upon your head, dishonours your vived; and the anti-gallican prejudices heart. The magnanimity of the people of this country have never, since our inof this country has already pronounced dependence, been more live and watchful. judgment upon the rancorous malice This pre-disposition of the public mind which stains every page of your address, has been greatly strengthened by the reand which dwells with greedy delight establishment of despotism in France after upon the little imperfections of human na- the bright prospect which had appeared ture developed in the unsuspecting mo. of its final extinction. The people have meuts of confidential intercourse, and not unwisely concluded that the fruits of published to the world as important items this bitter tree cannot be good, and they of presidential delinquency.--Another of pul no confidence in the professions of rethe features which mark your elaborate gard for the liberty of the seas coming from the man who has destroyed all the in- , be found, or your conduct be imputed to stitutions of civil freedom within bis reach. any other motive than the gratification of But do not suffer yourself to suppose, sir, the basest passion which disgraces human that though you have artfully availed nature. You have stated that your difyourself of this state of public opinion, ferences of opinion with Mr. Madison reand though the offering you have made to spected certain public measures and pubthe malignant genius of federalism is more lic men. But you have not shewn what acceptable than the gift of your predeces constitutional right you had to press upon sors in the path of apostacy, that therefore the president your opinions upon public your treachery will be more successful measures, and still less of nominations to ihan theirs. You were not born either to office, in which the senate are his sole create or destroy governments. If you constitutional advisers. He may indeed have stepped from your limited sphere of "require the opinion in writing of the usefulness for the latter purpose, fatal ex. heads of the executive departments upon perience will soon convince you that you any subject relative to the duties of their have passed the bounds of your genius,

« ottices." But for rejecting their opiand that you will never be able to rise to nions, delivered in any other mode, be is fame and power upon the ruins of that im- no wise constitutionally responsible. Unperishable monument of worth and ho- less then you can shew that Mr. Madison nour, erected with the labours of forty has, to the injury of the national rights years exclusively devoted to the public and interests, rejected your advice in service, decorated with all those accom writing on subjects relating to the duties plishments which dignify human nature, of your office, you do not furnish even and unblemished by the stain of vice or prima facie evidence to support your the commotions of passion.—You state in charges. Instead of this, the weapons you the introduction to your letter that the have aimed at him recoil back upon your. proffered mission to Russia affords “ de- self, and you stood self-convicted of hav« monstrative proof of Mr. Madison's con- ing in many instances travelled out of the “ fidence in you as to fidelity and as to bounds of your department, of having tres

capacity in public affairs.” Whence passed on the rights of the President, atthen your griefs, and what the necessity of tempted to usurp his authority, and republicly disclosing collisions of opinion jented upon suspicion' merely an hobetween yourselves and the President; nourable appointment,' decorously profand those also touching our pending dif- fered, as you have admitted, and which ferences with foreign powers? If the offer you consider as affording demonstrative of the mission manifested the President's proof of his confidence in your fidelity opinion both of your integrity and talents and capacity in public affairs.' If the in public business, whence the necessity President, without distrusting either your of "obviating the honest misapprehensions integrity or talents, but discovering that of some, and the wanton misrepresenta- the difference of opinion which had arisen “tions of others," since Mr. Madison was between you and himşelf, rendered it into be ranked in neither of these classes ? consistent with the public good that you Did not the different important offices you should remain in the administration, prohad sustained under the government suffi- posed your acceptance of the mission inciently imply the confidence which you stead of your office, at the same time intihad inspired? What man, what print had mating, with that decorum and moderacalumniated your character? The ene- tion for which he is distinguished, his momies of the adininistration alone honoured tives for desiring such a change. Upon you with their reproaches, as they now what ground bave you appealed to the dishonour you with their applause.—Mr. people? They cannot partake of your Madison had published no book to ruin suspicions,' because they do not know your reputation--he had revealed to the upon what grounds they rest; still less world no confidential couversations of can they sympathize with you on account yours he had said nothing of your foi- of your wounded pride, your boasted bles, of your embarrassments and auk- hopes, or your disappointed ambition. If • wardness '- your • confusion '- your



could not overrule the mea* perturbation '-your · disquietude '- sures of administration, you have quitted your peevishness'-and of his own com- the service of your country, the people posure, and your want of it. Provocation can feel no other interest in the affair than there was none, nor can any justification merely to ascertain the fitness of your suc

cessor for the situation to which he has, forom the dry land of our's, and said; been called. On this head they are satis- “ here at least be there peace.” I hope fied that your place is amply supplied. that peace and amity with all nations will Being thus satisfied, you will not be able long be the charter of our land, and that to sbake their well-grounded confidence in its prosperity, under this charter, will their President by such tales as you have re-act on the mind of Europe, and profit yet told, or which your inventive faculty her by the example. My hope of premay hereafter compose. Edifying and serving peace for our country is not amusing they undoubtedly will be to that founded on the Quaker principle, of nonfaction who delight in the disgrace of resistance under every wrong: but in the their government and country-but they belief that a just and friendly conduct on will excite in the breasts of honest and our part will procure justice and friendship impartial men no other emotions but those from others, and that in the existing conof contempt and indignation.

test each of the combatants will find an inPhocion. terest in our friendship.-I cannot say we

shall be unconcerned spectators of the Letter from Mr. Jefferson, bate President and we wish the good of all. We shall

combat. We feel for human sufferings - of the American States, to the Earl OF Buchan, taken from the New York Public which these dispositions and the events of

look on therefore with the sensations Adrertiser of the 24th July, 1811.

the war will produce. I feel a pride in Washington, July 10, 1803. the justice which your lordship's sentiMy Lord I received through the ments render to the character of my illushands of Mr. Lenox, on his return to the trious countryman, Washington. The United States, the valuable volume you moderation of his desires, and the strength were so good as to send me on the life of his judgment enabled him to calculate and writings of Fletcher of Salton. The correctly, that the road to that glory political principles of that patriot were which never dies, is to use power for the worthy of the purest periods of the support of the laws and liberties of our British constitution. They are those country, not for its destruction, and his which were in vigor at the epoch of the will accordingly survive the wreck of American emigration ; our ancestors every thing now living. brought them here, and they needed little

Tho. Jefferson. strengthening to make us what we are.- To the Earl of Buchan. But in the weakened condition of English Whigsism, at this day, it requires more firmness to publish and advocate them ENGLAND AND Amenica.-Order in Council, than it did then to act upon them. This published in the Gazette of 7 Sept. 1811, merit is peculiarly your lordship’s, and no

relative to the American Commerce with one bonors it more than myself; freely

the West Indies. admitting at the same time, the right of a 'It contains an order grounded on an nation to change its political principles and Act of the 46th of his majesty, intituled constitution at will; and the impropriety“ An Act for authorising bis majesty in of any but its own citizens censuring that council to allow, during the present war, change. I expect your lordship has been and six weeks after the ratification of a disappointed, as I acknowledge I have definitive treaty of peace, the importation been, in the issue of the convulsions on and exportation of certain goods and comthe other side of the channel, (in France.) modities in neutral ships, into and from This has certainly lessened the interest his majesty's territories in the West Indies which the philanthrophist warınly felt in and Continent of South America.” By those struggles. Without befriending human virtue of this Act, Orders in Council have liberty, a gigantic force has risen up which seems been made at different periods, permitting to threaten the world-but it hangs on the the importation into the territories abovethread of opinion, which may break from mentioned of certain articles, goods, and one day to another.-1 feel a real anxiety commodities specified, for the most part on the conflict in which your nation is the products of the United States, or of the again engaged, and bless the Almighty fisheries of the same; but by this new Being, who in gathering together the Order, it is directed, that after the 1st of waters under the heavens into one place, December, no importation of the under. divided the dry lands of your bemisphere inentioned articles shall take place into

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any of our West India Islands, '« in which in the United States of America, by there shall not be, at the time when such proving, from actual experiments, the articles are brought for importation, the great advantage thereof to Agriculfollowing duties on such articles, being of ture and Manufactures. --By R. R. the growth or produce of the United States Livingston. - Printed by Order of of America; namely,

the Legislature of the Siate of New

Sterling Money. York. London, reprinted :-With a For every quintal of dried or salted Cod, or Ling Fish,

Preface and Explanatory Notes by

WILLIAM CORBETT. cured or salted ........ £0 2 6 For every barrel of 'cured or

PREFACE. pickled Shads, Alewives, Mac

THE following work is, in my opinion, karel, or Salmon, a propor

well calculated to be useful to any protionate duty.

prietor of sheep, and particularly to any

of Jamaica. one who is desirous of raising a flock of Wheat Flour per barrel, not

Merinos. It is, besides, full of curious weighing more than one bundred and ninety-six pounds,

matter, and the reading of it produces the

pleasing effect of bringing us, as it were, net weight.........

0 6 8 into a country, which we have only heard of On Bread or Biscuit of Wheat

before. But, that which most strongly Flour, or any other Grain, per

recommended it to me, and which induced barrel, not weighing more

me to re-publish it, was, that it completely than one hundred pounds net

settled the very important question, nameweight .......

.... 0 3 4 ly, ruhether the Americun States could dis-' 'On Bread for every hundred

pense with European Wool and Il'oollens; a pounds made from Wheat or

question of very great interest to the any other Grain whatever, im

world in general, and to England in parported in bags or other pack

ticular.-Having never seen, in any part ages than barrels, weighing

of America, an assemblage of sheep woras aforesaid

0 3 4

ihy of the name of flock; and, having, On Flour or Meal made from

from habit, always looked upon Grass Rye, Peas, Beans, Indian

Fields, and Downs and Turnip Fields as Corn, or other Grain than

being indispensably necessary io the rearWheat, per barrel, not weigh.

ing and keeping of sheep in any conside. ing more than one hundred

rable number, I gave it as my opinion, and ninety-six pounds........ 0 34 about three years ago (when writing about On Peas, Beans, Rye, Indian

the then dispute with America), that the Corn, Callivancies, or other

Americans never could do without wool Grain, per bushel............... 0 0 10 from other countries, seeing that, for the On Rice, for every one hundred

want of winter herbage and turnip fields, pounds net weight ............ 0

3. 4 which they could not have for feed, in For every twelve hundred (com

winter, on account of the deep snows, monly called one thousand)

they had it not in their power to keep of Red Oak Staves ............, 1 о о

sheep in number sufficient to supply them For every twelve hundred (com

with a tenth part of the wool requisite for monly called one thousand)

their various uses. But, upon reading a of White Oak Staves, and for

French work by C. P. LASTEYRIE, enti. every one thousand pieces of

tuled " A History of the introduction of SpeHeading

..... 0 15 0

nish Sheep into the different States of EuHorses, Neat Cattle, or other

rope, fc, &c.” I found that my notion Livet Sock, for every one hun

of the absolute necessity of grass or turnip dred pounds of the value

fields, in winter, was quite erroneous; and, thereof, at the port or place of

that the very finest flock of sheep in all importation

...... 10 0 0 Europe, were kept. át house during five,

and sometimes six, months in the year. I found, that in Saxony, in Silesia, in

Denmark, in Sweden; I found, that in all ESSAY ON SHEEP, these countries, it was the invariable prac. Intended chiefly to promote the intro- tice to keep the sheep at house und yard,

duction and propagation of Merinos like oxen or other cattle, all the winter ;


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