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about to enjoy from the union of its inha- a moment, but always faithful to your bitants with the great family of which Majesty, could only have been calaryour Majesty is the father. Already the niated by the machiavelism of an enemy genius of your Majesty has divined our envious of their felicity.--If it is true, wants; an uniform and enlightened legisla. Sire, that in those of our isles occupied 'tion will secure the rights of property ; at this moment by the enemy, there are speedy justice, founded upon one system, to be found some senseless beings who will watch over its maintenance. The credio have the audacity to prefer to the glorious tors and pensioners of the State, whom the title of your subjects, the ever hateful misfortunes of war had condemned to long name of enemies of their country and of and painful privations, will owe their hap- its most sacred rights, let them experience piness to their new quality of French sub- the fate which their crimes and the injects. Already the roads which are open. dignant voice of their fellow-citizens ining, the canals which are digging, restore voke upon their heads.—But let not Greek comfort and industry in countries little honour be sullied by the crimes of some favoured by the nature of their soil; and infatuated individuals; the Greeks are your new subjects have formed the hope still the same men, whose former ages of of rivalling your old ones in prosperity, glory can only be effaced in the records as they this day engage to equal them in of immortality by the age of your Madevotedness to the august person of your jesty.—The benefits, Sire, you have conMajesty.
ferred upon us,-the treasures of industry The address closes with felicitations on which your imperial munificence has the birth of the King of Rome.
poured out, your cares, by which Corfu. Reply of His Majesty.
the central security of the Ionian isles, is
daily surrounded by new resources traced Gentlemen, Deputies of the Department out by your genius, -and the choice of a of La Lippe,- The city of Munster be
man to govern us who does honour at once longed to an ecclesiastical Sovereign. De to humanity and war,-all these are plorable effect of ignorance and of super powerful motives which attach our hearts stition! Providence, which bas willed to your sacred person, from whom alone that I should re-establish the throne of we can expect our regeneration.-Should Charlemagne, has caused you, with Hol- the enemy dare to present himself under land and the Hanseatic towns, to return
our walls, we will seize with zeal that opto the bosom of the empire. The moment portunity of proving to your Majesty, and you became French, my heart made no
to the universe, the value which we attach distinction between you and the other to the ever glorious title of subjects of parts of my states. As soon as circum- Napoleon the Great. stances shall permit, I will feel a lively salisfaction in being in the midst of you.
Reply of His Majesty. M. Theotoki, President of the Ionian Gentlemen, deputies of the Ionian Isles; Deputation, presented the following ad- I have caused great works to be carried dress.
on in your country. I have there collected SIRE; Interpreters of the wishes of your a great number of troops, and stores of people of Ionia, we come to place at the every kind. I do not regret the expence foot of your Majesty's august' throne, which Corfu costs my treasury-it is the their renewed expressions of fidelity and key of the Adriatic. I will never abanlively joy for the fortunate event which don the Isles which the enemy's naval has given an heir to your great empire, superiority has caused to fall into his an infant to your paternal heart, and to us bands. In India, in America, and in the the assured hope of an hero, who, to be Mediterranean, all that is and has been the worthy Sovereign of forty millions of French, shall always be so. Conquered men, has only to place before himself by the enemy through the vicissitudes of your immortal model.-- From the sove- war, they shall be restored to the empire reign beight of glory to which your tri- by other events of war, or by the stipuumplis, and magnanimous talents have lations of peace. I should consider it as raised you, deign, Sire, to turn your re an indelible blot on the glory of my reign, gards towards the inhabitants of the Ionian ever to sanction the abandonment of a Isles, of which a part, thougb usurped for 'single Frenchman.
Pulisici by R. SAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent - Garden :--Sold also by J. BUDD, Pall-Mall,
LONDON :-Printed by T. C. Mansard, Peterborough-Court, Floet-Street,
VOL. XX. No. 12.] LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 1811.
" The universal Spanish Nation.". -Mn. CANNING. Declaration against France. 353)
[351 SUMMARY OF POLITICS.
thing of a revolutionary tendency; and,
in short, that the Spaniard who should SPAIN.-ENGLISH MINISTER'S COMPLAINT think of a revolution, or of any new spe. AGAINST THE PRESS THERE.--The phrase, cies of government to the prejudice of wbich I have taken for my motto, will re Ferdinand; ought to be considered as not mind the reader of what took place in the less a traitor than if he were actually fightSpring and Summer of 1808, and, if he has ing under the banners of France. ---forgoiten it, he need only refer to the Re- Tirere appeared to me to be something so gister, Vols. XIII and XIV, where he will foolish, so wild, so perfectly mad, in this find, under the head of “ Spanish Revo- last set of notions, that it was impossible "LUTION," the history of the origin and for me to impute them to mere want of grounds of the war, which, from that time understanding. I could not help thinkto this, England has been carrying on in ing, and I said at the time what I thought, Spain. - It will there be seen, that the that those who held this language were invasion of Spain by the French was much more afraid of the example of viewed in different lights by different per- Spanish liberty regained, than they were sons in England; that wbile some of us, of the establishment and extension of amongst whom I was one, regarded it as a French despotism; and I must say that he fine opportunity for the people of Spain who has not arrived, by this time, at a to recover their freedom and form a conviction of the truth of this opinion, new government; others saw in it nothing must have a mind incapable of profiting more than an opportunity of opposing a from observation, or must have been a new resistance to Buonaparté, caring much very inattentive observer of what has been less for the liberties of the people of Spain, passing during the last three years.--than for that security which they thought To our opponents, therefore, the present the event likely to bring to themselves. state of things in Spain.gives much less We contended that if England took any pain than nıight be imagined. The French part in the contest she ought by no means are sweeping over the country, and there io concern berself in the internal affairs of appears little ground to expect that they the country, and, above all things, that she will not become its conquerors ; but, at. ought to avoid, as she would avoid the any rate, there has no revolution taken poisoned chalice, making herself the sup- place in Spain; the people of Spain are porter or partizan of any part of the old not republicans; the people of Spain reigning family: we contended, in short, have not regained their liberties. --But, that the thing to be desired was a real, how is all this to end? How is it to end radical revolution in Spain, without which with regard to England, who has already there was not the smallest chance of even- expended so many millions of money in tually succeeding in a resistance of France. the cause of Ferdinand the seventh? This Our opponents contended, that England question cannot be answered with certainought to take a decided part for Ferdinand ty yet;-but a pretty good guess at il may the 7th, though it was notorious, that his be formed from the facts, which have refather was still alive, that his father denied cently come to light, and which it was the right of the Son to the Crown, and impossible any longer to disguise, with though it was equally notorious, that both all the means which a hired press holds of them had abandoned the people of forth for that purpose. -We have obSpain, that both of them, and the junior served, for some time past, that Cadiz was members of the family, had made a far from being ascene of harmony; we saw formal abdication of the Crown in favour gen. Graham,whom the parliament and the of the Emperor Napoleon. Our opponents city had thanked, quitthe theatre of his glocontended too, that the only way to secure ries, and join the army in Portugal. Mr. success to the resistance against France, Sheridan's speech blubbering with joy, and was for us to set our faces against every the Scotch poems, seem not to have ac
paper to read.”
corded with the sentiments of the Spa- , ing at the rich fountain of the learned lanniards at Cadiz. The Spanish General guages, at Oxford and Cambridge, supa Lacy, who had answered the publication ported there too, by the rents of very good of General Graham, we have seen selected farms and houses, commonly called college for choice service by the Spanish govern- property.---Well, but let us not forget ment. There was, however, in the public the subject before us. The complaint of cation of General Graham itself, quite suf. this our minister is pretty intelligible, I ficient to convince any reasonable man, must confess.
no room for any man not completely hood-winked by doubt. It tells the world, that, at Cadiz, our hired news-papers, that harmony be the language both through the press tween our people and the Spaniards was at and through conversation, is too free for an end. If any doubt of this fact could the English minister to tolerate, or, at least, remain till now, it surely can remain no that it is such that he can no longer hear longer, after the reading of the documents, it without complaint, and that it is levelled which are subjoined to this article, and against the British good name; It tells the upon which I shall now proceed to offer world, in short, that this country is calumthe reader a few observations. The niated at Cadiz to such a point, that our Note of our Minister, Mr. Wellesley,con- minister can no longer refrain from maktains a formal complaint to the Regency of ing an official complaint of it to the GoSpain against the freedom of the Press and vernment of Spain. -But, what are these even against the freedom of speech at Cadiz. calumnies? our King is calumniated, we He says, that he has hitherto forborne to are told, and so is his government, but what complain of the rumours and writings which are these calumnies ? Mr. Wellesley says, have for some time been circulated in Ca- that in order 10 "give a specimen of the diz, in the belief that his forbearance and " terms in which tliese ussertions” (meanmoderation might disarm the parties; but | ing, I suppose the calumnies) “ are conthat the papers that have been published, veyed, he sends the Secretary of State a as well as the reports that have been cir
I wish Mr. Wellesley culated have, at length, become so injurious had sent the paper to us. And why do we to the British good name and character, that not see it? What is the reason for keeping he can no longer look with indifference on it from us? Ours is certainly the basest the unjust and unfounded calummies, which press that ever existed in this world; for are daily circulated against his country. it is not to be believed that those to whom Gentle reader, it is the writing of a mi- these state papers were communicated, had nister plenipotentiary, of a representative not the means of coming at the paper in of your king, that you have just been read. question. Aye, and they have it, too, but ing; and, therefore, you are to suppose, it does not suit their purposes to publish it. that in such a case good name and cha- They take good care to publish every thing racter mean different things; for as to tau. flattering to our government, that issues tology, you are not to suppose such a per: from the press at Cadiz; and their not havson capable of using such a figure. You ing published this also, is a pretty clear must bring to your aid some such principle proof, that they found it not so very easy to of judging, also, with regard to the unjust refute.---Mr. Wellesley, however, gives, and unfounded calummies of which this in his Note to the Spanish Secretary of State, gentleman is pleased to talk; for, when, something in the way of description of this amongst common mortals, did you ever offensive publication. He says that it hear of just calumnies, of well. founded ca. imputes to our king, to our government, lumnies. Calumny means, fulse chirge, and to the British Nation, intentions desgroundless accusation, and, of course, to talk titute of honour, of justice, and of good. of unjust and unfounded calumpies, was the faith, and entirely subversive of all the same as to tell the Spanish Secretary of principles with which Great Britain has State, that his countrymen had uitered come forward to aid the cause of the Spaunjus fuilse charges, and unfounded ground nish Nation; that it asserts that the Spaless accusations against our country. But, nish provinces bordering on Portugal, reader, these are liberties which I have were placed under the command of Lord observed frequently taken with our poor Wellington; that the Spanish army was to mother tongue, by the bright geniuses, be placed under English officers; that it who have worn black irenchei's upon was to be formed into an army, British, in their heads, and long sweeping gowns fact; and that it was the design of the upon their bodies, while they were drink. British Governinent to send to Cadiz a
reinforcement of troops, sufficient to take duced any evidence or reasoning sufficient possession of the city and Island, and re. for the purpose, which he obviously had tain il, in the name and possession of his in view, is more than I can say, but, those Britannic Majesty: - The word it in denials and affirmations as they now stand. place of the word them, we owe, I sup- unsupported by proof, amount to nothing pose, to some priociple of the “learned beyond assertion; and, though one as*5 languages.” But, to the matter, leav- sertion is as good as another, where there ing the sound, and leaving too the deli- is nothing but assertion on either side, cious grammar of the original description, there can be no refutation. In this case, to those of a taste sufficiently refined to too, it was the more desirable to have proof relish them. To the matter, I say, and in support of our minister's assertions, be here are, it must be confessed, some pretty cause the publication is omitted which he thumping charges. They are, by no thinks it necessary to answer. He, indeed, means, of an equivocal nature. Whether gives us the substance, as he says, of a they be true or false, is what I shall not part, at least, of that publication. That pretend to determine. I leave that task which he gives us, amounts to no more io the advocates of the war for Ferdinand; than assertion, unsupported by proof; but, but this I say, that in this state paper, Mr. I it does not follow that the publication itWellesley has not proved them to be false. self contained no proof in support of its asHe says, that, considering all that Great sertions. In answer to a publication conBritain has done for Spain, he " ought to taining nothing but assertion without proof, “ be far from being under the necessity to assertion without proof is as much as we “ refute charges such as those contained in have a right to demand; but, in answer to “ this paper."'. Now, who would not ima. a publication, of which I myself state no. gine from this exordium, that he was about thing but the assertions, proof may fairly be to enter upon a regular refutation of these demanded at my hands; because by omitcharges? The exordium does not stop ting to give the whole of the publication here, however, but proceeds, to say, in of which I complain, I leave the reader substance, that nothing short of the critical at liberty to infer, that the assertion of my circumstances of the moment could make opponent was backed by proof.Mr. him consent to "suffer the humiliation of Wellesley, concludes his note by request“ vindicating the honour of his country," ing that all proper publicity may be given against the calumnies contained in the to it by the Spanish government, in order paper in question.--Now, then, surely to prevent the serious consequences which The refutation is coming ! Surely, we are must inevitably result, should the Spanish now going to hear our honour rindicated, Nation once believe the offensive publicaby this our minister, in Spain. Let us tions. But, did Mr. Wellesley imagine, hear him, then, he says, that notwithstand that this end would be answered by the pubing the humiliation that he feels in conde- lishing of an answer containing assertions scending to enter the lists with the author without proof? If he did, he judges very of the offensive publication, his desire to differently from the way in which I should preserve undiminished the sentiment of re- have judged in such a case; and, espespect and esteem with which the two nations cially, when I perceive that his Note is are mutually animated, makes him consi- full of reproaches and insinuations against der himself, as under an obligation,” to the persons who have issued the publica...... to do what, think ye, Reader? Why tions complained of.
If these persons to do what he talked of, to be sure, to re were contemptible, whether in point of fute the charges contained in the publica- rank, or of characters it is obvious that no tion. Oh! no! To refule means, to prove answer should have been given them, and the fulsehood or error of any thing; and no serious notice taken of their efforts. If Mr. Wellesley in this, his state paper, does their rank or character were such as to no such thing. He denies in the most po- make their influence dangerous, an answer sitive and solemn manner; in other cases to them might become necessary; but, he affirms with equal solemnity; but he, then, the answer should have been full in no case, prores, or attempts to prove, that and complete, carrying conviction to every which he denies, or that which he affirnis. impartial mind of the falsehood of the Proof is derived from evidence or from rea- mischievous publications. Any thing short soning, and Mr. Wellesley has produced of this was calculated to do harm rather neither, in support of his denials and af than good; to inflame rather than assuage firmations. Whether he could have pro passions at work against us; and whatever
Mr. Wellesley may think of the powers of Cadiz do not contain the offensive publicahis
pen, I scruple not to advise him, the tions, nor even the specific one sent to the next time he has the task of preserving Secretary of State by our Minister; and, harmony to perform, especially amongst as was observed before, it has, through the such a people as the Spaniards, not to talk venality of our press, been suppressed here. too much of consenting “ to suffer the humi- Just as was the paper of General La Pena, “ liation of vindicating the honour of his while the answer of General Graham was “ country" against their attacks.-Far published in every print in the kingdom. better would it have been, it appears to me, Therefore it is necessary to be the more if he had followed the example of the particular in attending to articles of home Spanish regency, so significantly pointed manufacture, like this of the Courier, from out to his attention by the Spanish secre which we shall easily discover what be tary of State, in these words: “ The coun himself (the silly fellow!) was above all “cil of regency has more than once been things desirous to disguise from our know" the mark of calumnies, more, or less in- ledge. “ We lament," says he, “ that “jurious, both in words and writings; but, our Government should have felt itself “ certain of its rectitude of conduct, and “ under the necessity of complaining of " thoroughly satisfied that it has its support the calumnious reports and publications “ in the opinion of good men,” far from “ circulated at Cadiz against the honour paying attention to the attacks upon it, it and good faith of this country.
We has remained perfectly tranquil, in the “ had thought our efforts had been so vigoconviction that nothing but the combined “rous, our motives so well understood, and efforts of both nations can bring their com “our disinterestedness so manifest from the mon cause to a successful issue.-Cer “ commencement of the contest, that none tainly, this was the conduct for wise and but the enemy could assert, what not a upright men to pursue, conscious that they Spaniard would believe, that we were were doing the best for their country; or,
- intluenced by one sordid, selfish, or unge. at any rate, it is as clear as day light, that " nerous principle. That such rumours and there was no choice between silence, on the writings have been instigated by the one hand, and a complete refutation on the “enemy there can be no doubt; but even other. The answer of the Spanish go they, we should think, could no longer vernment is civil. It is, like most papers impose upon any one after the solemn of the kind, full of expressions of respect, pledge thus given and recorded by our friendship, and confidence; but it is dry. "Government, that we have no views of ness itself. The fairest skin in the month aggrandizement or territorial acquisiof March is not dryer. It is dry even to tion, either in Europe or America, at chapping. And
talks too of the con. “ the expence of the Spanish nation; that temptibleness of the persons, whose public « our whole and sole view is to assist Spain cations and language are complained of, “ in recovering her liberty and indepenand who are described as " some indivi dence; and that the success of these " duals," who aspire to an ephemeral cele.“ efforts will be our best and most glorious brity; and it concludes by expressing a " reward. What, but the most noble princonfidence that this answer of the Regency ciples, could have influenced us in will“ suffice to calm the inquietude which mo doing what we have done, when, if we “ mentarily was excited in the mind” of our “had only consulted our own interests, we Minister.—This answer is, in fact, upon might have gratified them to the utmost the score of the complaint, a gentle rebuke, " extent! What, if we had demeaned ourand as such it has been, I see, regarded by "selves not merely as tame spectators, our hired print, the Courier, the Editor “ but as active agents against Spain! of which remarks, with manifest chagrin, What, if we had said, you have united not to say, malice, that the Spanish yourself with the common enemy of Regency has “ omitted to promise to re "man ; you have acted as the engines of “ strain, by SEVERE PUNISHMENT," " that accursed fiend, take the reward of such discourse and writings as have been " your servility and folly, and follow and the subject of the complaint of our Minis « feel the fate of those nations whom you ter. But, we inust see the whole cf this “ have helped him to subdue! What, if article of the Courier of the 17th instant, we had carried our power to the shores because it will enable us to judge of the “ of the new world, invited the American real state of things better than any paper « Provinces to declare themselves indereceived from Cadiz. The papers from “ pendent, and promised them our coun