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Adam Smith advantage afford agriculture amongst augment balance of trade bills bills of exchange bour branch of industry bread capitalist CAROLINE cent certainly circulating circulating capital coined commerce commodities consequence considered consumed corn cultivation currency demand for labour depreciation derived diminished distress dities division of labour duce duction effect employed employment enable England equal evil exchangeable value expense export farm farmer foreign gold and silver home trade improvement income increase instance interest labouring classes landed proprietor landlord laws less luxury manufactures means ment merchants mode necessary observed obtain plenty political economy poor population Portugal possessed procure profits of capital proportion provisions purchase quantity raise the price rate of wages raw produce recollect render rent requires revenue rich rise Russia savage scarce scarcity sell shillings soil Spain specie subsistence supply suppose things tillage tion tivated value of money wealth whilst workmen
203 ページ - The word VALUE, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called "value in use"; the other, "value in exchange.
51 ページ - ... if we examine, I say, all these things, and consider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible that, without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to what we very falsely imagine the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated.
203 ページ - The things which have the greatest value in use have frequently little or no value in exchange; and, on the contrary, those which have the greatest value in exchange have frequently little or no value in use. Nothing is more useful than water: but it will purchase scarce anything; scarce anything can be had in exchange for it.
50 ページ - The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must all join their different arts in order to complete even this homely production.
53 ページ - ... the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which in some manufactories are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.
51 ページ - What a variety of labor too is necessary in order to produce the tools of the meanest of those workmen! To say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the...
205 ページ - High or low wages and profit are the causes of high or low price; high or low rent is the effect of it. It is because high or low wages and profit must be paid, in order to bring a particular commodity to market, that its price is high or low. But it is because its price is high or low; a great deal more, or very little more, or no more, than what is sufficient to pay those wages and profit, that it affords a high rent, or a low rent, or no rent at all.
51 ページ - ... in order to form that very simple machine, the shears with which the shepherd clips the wool. The miner, the builder of the furnace for...
50 ページ - Observe the accommodation of the most common artificer or day-labourer in a civilized and thriving country, and you will perceive that the number of people of whose industry a part, though but a small part, has been employed in procuring him his accommodation, exceeds all computation.
52 ページ - One man draws out the wire, another straightens it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the Lead ; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations ; to put it on is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another ; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper...