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With shunless destiny; aidless came off,
solution of the academy, on the death of Dr. And with a sudden reenforcement struck
kippis. But Dr. Rees, though esteemed through Corioli like a planet.
out his long life, as an able and learned Arian They used the stones to reenforce the pier.
divine, was principally and most advantageously Payuurd.
ayward. known in his literary capacity. In 1770 he was What reenforcement we may gain from hope.
applied to by the proprietors of Chambers's
Wilton. The presence of a friend raises fancy, and reen
- Cyclopædia as the person best qualified to superforces reason.
intend a new and enlarged edition of that compilaThe words are a reiteration or reenforcement of a tion, which, after nine years labor, he complete corollary.
Ward. in four folio volumes. After this the proprietors REENJOY, 4. a. Re and enjoy. To enjoy e and enjoy. To enjoy and our author projected a much improved
y edition; and he had the satisfaction to see the aneu' or a second time.
The calmness of temper lcbilles rernioved is Cyclopedia, now generally kuown by his name. only an effect of the revenge which ought to bave proceed with credit from the publication of its first preceded.
l'ope. volume in 1802 to its completion in forty-fise REEWTER, 2.. Re and enter. To enter Mustrived and Recommended, 1800 ; Antidolt
volumes, ito. His other works are, Economy again; to enter anew. With opportune excursion, we may chance
to the Alarm of Invision, 1805; Practical SerRepnter heaven.
mons, 2 vols. 8vo., 1809-1812 ; The l'rinciples The fiery sulphureous vapours seek the centre froin of l’rotestant Dissenters stated and vindicated : whence they proceed ; that is, reenter again.
and a variety of occasional Sermons. Dr. Rees, Mortimer's Husbandry. we are told, obtained his diploma from the uniREENTIIRONE', v. a. To replace in a
To rewire in versity of Edinburgh at the express recommenthrone.
dation of Dr. Robertson the historian. His lle disposes in my hands the scheme
death took place June 9th, 1825. To renthrone the king.
Southern. REESTAB'LISII, v. a. Re and establish. REENTRANCE, n. s. Re and entrance. To establish anew. The act of entering again.
To reestablish the right of lineal succession to paTheir repentance, although not their first entrance, ternal government is to put a man in possession of is notwithstanding the first step of their reentrance that government which his fathers did enjoy. Lectu'. into life.
llocker. Peace, which hath for many years been banished The pores of the brain, through the which the spin the christian world, will be speedily reestablished. rits before took their course, are more easily opened
Smalridge. to the spirits which demand reentrance.
The Jews made such a powerful effort for their
Glanville's Scepsis. reestublishment under Barchocab, in the reign of REEPHAM, a parish and market town of Nor- Adrian, as shook the whole Roman empire. folk seated on the river Evne, thirteen miles north
Addison. west from Norwich, and 113 north by east from
REETE, n. s. Sax. genera. A steward. London. It is remarkable for having had an- Obsolete. ciently three churches, one in Reepham, another The reere, miller, and cook, are distinguished. in Whitwell, and another in lacton, two villages
Druden. adjoining, all in one church-vard ; the two for- REvE (Clara), an ingenious inodern authomer were long ago demolished, and the latter was ress, was born at Ipswich in 1738. She posburnt down, together with the greater part of the sessed considerable learnins, which she displaved town, about the year 1500. The chief trade of in a translation of Barclay's Latin Romance of this little town is in malt, and the inarket is held Argenis, published under the title of the l'bænix, on Saturday.
or the llistory of Polyarchus and Argenis, 4 vols. REES CÁbraham), D.D., F.R.S., and F.L.S. a 12mo., 1772; and the l'rogress of Romance. late dissenting clergyman of distinguished literary Hler other works are, The Old English Baron; and scientific rank, was the son of a nonconformist The Two Mentors, a modern Story; The Exile; minister of the principality, and was born at, or in The School for Widow's; A Plan of Education, the neighbourhood of, Montgomery, in 1743. lle and Memoirs of Sir Roger de Clarendon, 4 vols. was first placed under Dr. Jenkins of Carmarthen, She died at Ipswich in 1806. and afterwards at the lloxton Academy founded REESAMINE,.a. Re and examine. To by Mr. Coward, where his progress was so rapid examine anew. that in his nineteenth year he was appointed Spend the time in reexamining more duly your mathematical iutor to the institution, and soon cause.
Tvoker. alier resident tutor, in which capacity he con- RE-EXCHANGE, in commerce, a second tinued upwards of twenty-two years. In 1768 payment of the price of exchange, or rather the he became pastor of the presbyterian congrega- price of a new exchange due upon a bill of exuion of St. Thomas's Southwark, and continued change that is protested, and refunded the bearer in that situation till 1783, when he accepted an by the drawer or indorser. invitation to become minister of a congregation REFECT, 2.11.) Lat. rofectus. To rein the Old Jewry, with which he remained ull his REL'ECTORY, n. s. J fresh; 10 restore after death. On the establishment of the New Disc hunger or fatigue : an eating-room. Nor in use. senting College at llackney, in 1780, Dr. Rees, A man in the morning is lighter in the scale, bewho had seceded from Hoxton two years before, cause in sleep some pounds have perspired ; and is was elected to the situation of resident tutor in also lighter unto himself, because he is refected. the natural sciences, which he held till the dis
Broune's l'idea Erromers,
After a draught of wine, a man may seem lighter REFINE', v. n. & v. n.) Fr. raffiner. To in himself from sudden refectim, though he be hea. Reri'NEDLY, adv. ( purify; clear; vier in the balance, from a ponderous addition. REFINEMENT, n. $. (make subtle, ele
gant, or accurate : Hc cells and refectories did prepare,
as a verb neuter, to improve in accuracy or deAnd large provisions laid of winter fare.
licacy; grow pure; affect nicety or scrupulous
Dryden. Fasting is the diet of angels, the food and refection
ness: the adverb and noun substantives correof souls, and the richest aliment of grace. South.
I will refine them as silver is refined, and will try For sweet refection due, The genial viands let my train renew. Pope. them as gold is tried.
Zechariah xin. 9.
The refiners of iron observe that that iron stone is REFECTION, among ecclesiastics, is a spare hardest to melt which is fullest of metal : and that meal or repast, for the support of life : hence the easiest which has most dross.
Bacon. hall in convents, and other communities, where Queen Elizabeth's time was a golden age for a the monks, nuns, &c., take their refections or world of refined wits, who honoured poesy with their meals in common, is called the refectory.
Peacham. REFEL', v. a. Lat. refello. To refute; to Love refines the thought, and hath his seat repress.
Milton. Friends, not to refel ye
Chaucer refined on Boccace, and mended his Or any way quell ye,
Will any dog
Refinedly leave his bitches and his bones
To turn a wheel ?
Id. discovering and refelling the subtile tricks of sophis.
The red Dutch currant yields a rich juice to be ters.
watts. diluted with a quantity of water boiled with refined sugar.
Mortimer. REFER', v. a. & v. m.) Fr. referer ; Lat. The more bodies are of kin to spirit in subtilty REFEREE', . S. refero. To send for and refinement, the more diffusive are they. Norris. REF'ERENCE, S information or decisi
The pure limpid stream, when foul with stains,
The pure i REFEREN'DARY. (on; reduce to a class Works itself clear, and as it runs refines. Addison.
REFER'RIBLE, adj. or end; as a verb- The flirts about town had a design to leave us in neuter, to respect; appeal: a referee is one to the lurch, by some of their late refinements. Id. whom reference is made: as also is (obsolete) No men see less of the truth of things, than these referendary ; reference is dismission or deferencé great refiners upon incidents, who are so wonderfully to another tribunal ; relation; respect : referri- subtle, and over-wise in their conceptions.
ld. Spectator. ble, capable of reference.
The rules religion prescribes are more successful The knowledge of that which man is in reference in public and private affairs than the refinements of unto himself, and other things in relation unto man, irregular cunning.
Rogers. I may term the mother of all those principles which He makes another paragraph about our refining in are decrees in that law of nature, whereby human controversy, and coming nearer still to the church of actions are framed. Hooker. Rome.
Atterbury. The heir of his kingdom hath referred herself unto Let a lord but own the happy lines; a poor but worthy gentleman.
Shakspcare. How the wit brightens, how the sense refines ! *Jupiter was the son of Æther and Dies ; so called,
Pope. because the one had reference to his celestial condi- The same traditional sloth which renders the tions, the other discovered his natural virtues. bodies of children, born from wealthy parents, weak, Raleigh's History of the World. may perhaps refine their spirits.
Swift. You profess and practise to refer all things to from the civil war to this time. I doubt whether yourself.
Bacon. the corruptions in our language have not equalled its In suits it is good to refer to some friend of trust; refinements.
Id. but let him chuse well his refer endaries.
Some refiners pretend to argue for the usefulness
Bacon's Essays. of parties upon such a government as ours. Id. Unto God all parts of mine are alike, unto whom the religion of the gospel is only the refinement none are more referrible, and all things present, unto and exaltation of our best faculties.
Law. whom nothing is past or to come, but who is the She judges of refinement by the eye, same yesterday, to-day, and to-morrow. Browne. He by the test of conscience, and a heart
The salts, predominant in quicklime, we refer ra- Not soon deceived ; aware that what is base ther to lixivate, than acid. Boyle on Colours. No polish can make sterling.
Cowper. Christian religion commands sobriety, temperance,
REFINING, in metallurgy, is the purifying and moderation, in reference to our appetites and
metals from any accidental alloys with which
Tillotson. passions. Referees and arbitrators seldom forget themselves. they may be mixed... Gold, having the property
L'Estrange. which no other metal has of resisting the action of those places that refer to the shutting and of sulphur, antimony, nitrous acid, and muriatic opening the abyss, I take notice of that in Job. acid, may be purified by these agents from all other
Burnet, metallic substances. These operations are disIt passed in England without the least reference tinguished by proper names, as purification of hither.
Swift. gold by antimony, parting, concentrated parting, REFERMENT, v. a. Re and ferment. To dry parting. See ASSAYING and PARTING. As ferment anew.
silver has also the property, which the less valuaThe' admitted nitre agitates the food,
ble metals have not, of resisting the action of Revives its fires, and referments the blood.
nitre, it may be refined by this salt : but the term
Blackmore. refining is chiefly applied to the purification » VOL. XVIII.
gold and silver by lead in the cupel. This is bending or flying back; reproachful: reflection, performed by the destruction, vitrification, and the act of retlecting in any way ; that which is scorification, of all the extraneous and destructi- reflected; consideration; censure: reflective, ble metallic substances with which they are al- throwing back; applied both to literal images loved. As gold and silver alone can resist and thought : reflector, he who reflects or conithe combined action of air and fire, there is a siders. possibility of purifying gold and silver from all In dead men's sculls, and in those holes, alloy of the other metals merely by the action of Where eves did once inhabit, there were crept, fire and air; only by keeping them fused till all As 'twere in scorn of eyes, reflecting gems. the alloy be destroyed; but this purification
Shakspeare. would be very tedious and expensive, from the
The eye sees not itself, great consumption of fuel. Silver alloyed with But by refiection from other things. copper has been exposed above sixty hours to a She shines not upon fools, lest the reflection should glass-house fire without being perfectly refined: hurt her. the reason is, that, when a small quantity only of
We, his gathered beams other metal remains united with gold or silver,
Reflected, may with matter sere foment. Milton.
The imagination casts thoughts in our way, and it is protected from the action of the air, which
' forces the understanding to reflect upon them. is necessary for its combustion. This refining
Duppa. of gold and silver merely by the action of fire, The ray descendant, and the ray reflicteni, flyiny which was the only method anciently known, with so great a speed that the air between them caowas very tedious, difficult, expensive, and imper- not take a formal play any way, before the beams of fect; but a much shorter and more advantageous the light be on both sides of it; it follows, that, ac. method has been long practised. This consists cording to the nature of humid things, it must first in adding to the alloyed gold and silver a certain only swell.
Dighy on the Soul. quantity of lead, and in exposing this mixture in every action reflect upon the end ; and, in your to the action of fire. The vessel in which the undertaking it, consider why you do it. Taylor. refining is performed is hollowed, but shallow, i
Who saith, who could such ill events expect?
With shame on his own counsels doth reflect. that the matter which it contains may present to
Denham. the air the greatest surface possible. This form The three first parts I dedicate to my old friends, resembles that of a cup, and hence it is called a to take off those melancholy reflections which the cupel. The surface ought to be vaulted, that sense of age, infirmity, and death may give them. the heat may be applied upon the surface of the metal during the whole time of the operation. There is scarce any thing that nature has made, Upon this surface a crust of dark colored pellicle or that men do suffer, whence the devout refiector is continually forming. In the instant when all cannot take an occasion of an aspiring meditation. the other metals are destroved, the surface of the
* Boule on Colours gold and silver is seen, and appears clean and
Bodies close together reflect their own colour, brilliant. By this mark the metal is known to
Druden. be refined.
This dreadful image so possessed her mind, that the metal sustains only the precise degree of Shanas
She ceased all farther hope ; and now began heat necessary to keep it fused before it be per. To make reflection on the unhappy man.
Id. fectly refined, it fixes or becomes solid all at W hen the weary king gave place to night, once in the very instant of the coruscation ; be- Ilis beams he to his royal brother lent, cause a greater heat is required to keep gold or And so shone still in his reflective light. Id. silver in fusion when they are pure than when W hen men are grown up, and reflect on their own alloyed with lead. The operation of refining minds, they cannot find any thing more ancient may be performed in small or in large quantities, there than those opinions which were taught then upon the same principles, but only with some before their memory began to keep a register of their differences in the management. As the refining
Lecke. of small quantities of gold and silver is per
Reflection is the perception of the operations of formed in the same manner as these metals are
our own minds within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got.
la. assayed, the assay being only a very accurate
This delight grows and improves under thought refining, we refer to the articles ASSAYING and
and reflection ; and, while it exercises, does also en: METALLURGY.
dear itself to the mind ; at the same time emplos. REFIT', 1. a. Fr. rejait. Re and fit. To
ing and infiaming the meditations. South's Sermons. repair ; to restore after damage.
It is hard that any part of my land should be Permit our ships a shelter on your shores, settled upon one who has used me so ill; and ret I Pefitted from your woods with planks and oars.
could not see a sprig of any bough of this whole Dryden.
walk of trees, but I should reflect upon her and her He will not allow that there are any such signs of severity.
Addison's Spectator. art in the make of the present globe, or that there Into myself my reason's eye 1 turned ; was so great care taken in the refitting of it up again And, as I much reflected, much I mourned. Prior. at the deluge.
Wooduard. He died; and oh! may no reflection shed
lp the reflective stream the sighing bride, REFLEC'IENT, adj. throw or bend back; Viewind
k; Viewing her charms impaired, abashed shall hide REFLECTION, n.s. Sthrow back light; ller pensive head.
1d. REFLECTIVE, (dj. bend back; throw
Inanimate matter moves always in a straight line, REFLEC'TOR, n. s.
back thought; con- and never reflects in an angle, nor bends in a circle, sider; throw reproach or censure : reflectent is which is a continual reflection, unless either by some external impulse, or by an intrinsick principle of
Virtue given for lost gravity.
Bentley's Sermons. Revives, reflourishes, then vigorous most, What woudding reproaches of soul muse he feel, When most unactive deemed. Milton's Agonistes. from the reflections on his own ingratitude. Rogers. REFLUENT, adj. Lat. refluens. Running
Job's reflections on his once flourishing estate back: flowing back. did at the same time afflict and encourage him.
Tell, by what paths,
Atierbury. Back to the fountain's head the sea conveys If the sun's light consisted but of one sort of rays,
The refluent rivers, and the land repays. Blackmore. there would be but one colour, and it would be im
The liver receives the refluent blood almost from possible to produce any new by reflections or refrac
all parts of the abdomen.
Cheyne. Neither do I reflect in the least upon the memory
REFLUX, n. s. Fr. reflur ; Lat. refluxus. of his late majesty, whom I entirely acquit of any
Backward course. imputation.
Mine own that bide upon me, all from me REFLECTING TELESCOPES. See OPTICS Shall with a fierce reflur on me redound. Milton. and TELESCOPES.
The variety of the Aux and reflur of Euripus, or REFLECTION OF Light. See Optics. whather the same do ebb and flow seven times a day, REFLECTING CIRCLE, an instrument for mea- is incontrovertible.
Browne. suring angles to a very great degree of accuracy. REFORM', v.a. & v.n.) Fr. reformer ; It was invented by Mayer of Gottingen, princi- REFORMA'TION, n. s. Lat. reformo. To pally with a view to do away the errors of the REFORM'ER.
form on a better divisions of the limb; and has since been much model ; change from worse to better : reformaimproved by the Chevalier de Borda, and M. tion is the act of so changing; applied particuJ. H. de Magellan. See NAVIGATION.
larly to the religious change of several European REʻFlex, adj. & n. s. Lat. reflerus, nations from popery in the sixteenth century: 2 REFLEXIBIL'ITY, n. s. Backward; back- reformer is one who effects a beneficial change of REFLEX'IBLE, adj. > ward direction: things or persons; one who particularly proREFLEX'IVE, adj.
reflexibility is the moted the Protestant Reformation. REFLEX'IVELY, adv. quality of being A sect in England, following the very same rule of reflexible : reflexible, capable of being thrown policy, seeketh to reform even the French reformation, back : reflexive, thrown backwards : the adverb and purge out from thence all dregs of popery.
Hooker corresponding. There was no other way for angels to sin, but by
Never came reformation in a flood refier of their understandings upon themselves.
? With such a heady current, scowering faults ; looker.
Nor ever Hydra-headed wilfulness I'll say yon gray is not the morning's eye,
So soon did lose his seat, as in this king. 'Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthia's brow.
Our first reformers were famous confessors and That assurance reflexive cannot be a divine faith, martyrs all over the wor
Bacon. but at the most ad human, yet such as perhaps Í
Public reformers had need first practise that on their
F may have no doubting mixed with. Hammond. own hearts which they purpose to try on others. The motions of my mind are as obvious to the re
King Charles. fler act of the soul, or the turning of the intellectual
May no such storm eye inward upon its own actions, as the passions of 'Fa
Fall on our times, where ruin must reform.
Denham. my sense are obvious to my sense; I see the object, and I perceive that I see it.
· Seat worthier of Gods was built Solomon tells us life and death are in the power of With second thoughts, reforming what was old. the tongue, and that not only directly in regard of
Milton. the good or ill we may do to others, but refierively .
Now lowering looks presage approaching storms, also in respect of what may rebound to ourselves. And now prevailing love her face reforms. Dryden. Government of the Tongue. Satire lavishes vice into reformation.
Id. Pefleribility of rays is their disposition to be re
One cannot attempt the perfect reforming the lanflected or turned back into the same medium from guages of the world, without rendering himself ridi
Locke. any other medium, upon whose surface they fall : culous. and rays are more or less reflexible which are turned The complaint is more general than the endeaback more or less easily. Neroton. vours to redress it : abroad every man would be a
Sprat. The order and beauty of the inanimate parts of the reformer, how very few at home! world, the discernible ends of them, do evince by
a I t was honour enough to behold the English refler argument that it is the workmanship, not of churches reformed ; that is, delivered from the reblind mechanism or blinder chance, but of an intelli, formers. gent and benign agent.
Bentley. The pagan converts mention this great reformation Sir Isaac Newton has demonstrated, by convincing of those who had been the greatest sinners, with that experiments, that the light of the sun consists of rays sudden and surprising change which the Christian differently refrangible and reflerible; and that those religion made in the lives of the most profligate.
Addison. rays are differently reflexible that are differently refrangible.
Was his doctrine of the mass struck out in this REFLOAT", n. s. Re and float. Ebb; reflux.
conflict? or did it give him occasion of reforming in this point?
Atterbury. The main float and refloat of the sea is by consent the burden of the reformation lay on Luther's of the universe, as part of the diurnal motion.
Atterbury. Bacon. The example alone of a vicious prince will corrupt REFLOUR'ISH, v. a. Re and flourish. To an age ; but that of a good one will not reform it. flourish anew.
REFORMATION. Amid the corruptions of the or the wwritten word, was set up. This has Christian church, from its first aberration from the been the artifice of the earliest heretics, who, simplicity of the gospe down to the council of when they were charged with holding doctrines Trent, there have ever been those who exhibited not according to scripture, affirined ihat some
the faith and patience of the saints :' and to these things liad been revealed which were not comipersons, who amid persecution, and contempt, mitted to writing, but were orally transmitted. and neglect, were indeed the salt of the earth, The pharisees before them pleaded the same supwe are indebted, under God, for those efforts posititious authority for the formalities which they which, after many conflicts and trials, terminated superadded to the law, and by which they some. in the reformation of the Christian profession in times superseded it, making the word of God of the sixteenth century; and divested it of that none effect,' as our Saviour himself reproached gorgeousness, extravagance, and ceremonial for- them ; upon this ground the Romish clersy jus. mality, by which its purity and spirituality had uitied all the devices of man's imagination with been long obscured, and well nigh obliterated. which they had corrupted the ritual and the faith The conflicts between truth and error, light and of the western churches. darkness, had endured, with more or less of vio- At one time relics, or entire bodies, used to be lence and alternate success, from the time of carried about the country and exhibited to the Paulinus of Apulia to that of Wicklift'; and credulous mulutude ; but this painful practice thence down to those of the great Luther. It is gave occasion to such scandalous impostures true the powers of ignorance and of a corrupt that it was at length suppressed; but what is still religion held the minds of mankind in the deep- encouraged is sufficiently disgraceful 10 the Roest thraldom; and few, comparatively, were manists. those who felt their moral degradation, and sigh- I. State of the Romish church. A review of ed alier a holier and a more pure taith: yet were the then existing state of the Romish faith and these few “valiant for the truth,' • not counting practice will, at once, justify the efforts of those their lives dear unto themselves.' Of these many who sought to reform their abuses and restore who adhered to the gospel, and remained uncor- the purity of its doctrine and discipline. The rupted amidst the growth of superstition; who bodies of the saints were, at times, exposed in deplored the miserable state to which Christianity their churches, some dried and shrivelled, others was reduced by the alteration of its divine doc- reduced to a skeleton, clothed either in religious trines, and the vices of its profligate ministers; babits or in the most gorgeous garments ;-a opposed with vigor the tyrannical ambition both spectacle as ghastly as the superstition itself is of the lordly pontiff and the aspiring bishops; degrading! The poor fragments of mortality, and in some provinces privately, in others a scull, a bone, or the fragment of a bone, or openly, attempted the reformation of a corrupt tooth, or a tongue, were either set or mounted, and idolatrous church, and of a barbarous and according to the size, in gold or silver; depositsuperstitious age. This was, indeed, bearing ed in costliest shrines of the finest workmanship, witness to the truth in the noblest manner. and enriched with the most precious gems.
Before, however, we enter on a review of the Churches soon began to vie with each cther in various attempts which were thus made to cor- the number and variety of these imaginary trearect the abuses of the Roman church, it will be sures, which were sources of real wealth to their necessary to take a survey of its actual state, at posessors: the instruments of our Lord's crucithe period to which we refer. That authority, tixion were shown (the spear and the cross hav10 which the church could lay no claim for the ing, so it was pretended, been miraculously purity of its members, was supported by its are discovered); the clothes wherein he was wrapt in royant pretensions; availing itself of all notions, infancy; the manger in which he was laid, the accidents, practices, and frauds, from which any vessels in which he converted water into wine at advantage could be derived, ull the whole mon. the marriage feast ; the bread which he brake at strous accumulation assumed a coherent form, the last supper; his vesture, for which the sol. which well deserves to be called the mystery diers cast lots. Such was the impudence of Roof iniquity.' The scriptures, even in the Latin mish fraud, that portions were produced of the version, had long become a sealed book to the burning bush, of the manna which fell in the people: and the Roman see, in proportion as it wilderness, of Moses's and Samson's honevcomb, extended its supremacy, discouraged or proscrib- of Tobit's fish, of the blessed l'irgin's milk, and ed the use of such vernacular versions as existed. of our Saviour's blood ! Enormous prices were This it did, not lest the ignorant and half inform- paid by sovereigns for such relics; it was deemed should mistake the sense of Scripture, por ed excusable, not to covet merely, but to steal lest the presumptuous and the perverse should them; and if the thieves were sometimes miradeduce new errors in doctrine, and more fatai culously punished they were quite as often consequences in practice, from its distorted lan- enabled by miracle to effect the pious robbery. guage; but in the secret and sure consciousness and bring the prize in triumph to the church for that what was now taught as Christianity was not which it was designed. In the rivalry of deceit 10 be found in the written word of God. In which the desire of gain occasioned, it often maintenance of the dominant system, tradition, happened thal the head of the same saint was