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We should state the presumption in favor of of this kind must either be by an immediate revealed religion (to trace the argument fairly infallible inspiration, or illumination of every from its origin) in the following way. There is particular person, for informing and directing a God and he is infinitely benevolent. In the him with regard to the knowledge and practice boundless heavens, the teeming earth, the cheer- of religion ; or by God's making an extraordiful seas, He has opened volumes of truth and nary discovery of himself and of his will to wisdom inviting every eye. We have read them some person or persons, who should be comwith attention, we claim the privilege of think- missioned to communicate it to others. In the ing and reasoning about them with impartiality former case it could not be properly called exand independence of mind; and whether by the traordinary or supernatural revelation ; for if it light of science we search the arcana of nature, were a universal infallible light, imparted to or contine ourselves to those observations on her every single person in every nation and every age, works which may be as easily made by the from the beginning of the world, it would be as ploughman as by the philosopher, no one truth common and familiar to every one as the comis supported by such variety of proof as the mon light of reason, and by being universal being of a beneficent Author of all: springs of would cease to be extraordinary. Whereas, it happiness, evidently designed, open cvery where there be such a thing as revealed religion, or if at our feet, and supply the unquestionable sources it has pleased God to make discoveries of his of natural religion.
will to mankind with respect to religious truth One thing however is left unsatisfied-the and duty, in a way of extraordinary revelation, human mind. Nature teaches us to ask quesa the most natural mode of doing it, and that tions about her God which she cannot answer. which is best accommodated to the present state This is an anomaly. Every thing seems to lead of mankind, seems to be that the revelation up to man: he has a more exquisitely finished should be communicated to some person or form than any creature of his size, and a power persons, to be by thein communicated to others of reflection, and therefore of anticipation, pos- in his namne; at the same time furnishing them sessed by no other creature: he arrives at the with sufficient proofs and credentials, to show position with which we have commenced ; he that they were indeed sent and inspired by him, finds it the capital truth of nature, without and that the doctrines and laws which are the which all the conclusions of science are half- matter of such revelation, and which they are truths only, but he cannot proceed. The very authorised to publish to the world in his name, being of nature's God seems to include a hearty were really and originally communicated by determination in God to make his creatures revelation from him. This method admits of happy, by adapting an object to every faculty of sufficient proof being given to satisfy well-disenjoyment; and all their senses are faculties of posed minds, and of provision being made for enjoyment. But here is an appetite for truth instructing men, uuless it be their own fault, in unprovided for; either therefore this must re- the knowledge of religion, and engaging thein to main an inexplicable mystery, or rather a con- the practice of the duties which it requires : tradiction to the whole series of facts that and at the same time there is room for the exerargue a benevolent designer in the works of cise of reason in examining the nature of the nature, or nature herself suggests the highest evidence, and the trial of men's sincerity and probability of a further revelation from God; diligence, of their impartial love of truth, and and here we rest the connexion between natural their openness to receive it. and revealed religion. We have some hope of Two principal questions present themselves all who desire to retain God in their know- to our consideration with regard to this kind of ledge,' and would reason with all who arow that revelation. Iis usefulness and expediency, and desire. The Bible professes to contain that re- even the necessity of it in the present state of velation from God which every consistent deist mankind, and its proofs and evidences. must be enquiring for-it demands • a reason. It is acknowledged by lord Bolingbroke, a able service only, from its most devout ad- writer of distinguished rank among the opposérs mirers, and can therefore have nothing to fear of revelation (Works vol. ii. p. 468, ed. 410.), from an investigation of its claims. He who • that an extraordinary action of God upon the hates a man for not being a Christin is not him- human mind, which the word “inspiration is now self a Christian, lord Littleton has well said. used to denote, is not more inconceivable than Weak Christians and violent sceptics are each the ordinary action of mind upon body, or likely to be improperly affected by the revival body on mind ;' and that it is impertinent of the deistical controversy,-the former by to deny the existence of any phenomena, merely undue apprehensions, the latter by a premature because we cannot account for it. Moreover exultation; but, whether the triumphs of the as God can, if he thinks proper, communicate one or the fears of the other are to be realised, his will to mankind, he can also do it in such a we deem it a paramount duty to request both, manner as to give to those to whom it is originas much as possible, to suppress mere emotions, ally and immediately made a full and certain and in the spirit of untrembling deliberation to assurance of its being a true divine revelation. allow the arena to be cleared and the conflict to Besides, God can commission those to whom he be fairly and openly decided.
has made an extraordinary revelation of his will But io return :- By revealed, as distinguished to communicate to others what they have refrom natural religion, we are to understand that ceived from him; and can furnish them with knowledge of religion which was originally com- such credentials of their divine mission as are municated in a supernatural way. A revelation sufficient to prove that he sent them, and that the
doctrines and laws which they deliver in his which unassisted reason cannot positively and nama were indeed received from God. He can with certainty determine. The doctrine of the also undoubtedly, if he thinks fit, enable such immortality of the soul, and of a future state of persons to perform the most wonderful works in retribution, is unquestionably of very great imhis name, as a proof that he sent them; works portance to mankind; and the natural and moral of such a nature and so circumstanced as mani- arguments to prove it have certainly great
festly to transcend all human power, and bear weight; but they are assailed by difficulties and - the evident marks of a divine interposition. objections which weaken the evidence, and may He can also endue them with supernatural gifts, occasion suspicion and doubt, if natural reason and enable them to deliver express predictions be our only guide and umpire. Accordingly of future contingent events, which no human some of the most eminent ancient philosophers sagacity could foresee, and which yet shall be either denied this doctrine, or expressed them. accomplished in the proper season. See PRO- selves doubtfully concerning it. If then God himPHECY. It should also be further observed, upon self should, by a well-attested revelation, assure this subject, that not only they who live in the us that death shall not put an utter end to our age when the revelation was first published to being ; that the present life is only the first stage
the world may have such proofs of it as may be of our existence; that we shall be raised again - sufficient to convince ihem of its divine authority from the dead; and that God wili call all men
and original, but that it may be transmitted with to an account, and reward or punish them in a such evidence to those who live in succeeding future state according to their behaviour in this; ages as may lay them under an obligation to and should also signify to us the nature of those receive and submit to it as a revelation from rewards and punishments, and the qualifications God. Although oral tradition is not a very sure of the persons on whom they should be conconveyance, yet it is undeniable that writings ferred or inflicted; this must needs be of high may be transmitted with such a degree of evi- advantage, and tend to give us satisfaction in a dence as to leave no room for reasonable doubt. point of considerable importance, for encouragSuch is the fact with regard to the revelation ing men in the practice of virtue, and delivering contained in the holy scriptures; nor is it diffi- them from vice and wickedness. Moreover, we cult to prove that we have greater evidence of are led by the light of nature and reason to enterthe safe transmission of these sacred writings, tain some hope that God will show mercy to without any general and material corruption and sinners upon their repentance and amendment; alteration, than we have concerning other books, but how far this mercy shall extend, whether he the genuineness of which is universally acknow. will pardon sins of every kind, even the most ledged. To this kind of argument it can only heinous, frequently repeated, and long persisted be objected that moral evidence is uncertain, in, merely upon repentance and amendment; and historical human testimony fallible; but to and whether his pardon in this case will be only the objection the reply is obvious, that this kind a mitigation or remission of the threatened of evidence may be, and frequently is, so cir- penalty, without a full restitution to grace and cumstanced, that the man would scarcely be favor, and how far he will reward an obedience thought in his senses who should seriously deny attended with failures and defects :- these things or doubt of it. It is by moral evidence, and night create anxious doubts and perplexities in the testimony of fallible men, capable of deceive all thoughtful minds; especially when it is furing and of being deceived, that a man who has ther considered that reason leads us to regard never been at Paris or Roine knows that there God as just as well as merciful, a wise and are such cities, and yet he can no more reason- righteous governor, who will therefore exercise ably doubt of it than if he had seen them with his pardoning inercy in such a way as seemeth his own eyes. It is by moral evidence that we most fit to his rectoral wisdom, and will best have all our laws and records, and the assurance answer the ends of moral government. A reveof any past facts.
lation from God satisfying mankind, and especi# The great subject of present consideration, the ally anxious penitents, with regard to these
usefulness and advantage of divine revelation, interesting questions, and assuring them by
and the necessity of it in the present state of express promise, as well as by its representations * mankind, for supporting and promoting the of the placability of God, and of the provision
interests of religion and virtue in the world, may which he has made for the pardon of repenting thus be stated :-Such a revelation will be of transgressors, in perfect consistence with all the great use even with regard to those truths and attributes of his nature and laws of his governprinciples which lie at the foundation of all piety, ment, must be a very great benefit to the world. or are common to what is called natural and The assistance promised and certified by revelarevealed religion. Such are the truths which tion to those who use their own earnest endearelate to the excellent and unparalleled nature, vours in the performance of their duty must the perfections and attributes of the one supreme further evince its importance and utility. The God. A divine revelation may also be very benefits and uses of a divine revelation further useful in establishing the belief of the providence extend to those laws and duties which we owe of God, and in communicating instruction to all to God, our neighbours, and ourselves, and those who allow that some kind of religious which are comprehended under the class of worship and homage should be rendered to him. moral obligations. But though revelation is thus What kind of worship will be most acceptable eminently useful, and even necessary, it is not to the Supreme Being, and what rites are most designed to supersede the use of our own reason, proper to be used in his service ? are questions or to render the exercise of it needless, but to
guide, Improve, and perfect it. Revelation, so who believed in him inight not perish, but have far froin discarding or weakening any argument everlasting life. that can be justly brought from reason, in proof Now here it must be remembered that the of any truths relating to religion or morality, Jewish infidel quoud Christianity establishes and adds to them the attestation of a divine authority advocates our faith in the old and inore ancient or testimony, which is of great weight. This scriptures. Between us and him, our most inboth gives us a farther degree of certainty with veterate opponent, as to the evidences of Chrisregard to those things which are in some degree tianity, there is no difference, either as to the discoverable by the light of reason, and also authenticity or inspiration of the greater part of furnishes us with a sufficient ground of assent our holy books. It is at most only a difference with respect to those things which mere unas- of interpretation. While the expansive characsisted reason, if left to itself, would not have disc ter of the Christian dispensation opens it to new covered, and which yet it may be of the highest and far more comprehensive and irrisistible arguimportance for us to know.
ments from reason and the general benevolence This leads us to the next subject of enquiry of providence. proposed :—What are the proofs and evidences REVELATION or St. Joun. See APOCALYPSE. by which it may be known that such a revela- REVEL, or Kolyvan, a town of European tion has been actually communicated to man- Russia, the capital of Esthonia, is situated on a kind? In general we may observe that it has small bay of the gulf of Finland, and has an been the sense of mankind, in all ages and excellent harbour, defended by the works of the nations, that God has made a revelation of his town, and by batteries on some islands at its will to man; and this prevalent opinion has mouth. The town is further fortified by a mound been probably derived from a tradition of some and ditch, as well as by a citadel on a rock, and extraordinary revelation or revelations, commu- divided into three parts, called the town, suburb, nicated in the earliest times to the first ancestors and Domberg. The houses are of brick, and of the human race, though in process of time it tolerably well built; but the streets are narrow has been in a great measure corrupted and lost: and irregular. Of the churches, thirteen in or at least we may hence conclude that men number, six are for the Greek faith, and the have generally thought that a revelation from others for the Lutheran. These churches, and God to man was both possible and probable; several of the other ancient edifices, bear Danish and that this was agreeable to the ideas they had inscriptions and coats of arms. Here is a miliformed of the wisdom and goodness of God, and tary academy, a public library, and several of his concern for mankind. It would lead us schools, infirmaries, and poor houses. A small far beyond our present limits particularly to state palace adjacent to the shore has gardens open to the proofs that have been alleged for the divine the public. authority of the Jewish and Christian revelation; The population, about 13,000, are descende i both of which refer to and confirm the original from German and Russian settlers, Swedes, revelation made to mankind. See the article Finns, and Esthonians. The average number of THEOLOGY.
merchantmen that arrive in a year is about 200. Of the Christian revelation, however, we may The exports are corn, timber, hemp, and spirihere remark, cursorily, that it is founded on a part tuous liquors from the interior. The imports of the Jewish, and has been opposed by the Jewish bay salt, sugar, coffee, and British manufactures. race : that is, the Messiah promised in the one Some glass and leather are made on the spot. revelation is declared to have come in the other. Revel was founded by the Daves in 1218, conAll the rest of the Jewish revelation, or that quered at a subsequent date by the Swedes, and which related peculiarly to the Jewish people, is taken from the latter, in 1710, by the Russians. set aside; and only that part of it in which It is 200 miles west of St. Petersburgh, and 180 the world in general was interested, and that west by north of Riga. relating to the advent, offices, and character of REVELLO, a town of Piedmont, situated on the Messiah, are retained. It must be owned a mountain, and fortified both by nature and art. indeed that the Jews ever looked on this to be It contains 5000 inhabitants, and has several as peculiar to themselves as any of the rest : the well built churches, a palace and an old ruined Messiah was promised to them; he was to be castle. Nine miles north-west of Saluzzo. their deliverer, their restorer, &c., and under this REVENGE', n. s. ) Fr. revenger, rerencharacter he actually appeared. But, upon this REVENGER,
cher; Span. venger: new revelation taking place, a new scene was REVENGEFUL, adj. Ital. vendicare, of Lat. opened, different from what many of them ap REVENGE'FULLY, adv. 1 vindico. To return prehended, because they misinterpreted the REVENGE'MENT, n. s. or recompense an inprophecies relating to the Messiah. The cerea REVENCINGLY, adv. J jury; wreak one's monial part of their institution, local and tem- wrongs on the wrong doer : the passion of venporary in its establishment and use, was abolish- geance; return of an injury. Dr. Johnson suged; and the Messiah appeared, not as they erro- gests a correct rather than an established distincneously imagined, to be the restorer of their tion when he says,revenge is an act of passion ; civil sovereignty and liberties, which were now vengeance of justice. Injuries are revenged ; fallen into the hands of the Romans, but to crimes are avenged. A revenger is, a vindictive restore and re-establish mankind in general, who person; one who u reaks vengeance: revengeful, had lost their original righteousness, and were vindictive ; malicious: the adverb corresponding: become slaves of sin; to preach repentance and revengement, an old synonyine of revenge, noun remission; and at last 10 suffer death, that all substantive : revengingly, vindictively.
I will make mine arrows drunk with blood; from without a religious oath, which supposes an onthe beginning of revenges upon the enemy.
niscient being, as conscious to its falsehood or truth, Deut. xxxii. 42. and a revenger of perjury?
Bentley. O Lord, visit me, and revenge me of my persecu. Not unappeased, he passed the Stygian gate, tors.
Jeremiah. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate. Pope. Edom hath revenged himself upon Judah.
Draco, the Athenian lawgiver, granted an impu
Ezekiel xxv. 12 nity to any person that took revenge upon an adulterer. Who shall come to stand against thee, to be re
Broome. venged for the unrighteous men ? Wisdom xii. 12. REV'ENUE, n. s. Fr. revenu; Lat, revenio, So shall the great revenger ruinate
Income; annual profits. Him and his issue by a dreadful fate. Sandys.
They privily send over unto them the revenues They often tread destruction's horrid path,
wherewith they are there maintained. Spenser. And drink the dregs of the revenger's wrath. Id.
She bears a duke's revenues on her back, May be, that better reason will assuage
And in her heart scorns our poverty. Shakspeare. The rash recenger's heat; words well disposed
Only I retain
The name and all the addition to a king;
The sway, revenue, beloved sons, be yours. Id.
Many offices are of 30 small revenue, as not to furIn her son's flesh to mind revengement,
nish a man with what is sufficient for the support of And be for all chaste dames an endless monument.
If the woman could have been contented with Come, Antony and young Octavius,
golden eggs, she might have kept that revenue on Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius. Shakspeare.
L'Estrange. It is a quarrel most unnatural,
His vassals easy, and the owner blest, To be revenged on him that loveth thee.
They pay a trifle and enjoy the rest : Revenges burn in them; for their dear causes
Not so a nation's revenues are paid ; Would to the bleeding and the grim alarm,
The servant's faults are on the master laid. Swift. Excite the mortifed man.
When men grow great from their revenue spent, May my hands
And fly from bailiffs into parliament. Never brandish more revengeful steel
Young. Over the glittering helmet of my foe. Shakspeare.
REVENUE, in law, is properly the yearly rent I do not know,
which accrues to any man from his lands and Wherefore my father should revengers want,
possession; but is generally used for the reveHaving a son and friends.
Id. nues or profits of the crown.
The fiscal prerogatives of the king, or such as The princess of this country; and the air on't regard his revenue, that is, those which the constiRerengingly enfeebles me.
Id Cymbeline. tution has vested in the royal person, in order By the perclose of the same verse, vagabond is
to support his dignity and maintain his power, understood for such a one as travelleth in fear of re-.
. are very learnedly treated of by Blackstone, in Dengement.
the eighth chapter of the fi
Commentaries. It will be sufficient to observe ture: being void of natural affection, they have their here that almost the whole of these were, in the revenge of nature.
late king's reign, consolidated and taken as the What bad this been but to thrust themselves into property of the country : his late majesty, soon the hands of the revenger of all wicked insolencies. after his accession, having accepted the limited
Bp. Hall. sum of £800,000 per annum for the support of Moses will not revenge this wrong, God will; yet his civil list (charged also with three life-annuiwill he not deal with them himself, but he sends the ties, to the princess of Wales, the duke of Cumfiery serpents to answer for him.
berland, and the princess Amelia, to the amount Into my borders now Jarbas falls,
of £77,000), the hereditary and other revenues And my revengeful brother scales the walls.
being made a part of the aggregate fund, which
Denham. What will not ambition and revenge descend to ?
was charged with the payment of the whole
annuity to the crown. The expenses formerly
defrayed by the civil list were those that in any Had come in person, to have seen and known
shape relate to civil government : as the expenses The injured world's revenger and his own. Waller. of the household; all salaries to officers of state,
"If our hard fortune no compassion draws, to the judges, and each of the king's servants; The gods are just, and will revenge our cause. the appointments to foreign ambassadors ; the
Dryden. maintenance of the queen and royal family; the Your fury of a wife,
king's private expenses, or privy purse; and Not yet content to be revenged ou you,
other very numerous outgoings, as secret service The agents of your passion will pursue. Id.
money, pensions, and other bounties; which The satyr in a rage Forgets his business is to laugh and bite,
sometimes have so far exceeded the revenues And will of death and dire revenges write. Id.
appointed for that purpose that application has Repenting England, this revengeful day,
been made to parliament to discharge the debts To Philip's manes did an offering bring. Id.
contracted on the civil list; as particularly in He smiled revengefully, and leaped
1724, when 1,000,000 was granted for that purUpon the floor : thence gazing at the skies,
pose by the statute 11 Geo. I. c. 17; and in 1769 His eye-balls fiery red, and glowing vengeance ; and 1777, when 1,500,000 and £600,000 were Gods, I accuse you not. Id, and Lee's Oedipus. appropriated to the like use, by the statutes
What government can be imagined without ju. 9 Geo. III. c. 34, and 17 Geo. III. c. 47. dicial proceedings ? and what methods of judicature Many of these expenses are now charged on the consolidated fund, and the civil list compre- synonymous with to revere: a reverencer, or rehends the support of his majesty's household. verer, one who feels or manifests reverence: The civil list is, indeed, properly the whole of reverend is, venerable; deserving or commandthe king's revenue in his own distinct capacity; ing respect; an honorary epithet of the clergy : the rest being rather the revenue of the public, reverent is, humble; testifying reverence or subor its creditors, though collected and distributed mission: reverential, proceeding from, or exagain in the name and by the officers of the pressive of, reverence : the adverbs correspondcrown. See ENGLAND.
ing. REVENUE, in hunting, a fleshy lump formed And afterward we hadden fadres of our fleische chiefly by a cluster of whitish worms on the techeris, and we with reverence dredden hem. head of the deer, supposed to occasion the
Wiclif. Ebrevis xii. casting of their horns by gnawing them at the
Onias, who had been high priest, reverend in conroot.
versation, and gentle in condition, prayed for the REVERB v.a.
1 Fr. reverberer;
2 Muc. xv. 12.
Now lies he there, REVER'BERANT, adj. Latin reverbero. And none so poor to do him reverence. Shakspeare. REVER'BERATE, V., & vin. »To resound; beat
Many now in health REVERBERA’TION, 1. s. (back: reverberate
Shall drop their blood, in approbation REVER'BERATORY, adj. is the more usual
Of what your reverence shall incite us to. Id. verb, and signifies also to heat so that the fame O my dear father ! let this kiss is reverberated upon the matter to be melted or Repair those violent harms that my two sisters cleaned : reverberation is the act of beating or Have in thy reverence made.
Id. driving back : reverberatory, driving back.
Those that I reverence, those I fear, the wise ; Reserve thy state, with better judgment check
At fools I laugh, not fear them.
Id. This hideous rashness:
Recerend and gracious senators. The youngest daughter does not love thee least; Chide him for faults, and do it reverently. Id. Nor are those empty hearted whose loud sound
All this was ordered by the good discretion Reverbs no hollowness. Shakspeure. King Lear. Of the right reverend cardiual of York. Hollow your name to the reverberate hills,
Id. Henry VIII. And make the babbling gossip of the air
When quarrels and factions are carried openly it Cry out Olivia.
l d. Twelfth Night. is a sign the reverence of government is lost. Start
Bucon's Essays. And echo with the clamour of thy drum,
His disciples here, And even at hand a drum is ready braced, By their great master sent to preach him every where, That shall reverberate all as well as thine. Most reverently received.
Drayton. Shakspeare. That oaths made in reverential fear As the sight of the eye is like a glass, so is the ear Of love and his wrath may any forswear. Donne. a sinuous cave, with a hard bone, to stop and rever
He led her easily forth, berate the sound.
Bacon. Where Godfrey sat among his lords and peers; To the reflection of visibles small glasses sutlice; She reverence did, then blushed as one dismayed. but to the reverberation of audibles are required
Fairfar. greater spaces.
ld. In your prayers use reverent postures, and the The rays of royal majesty reverberated so strongly lowest gestures of humility, remembering that we upon Villerio that they dispelled all clouds. speak to God, in our reverence to whom we cannot Howel. exceed.
Taylor. Crocus martis, that is, steel corroded with vinegar
Higher of the genial bed, or sulphur, and after reverberated with fire, the load. And with mysterious reverence I deem. Milion. stone will not attract.
Browne. While they pervert pure nature's healthful rules Good lime may be made of all kinds of flints, but
To loathsome sickness, worthily since they they are hard to burn, except in a reverberatoru kila.
God's image did not reverence in themselves. Id. · Voron.
A reverend sire among them came, The first repetitions follow very thick; for two
Who preached conversion and repentance. Id. parallel walls beat the sound back on each other,
They forthwith to the place like the several reverberations of the same image from
Repairing, where he judged them, prostrate fell two opposite looking-glasses.
ld. Paradise Lost.
The Jews, reverentially declining the situation of As we, to improve the nobler kinds of fruits, are the
their temple, place their beds from north to south. at the expence of walls to receive and reverberate the
Broune. faint rays of the sun, so we, by the help of a good To nearest ports their shattered ships repair, soil, equal the production of warmer countries.
Where by our dreadful cannon they lay awed ;
So reverently men quit the open air, REVERBERATORY FURNACE. See CHEMISTRY When thunder speaks the angry gods abroad. and LABORATORY.
Fr. reverer: Lat. A poet cannot have 100 great a reverence for REV'ERENCE, n. s. &v.a. / revereor. To vene
Id. REV'ERENCER, n. s.
Upstarts the beldam, rate; regard with
And reverence made, accosted thus the queen, Id. REV'ERED honor or awe: rever
A parish priest was of the pilgrim train, REV'ERENT,
ence is, veneration; An awful, reverend, and religious man, REVEREN’TIAL,
respect; act of cour- lis eves diffused a vencrable grace, REVERENTIALLY, adv. tesy or obeisance, And charity itself was in his facc.
I bow: a title that has The least degree of contempt weakens religion ; it REVERER, n. s.
J been given both to properly consisting in a reverential esteem of things the clergy and to fathers : to reverence seems sacred