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the winter preceding, and the natural earth be- it has tolerably straight streets, and good houses; neath the road was found perfectly dry. Various and manufaciures of linen, cotton, small iron new roads have been constructed on this princi- wares, &c. ple within the last few years; the great north ROAVOKE, a river of North Carolina, formed road from London, by lloddesilon, in Hertford- by the union of the Staunton and the Dan, the shire; two pieces of road on Durdham Down, former of which rises in Virginia, and the latter and at Rownham-ferry, near Bristol ; with seves in North Carolina, and flows into Albemarle ral private roads in the eastern parts of Sussex, Sound, long. 76° 36' W., lat. 35° 58' N. It is are amongst the best specimens. Tone of these navigable for vessels of considerable burden roails exceed six inches in thuckness; and, al- thirty or forty miles, and for boats of thirty or though that on the great north road is subjected forty tons to the falls, seventy miles; and for to a heavy traffic, it has not given way, nor was boats of five tops for the distance of 200 miles it affected by the severe winters it has expe- above the falls. The country watered by this rienced, and when other rouds between that and river is extremely fertile. Below the falls ra: London became impassable, by breaking up to quantines of Indian corn are raised; and the the bottom, and the mail and other coaches were planters are among the wealthiest in the state. obliged to reac! London by other routes. Im- Exertions are making to improve the navigation provement of roads, says V.1. (in 1821), upon of this river by constructing canals around the the principle I have endeavoured to explain, bas falls : opening a water communication between been rapidly extended during the last four years, Norfolk, Valentia, and the interior of North It has been carried into eflect on various road, Carolina, and the southern part of Virginia. and with every variety of material, in seventeen ROAR, v. 11. & n. s.) Saxon raran ; Goth. different counties. These roads being so con- RoaRER, 1. s. I runtir. To cry as a structed as to exclude water, consequently none lion or wild beast; bellow; cry in distress; of them broke up during the late severe winter make a loud noise: the cry or noise made: a (1819-20); there was no interruption to tra- roarer is a noisy man. velling, nor any additional expense by the post- The voung lions roured upon him, and velled. office in conveying the mails over them, to the
Jeremiah ii. 15. extent of upwards of 1000 miles of road.'
Roaring bulls he would make him to tame. We may add that several large streets and
Spenur. thoroughfares of the metropolis have been un
Warwick and Montague. paved, and laid down again on the principles of That in their chains fettered the kingly lion, Mr. J'Adam. The result has not been uni And made the forest tremble when they roared. formly successful; but in the cases where the
Shukspeare. paving system has been renewed, we believe the
At his nurse's tears,
He whined and roared away your victory, base has been M'Adamised, and so a substantial
That pages blushed at him. Id. Coriolamus. improvement has, on the whole, been obtained. Where be your gibes now! your gambols? you"
ROAV, v. n. & 1.1.) Ital. romigare ; Goth. songs! your flashes of merriment, that were wont to ROAM'ER, . s. s runa. See Room. To set the table in a roar ?
Id. Hamlel. wander without any certain purpose; to ramble;
The English roarers put down all. Howel. rove; to play the vagrant. ' Imagined to come from the pretences of vagrants, who said they
Deep throated engines belened, whose roar said they
Imbowelled with outrageous noise the air. Milton. were going to Rome.”
Oft on a plat of rising ground, Five summers have I spent in farthest Greece,
I hear the far-off' curfew sound,
Over some wide-watered shoar,
Swinging slow with sullen rour.
When cannons did diffuse, And now wild beasts came forth the woods to roam. Preventing posts, the terror, and the news;
Milton. Our neighbour princes trembled at their rour. The lonely fox roams far abroad,
Taller. On secret rapine bent, and midnight fraud. Prior. The death
The death of Daphnis woods and hills deplore,)
1. They cast the sound to Libya's desart shore;
Dryden. ) ROAN, adi. Sax. roon ; Fr. rouen ; Ital. Sole on the barren sands the suffering chief rouno ; Span. ruano. Of a bay sorrel or sorrel Roured out for anguish, and indulged his grief Id. gray color.
The waters, listening to the trumpet's roca, Roan horse is a horse of a bay, sorrel, or black Obey the summons, and forsake the shore. Id. colour, with grey or white spots interspersed very
Philips. ROANNE, a considerable trading town of
Consider what fatigues I've known, France, on the left bank of the Loire, where that
How oft I crossed where carts and coaches roared. river is only forty miles north-west of Lyons.
Loud as the wolves on Orcas' stormy steep, In the beginning of the last century it was il 11.
il lowl to the roaring of the northern deep. Pope. mere village; and it owes its increase to its hav
The wonted roar is up, ing become an entrepot for goods sent from the
? And hiss continual through the tedious night. east and southeast of France, to Orleans, Nantes,
Thomson, Paris, &c. It has now 7000 inhabitants. The Earth shakes beneath them, and leaven Tours streets stretch out in various directions into the
above; country, and the most remote parts of them are But nothing scares them from the course they love. intermixed with trees. In the interior, however,
ROA’RY, udj. Better, rory; Lat. rores. Dewy. from the whole author, whose fragments only fall to
Dryden. And shook his wings with roary May dews wet.
Bold Prometheus did aspire,
And store from heaven the se
A train of ills, a ghastly crew,
The robber's blazing track pursue. roasted; Fr. rostir, rotir; Teut. rosten, from
Public robbers are more criminal than petty and Lat. rastrum, a grate. To dress meat before the common thieves. fire: originally, to broil it: to heat; vex; tease :
The robber must run, ride, and use all the despe*** <to rule the roast' is, to preside; manage. rate ways of escape; and probably, after all, his sin Where champions ruleth the roast,
betrays him to the gaol, and from thence advances Their daily disorder is most. Tusser's Husbandry. him to the gibbet.
South, Rousted in wrath and fire,
The water-nymphs lament their empty urns, He thus o'ersized with coagulate gore,
Baotia, robbed of silver Dirce, mourns. Add son.
Rob, in pharmacy, is the juice of fruits puri-
fied and inspissated till it is of the consistence n ence to be discerned. Bacon's Natural History.
of honey. He lost his roast beef stomach, not being able to
ROBBERY, the rapina of the civilians, is the touch a sirloin.
felonious and forcible taking from the person of And, if Dan Congreve judges right,
another of goods or money to any value, by vioRoast beef and ale make Britons fight. Prior. lence, or putting him in fear. 1. There must Alma slap-dash is all again
be a taking, otherwise it is no robbery. A mere In every sinew, nerve, and vein ;
attempt to rob was indeed held a felony, so late Runs here and there, like Hamlet's ghost,
as Henry IV.'s time; but afterwards it was While every where she rules the roast. Id.
taken to be only a misdemeanor, and punishable uri Roasting and boiling are below the dignity of your with fine and imni
with fine and imprisonment; till the statute of in office. Swift's Directions to the Cook.
7 Geo. II. c. 21, which makes it a felony (transHere elements have lost their uses, Air ripens not, nor earth produces ;
portable for seven years), unlawfully and mali1. Fire will not roast, nor water boil. Swift.
ciously to assault another, with any offensive ROASTING, in metalurgy, the dissipation of weapon or instrument ; or by menaces, or by 19 he volonil
the volatile parts of ores by heat. See METAL- other forcible or violent manner, to demand any LURGY.
money or goods, with a felonious intent to rob. ROB, n. s. Sax. robe : Port, roob. Inspis. If the thief, having once taken a purse, returns sated juices.
it, still it is a robbery; and so it is, whether the
taking be strictly from the person of another, or The infusion, being evaporated to a thicker conestens
in his presence only: as where a robber, by mesistence, passeth into a jelly, rob, extract, which
naces and violence, puts a man in fear, and 3 contain all the virtues of the infusion.
Arbuthnot on Aliments.
drives away his sheep or his cattle before his Rob, v. a. Old Fr. robber; Ital. rob
face. It is immaterial of what value the thing Rob'ber, n. s. bare ; Teut, rauber. To de- taken is : a penny, as well as a pound, thus for
Rob'bing. J prive of any thing by unlawful cibly extorted, makes a robbery. Lastly, the it is violence; to thieve; plunder; take away : hence taking must be by force, or a previous putting in set free : the noun-substantives corresponding.
fear; which makes the violation of the person Thieves for their robbery have authority,
more atrocious than privately stealing. This When judges steal themselves. Shakspeare.
species of larceny is débarred of the benefit of Is't not enough to break into my garden,
clergy, by statute 23 Hen. VIII. c. 1., and other And, like a thief, to come to rob my grounds, subsequent statutes; not indeed in general, but But thou wilt brave me with these sawcy terms ? only when committed in a dwelling-house, or in
Id. or near the king's highway. A robbery, thereOur house is hell, and thou, a merry devil, fore, in a distant field, or footpath, was not puDidst rob it of some taste of tediousness. Id.
nished with death, but was open to the benefit Better be disdained of all, than fashion a carriage of clerov. till the statute of 3 and 4 W. & M. to rob love from any.
c. 9. which takes away clergy from both princiWill quicken and accuse thee : I'm your host;
pals and accessories before the fact, in robbery, With robbers' hands, my hospitable favours
wheresoever committed. You should not ruffle thus.
Id. If a man force another to part with his proProcure, that the nourishment may not be robbed perty, for the sake of preserving his character and drawn away. Bacon's Natural History. from the imputation of having been guilty of an
Our sins being ripe, there was no preventing of unnatural crime, it will amount to a robbery, God's justice from reaping that glory in our calami. even though the party was under no apprehenties, which we robbed him of in our prosperity. sion of personal danger. If any thing is snatched
suddenly from the head, hand, or person of any Had'st thou not committed Notorious murder on those thirty men
one, without any struggle on the part of the
owner, or without any evidence of force or vioAt Ascalon; Then, like a robber, strip'd'st them of their robes.
lence being exerted by the thief, it does not Milton's Agonistes.
amount to robbery. But if any thing be broken Some more effectual way might be found, for sup
or torn in consequence of the sudden seizure, it pressing common thefts and robberies. "Temple would be evidence of such force as would con
I have not here designed to rob him of any part of stitute a robbery : as where a part of a lady's there is that commendation which he has so justly acquired hair was torn away by snatching a diamond pin Vol. XVIII.
ARONS y, and a
froin her beach, and an ear was torn by pulling There are also some coves and bays, which afford off an ear-ring; each of these cases was deter- good anchorage and shelter. Long. 219o 47 E., mined to be a robbery. The hundrell in which a lat. 7° 5' S. robbery is committed is liable to pay the di ROBERTELLS (Francis), a learned Italian, mage when it is coinmitted between the rising and of the sixteenth century, who was successively setting of the sun, on any day except Sunday, in professor of philosophy and rhetoric at Lucca, case the robbers are not taken in forty days; hue Pisa, Bologna, and Purua. He wrote commenand cry being made after the robber. The pro- taries on several of the Greek and Latin poets, perty taken must be of some value. Therefore, and several other works. lle died in 1567. in a case where the prisoner had obtained a noté ROBERTSON (William), D. D., a learned of hand from a gentleman, by threatening with a divine, born in Dublin, in 1705. He took the knife, held to his throat, to take away his life, degree of M. A. at Glasgow, whence he returned and it appeared that she had furnished the pa- to Ireland, and, entering into orders, obtained per and ink with which it was written, and that several considerable livings. All these, however, the paper was never out of her possession, this he resigned in 1764 ; and, in 1766, published was bolden not to be a robbery; the judges his apology, with reasons for what he had done. being of opinion that the note was of no value lle presented a copy of his work to the University to the prosecutor, and not within the proviso of Glasgow, upon which the professors gare him of statute 2 Geo. Il. c. 5. sect. 3: making the the degree of D. D. The company of merchant sterling a chose in action felony
tailors, patrons of the grammar-school of WolROBE, 1. s. & v. (1. Fr. robbe ; Ital. robbn; verhampton, presented him with the mastership low Lat. raubu; Span, ropu, quod à Gr. pwog, of it, in which office he died in 1783. i. e. mercy.-- Minshen. A gown of state; a ROBERTSON (William), D. D. and F. R. S., of dress : to invest with robes.
Edinburgh, a late celebrated historian and clerThrough tatter'd cloaths small vices do appear ; gyman of the church of Scotland, born in EdinRobes and furred gowns hide all. Shakspeare, burch in 1721. He was educated at the school
What Christian soldier will not be touched with of Dalkpith, and afterwards at the Cniversity of a religious emulation, to see an order of Jews do Edinburch In 1743 he was appointed minister such service for enlarging the christian borders ; and of Cladonin
la of Gladsmuur. On the death of his parents he an order of St. George only to robe and feast, and
14 took his sisters and a younger brother, afterwards perform nites and cbservances ? The last good king, whom willing Rome obey'd
a respectable jeweller in Edinburgh, under his Was the poor ofispring of a captive maid ;
carc, though his living did not then exceed £10.) Yet he those robes of empire justly wore,
a-year, and maintained them till they were all Which Romulus, our sacred founder, wore. Dryden. settled in the world. In 1751 he married the
There in long robes the royal mayi stand ; daughter of the Rev. Mr. Nisbet, one of the The sage Chaldæans rob’d in white appeared, ministers of Edinburgh. About this period he And Brachmans.
Pope's Temple of Fume. began to attain eminence as an orator, and noi Robed in loose array she came to bathe. Thomson. long after became a leading member in the Gt
ROBERT I. or Robert BRUCE. See Bruce neral Assembly. In 1755 he preached a serand SCOTLAND,
mon before the Society for Propagating Christian ROBERT or GLOUCESTER, the oldest of the knowledge, on the state of the world previous English poets. lle flourished in the reign of to the appearance of Christ, the only one he Henry II. Camden quotes many of his old ever published, and which was much admired. English rhymes, and speaks highly in his praise. In February, 1759, he published his celebrated lle died in the beginning of king John's reign, at History of Scotland, in 410., which was received an advanced age.
with unbounded applause. While this work was ROBERTS (Rev. Peter), M.A., allelsh divine, in the press, he was translated from Gladsmuis and writer on British history, was a native of to Edinburgh. In 1759 he was appointed North Wales, and received his education at Tri- chaplain of Stirling Castle; in 1761 one of his nity College, Dublin. Hlaving taken orders, he majesty's chaplains; and in 1762 principal of obtained the living of Halkin, in the county of the University of Edinburgh. In 1764 the ofFlint. He published, Letters to M. l'olney, in tice of king's historiographer for Scotland wis answer to his book on the Revolution of Em- revived in his favor, with a salary of £200 a year. pires, 8vo.; A llarmony of tlie Epistles, 4t0.; A About 1761 he began, and in 1769 published Sketch of the Early Iistory of the Ancient his celebrated History of Charles V. in 4to. In Britons, 8vo.; and A Review of the Policy and 1775 the Dr. published his llistory of America, for Peculiar Doctrines of the Modern Church of which excellent work he received £4500. In 1780, Rome, 1809, 8vo. But his best work is The after having for nearly thirty years acted the most Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, 1810, 4to, a conspicuous part in the supreme ecclesiastical translation from the ancient Welsh Chronicles, couri, he retired from the General Assembly. In with copious notes and illustrations. Ilis death 1790 he published his Historical Disquisition took place in 1819.
concerning ancient India. lle died at EdinRoberts' ISLANDS, two large islands of the burgh, June 11th, 1793. As an author, his Pacific, discovered by llenguist, in 1792. The style has been universally aduired; as a minister largest has no convenient landing place, and of the gospel, he was a faithful pasior, and justiy seems only to be inhabited by tropical oceanic merited thie esteem and veneration of his flock. birds. The north-west side of the island has a lis conversation was cheerful, entertaining, and more favorable aspect; and, although its shores instructive; his manners affable, pleasing, and are rocky, a number of trees are produced. endearing.
ROBERVALLIAN LInes, a name given to ROB’IN, n. 8. ' ) Lat. rubecula. A certain lines used for the transformation of ROBIN-RED-BREAST. ) bird so named from his figures ; thus called from their inventor Roberval, red breast; a ruddock. an eminent French mathematician, who died in
Up a grove did spring, green as in May, 1675, aged seventy-six. The abbé Gallois, in
When April had been moist : upon whose bushes the Memoirs of the Royal Academy, 1693, ob- T
06- The pretty robins, nightingales, and thrushes serves that the method of transforming figures, Warbled ibeir notes,
Suckling explained at the latter end of Roberval's Treatise of Indivisibles, was the same with that after
The robin-red-breast till of late had rest, wards published by James Gregory, in his Geo- A
And children sacred held a martin's nest. Pope. metria Universalis, and also by Barrow in his ROBINIA, false acacia, in botany, a genus of Lectiones Geometricæ; and that, by a letter of the decandria order, and diadelphia class of Torricelli, it appears that Roberval was the in- plants; natural order thirty-second, papilionaceæ. ventor of this manner of transforming figures, by The calyx is quadrifid ; the legumen gibbous
means of certain lines, which Torricelli therefore and elongated. There are nine species. The II. called Robervallian lines.
most remarkable are, ET ROBESPIERRE (Maximilian Isidore), the 1. R. caragnana. The leaves are conjugated, in most cruel, perhaps, of the demagogues of the and coinposed of a number of small folioles, of ht. French revolution, was born at Arras in 1759. an oval figure, and ranged by pairs on une com
Having lost his father in childhood, he was taken mon stock. The flowers are leguminous, and
2. R. ferox is a beauuful hardy shrub, and, ROBIGALIA, festivals held by the ancient on account of its robust strong prickles, might be Romans, on the 25th of April, when incense was introduced into this country as a hedge plant offered, along with the entrails of a sheep and with much propriety. It resists the severest a dog, in honor of
cold of St. Petersburgh, and rises to the height ROBIGUS AND ROBigo, a Roman god and of six or eight feet; does not send out suckers goddess, who joined in the preservation of corn from the root, or ramble so much as to be with from blight.
difficulty kept within bounds. Its flowers are
yellow, and the general color of the plant a light into the conduct of L. G. Sir J. (ope. This pleasing green.
was esteemed a master-piece. lle afterwards ROBINS (Benjamin), an eminent English contributed to improve the observatory at Greelimathematician, born at Bath in 1707. lis pa- wich; and, finally, went out as engineer-general rents were unable to give him a proper educa- to the East India Company. He arrived in the tion; but he procured a recommendation to East Indies in 1750, but fell a sacrifice to the Dr. Pemberton of London, by whose aid he not climate in 1751. only acquired a high knowledge of mathematics, ROBINSON (Anastasia), an eminent musician but even commenced teacher of the science. and singer on the stage, afterwards countess of lle tried many laborious experiments in projec- Peterborough. She was the daughter of a portiles, to ascertain the resistance of the air, a trait-painter, and was born in 1662. She first principle which he considered as too much over- appeared at the concerts; afterwards at the opera; looked by writers on gunnery. Ile also studied where her salary and emoluments amounted 10 the mechanic arts, as depending on mathematical £2000 a-year. She died in 1750, aged 88 years. principles; and applied his discoveries to the ROBINSON (Sir Richard), archbishop of Irconstruction of mills, &c. An attempt being magh and lord Rokeby, was descended from the made to explode the method of fluxions, Mr. Robinsons of Rokeby, in Yorkshire, and born in Robins published, in 1735, A Discourse con- 1709. He was educated at Westminster, and cerning the Nature and Certainty of Sir Isaac sent thence to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1726. Newton's Method of Fluxions. Some objections Dr. Blackburne, archbishop of York, made him being made to his manner of defending Sir Isaac, his chaplain ; and soon after rector of Elton in he wrote two or three additional discourses. In Yorkshire, and prebendary of Grindal. In 1751 1738 he defended Newton against an objection he accompanied the duke of Dorset, lord lieuteurged in a Latin piece, entitled Matho, sive nant of Ireland, to that kingdom, as his chapCosmotheoria puerilis; and, in 1739, published lain ; and was soon made bishop of Hillala. in Remarks on Euler's Treatise of Motion, Dr. 1759 he was translated to Leighlin and Fero; Smith's System of Optics, and Dr. Jurieu's Dis. in 1761 to Kildare; and in 1705, the duke of course of Vision. In 1739 he published three Northumberland being lord lieutenant, he was anonymous political pamphlets, two of which, on promoted to be primate of all Ireland, lord althe convention with Spain, were much admired, moner, and vice-chancellor of the university of and procured him a very honorable post; for, á Dublin. In 1777 the king created him baron committee being appointed to enquire into Sir Rokeby : in 1783 prelate to the order of Si. Robert Walpole's conduct, Mr. Robins was Patrick; and in 1785 one of the lords justices. chosen secretary. In 1742 he published his Ilis brother, Sir William, dying in 1785, he succelebrated treatise, entitled New Principles of ceeded to the title of baronet. He was a public Gunnery, containing the result of many experi- spirited prelate; and, at his own expense, erected ments. See PROJECTILES. A treatise being a most princely palace at Armagh, and an eleafterwards published in the Philosophical Trans- gant library. In these works he spent no less actions, in opposition to some of his opinions, than £30,000 for the benefit of the public. He he presented an account of his work to the so: died at Clifton, near Bristol, in 1794. ciety, wherein he took notice of those experi- ROBINSON (Robert), a celebrated dissenting ments; and several of his Dissertations on the clergyman, born at Swaffham, in Norfolk, OctoResistance of Air were read, and his experiments ber 8th, 1735. Ilis father died in his infancy, exhibited before the Royal Society, for which and his maternal grandfather, Robert Wilkio, they honored him with their gold medal. In of Milden-hall, esq., who had been displeased 1748 appeared Lord Anson's Voyage round the with his daughter's marriage, cut him off with World, which, though the title bears the name half a guinea from his maternal inheritance. of Mr. Walter, is ascribed to Mr. Robins. Mr. llis uncle, however, a rich farmer, took him Walter, chaplain of the Centurion, had brought home, and placed him under the rev. Joseph it down to his departure from Macao, when he Brett, at Scarming school, in Norfolk, where lord proposed to print it by subscription. But it was chancellor Thurlow was his school-fellow. He first thought necessary to have it reviewed and became a disciple of George Whitfield in 1750, corrected by an able judge, and this task de- and commenced preacher in 1755, but left the volved on Robins, who was authorised to write Methodists in 1758, and settled at Norwich with the whole anew. Hence the entire introduction, a small congregation of Independents. Soon the style, and many dissertations in the work, after he became a Baptist, and in 1759 was inare the sole compositions of Mr. Robins; Mr. vited to Cambridge, where he had a small conWalter's original MS. containing little more than gregation, and a very poor living: but in 1774 notes of the wind and weather, currents, courses, the former had increased to 1000. He was even bearings, distances, qualities of the anchoring attended by many members of the university. grounds, and such particulars as commonly fill In 1764 his auditors built him a new and elegant up a sailor's account. No work of this kind meeting-house. Ile was also invited to lecture ever met with a more favorable reception; four in the adjacent villages. He died 9th June, large impressions were sold within the year, and 1790, with the reputation of a man of abilities it has been translated into most of the languages and integrity. IIis Plan of Lectures on the of Europe. Mr. Robins was soon after desired Principles of Nonconformity bas been thought to compose an apology for the defeat at Preston- very acrimonious against the church of England. Pans; which was prefixed to the report of the His chief work is his History of Baptism, and of board of general officers, on their examination the Baptists, published since his death.