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FLOT IS! Te is acting on 01 Į ! pa- tasuta, 10 restore the public tranquillits; ut 1:0 ", EVICES Terdered to the 12 Due, 060it was far from dimidishing the number of ik se LEX:014 .6i, 10.12 - Durasi practice Bre, win complained of the despotism of the por JEDEG.ly Deskins, the ae;s to pleierii In 1712, when hy virtue of the treaty of ilard, what was sl. Il re dei lase, ter 1: Rasiado certain places were to be surrendere i :o 1.0*10n wis sometimen oxin; to the 5 s 500e Protestant princes, pope Clement SI., in a Their lives were such as rite exceciel ; le ser to the emperor Charles VI., denounced the persons 210 kad rises in techniciiby:u_! - Protretants as an execrable sect,' and, in the Leefby means; for nad ties teen Ovied, by pienilde of his pretended supremacy, declari thair profession, to give ilcetome: of now Every thing wh ch either was, or could be coVICKI Wirich the holy laus of t.e Gepel ng trued or esteemed to be, in any way, obtrusre solemnly and expressly conden, ersten] oft of, in the least degree prejudicial 10, the Ri hibitinz patterns of sanctity an i vir'le to 16.41 m i futh or worship, or to the authority, jur.sHock, they could not have conduciel the useres diction, or any rights of the church whatever, .17 oth-twise than they did. Some indtetiti be, and to have been, and perpetually to remain were who, sensible of the o'sliktions of ami bercafier, dul, unjust, reprobated, void, an! proteision, displayed a truly Christian zeal in pricuared of all force from the beginning: ad administeriliq useful instruction, and exhibi.ns that no person is bound to the observance of pious examples to their trock, and exerting teir then, although the same have been repealed, ra utmost vigor and acuvity in opposing the res lined, or secured by oath. Clement died in of the sacred order in paruru ar, and tie licen- 1721, at the age of seventy-one. The election or tousness of the umes in deneral. But these rure Michael Insulo Conti, who took the name of Inpatrons of virtue and pietv were either ruined by nocent XIII., as successor of Clement, was very the resentment and stratagems of their envious unexpected. This noble descent and his personal and oxasperated brethren; or were left in obscu- accomplishments had raised him to the highest rity, without that encouragement and support offices, the duties of which he had always diswhich were requisite in enable them to execute charged with reputation and honor. But the effectually their pious and laudable purposes. infirmities of age prevented him from distinguish

Clement XI., originally John Francis Albani, int himself as pope. Innocent died the 3d of wa, chosen to succeed Innocent in the pontifical March 1724. Cardinal Vincent Orsini, eldest office. He redressed some grievances, discoun- son of the duke of Gratina, who now succeeded tenanced vice and criminality of every kind, to the ponuficate as Benedict XIII., took every performed acts of beneficence, gave an example opportunity of recommending a strict regard to of devotional regularity, and filled vacant offices moral and social duties, and a steady practice of and preferinents with men of merit. But a re- Christian virtues. His dislike of pomp and vival of the contest between the Jansenists and magnificence, his concern for the morals of ite the Jesuits had for some time conspired with po- clergy, and his care for the poor, however com. litics and wars to disturb the tranquillity of mendable, did not obtain for him or his plan the Rome. For the more effectual repression of support of the cardinals and the other great men Jansenism, a new apostolical constitution was of his court. He held a provincial council in issued in the year 1705, condemning such errors the Lateran church, chiefly for a reform of the with menaces of papal indignation. The anti- conduct of the clergy; and the assenbly voted Jansenist ordinance, as it commenced with the for an enforcement of some decrees that had Terms unigenitus Dei filius, was quickly known been enacted by the council of Trent, but which throughout Christendom by the appellation of bad fallen into disuse. On another occasion he the bull. unigenitus.' This bull put an end to rose above the bigotry of his predecessors, by all hope of a reconciliation between the church expressing a wish for the diffusion of scriptural of Rome and the Protestants, as in most of those knowledge; and, with that view, he permitted points which had occasioned the separation it the people in general to peruse the sacred represented the doctrines of that church in the volume, and encouraged the multiplication of very same light in which they had been regarded copies in the modern languages. A grand by the first reformers. This bull is also known scheme of religious comprehension was formed by the name of the constitution.

by this respectable ruler of the Romish church: The dissensions and tumults excited in France it was of no less magnitude than the union of by this edict were violent in the highest degree. the four communities that divided Christendom. A considerable number of bishops, and a large lle proposed that four councils should be bolden body composed of persons eminently distinguish- at different places at the same time, each consiste ed by their piety and erudition, both among the ing of a certain number of representatives of the clergy and laity, appealed to a general council. Romish, Greek, Lutheran, and Calvinist It was more particularly opposed by the cardinal churches, with a president of one or other church de Noailles, archbishop of Paris, who, equally in each assenbly. Ile did not, however, carry unmoved by the authority of the pontiff and by his scheme into execution. Benedict was indethe resentment and indignation of Louis XIV., fatigable in his official duties: he continued 10 made a noble stand against the despotic proceed- prav and preach, attend to all pontifical and saings of the court of Rome. The issue of this cerdotal functions, and direct the conduct of famous contest was favorable to the hull, which subordinate prelates and ministers of the church. was at length rendered valid by the authority of He frequently visited the poor, and relieved the parliament, and was registered among the then by his bounty, selling for that purpose the laws of the state. This contributed, in some presents which he received. lle habituated luna self to the plainest fare, and lived in the most licited the dissolution of that order while Clefrugal manner, like a hermit in his cell, that he ment filled the papal chair; but they conceived might more liberally bestow upon others the strong hopes of success when a prelate of a blessings of fortune. He died in the eighty- more philosophical character was chosen pontiff. second year of his age and the sixth of his pon. This was a Franciscan monk, Francis Lawrence tificate. Yet so overpowering were the princi- Ganganelli, who obtained the purple in the year ples of his church over the mind of this naiurally 1769, and thought proper to assume the name of moderate and well disposed man that, from evi- his immediate predecessor. The Jesuits affected dence communicated to a committee of the Irish to believe (and probably many of them really parliament by father John Kennesy, it appears thought) that Clement would not dare to supthat his holiness, in compliance with the request press their order. But, in the fifth year of his of the Romish archbishops and bishops of Ire- pontificate, a bull for the annihilation of the socilaud (who had conspired with others of the ety was promulgated, its colleges were seized, and Romish communion to place the pretender on its revenues confiscated. Lorenzo Ricci, the refracthe throne), issued his bull to facilitate their in- tory general of the order, was sent to the castle of tention, and sent them an indulgence for ten St. Angelo, and died in confinement. The French years, in order to raise a sum of money, to be complimented Ganganelli on this occasion by respeedily applied to restore James III. This bull storing the Venaissin to the holy see. In 1775 provided that every communicant, confessing and Clement published a bull of indulgence, which receiving upon the patron days of every respec- fully proves that this spiritual traffic was as yet tive parish, and any Sunday from the 1st of May officially and publicly recognised by the church to Septeinber, having repeated the Lord's prayer of Rome. Clement did not long enjoy his tranfive times, and once the apostles' creed, upon quillity; for he died in the autumn of the followpaying two pence each time, was to have a ple- ing year at the age of sixty-eight. It was supnary indulgence for all his sins. And, under posed that he had been poisoned, but this suspicion this bull, it appears that the sum of £1500 sterling has not been verified. Of all the occupants of was ready to be remitted to the pretender's agent the papal throne, for some centuries, Ganganelli in Flanders, at the time the treasonable conspi- seems to be one of the most apprejudiced, canracy was detected by the vigilance of the Irish did, and liberal. government ! Clement XII., of the Corsini fa- The government of the church after his death mily, was now chosen in 1730, after a long con- was consigned to John Angelo Braschi, who had test, to succeed the mild and humble Benedict. been created cardinal by Ganganelli, and was reHe quickly reformed seme abuses which had garded as a moderate man. He commenced his crept into the administration of the Roman administration as Pius VI. with acts of benevostate, and then directed his attention to foreign lence and charity, and with the selection of deaffairs. This pontiff was a man of respectable serving men for various offices. He also issued abilities ; had a regard for justice; was cautious a bull, dated April 1778, in which be declared and prudeut, yet not destitute of spirit ; econo- that 'the faithful should be excited to the reading mical without being meanly parsimonious; easy of the Holy Scriptures, for these are the most of access, without rendering himself indecorously abundant sources which ought to be left open to familiar. He had a taste for the polite arts, and every one, to draw from them purity of morals was an encourager of literary merit. Dying in and of doctrine.' At this time the emperor JoFebruary, 1740, in the eighty-eighth year of his seph of Austria, who was himself a freethinker, age, he was succeeded by Prosper Laurence manifested a strong inclination to abridge the Lambertini, archbishop of Bologna, who eniered papal power in his dominions. In 1781 he beupon his high office under the designation of Be- gan with imposing restrictions upon the operanedict XIV.

tions of bulls and rescripts sent from Rome. He In the administration of the church, Benedict further displeased the pontiff by ordering that no was mild and conciliatory. He was aware of the money should be sent into foreign countries for relaxed morality of the clergy in the catholic masses; that no dignity should be solicited at states ; but, however he might wish to check Rome without his permission; that pilgrimages their licentiousness, he did not take any strong should be discontinued; and that the number of or violent measures for that purpose. At the so- images and ornaments in churches should be djlicitation of those princes who were displeased minished. The disgust felt by Pius at this conat the intrigues and otfended at the mal-practices duct was not allayed by the liberal edict of of the Jesuits, he promised to exert his authority Joseph, granting full toleration to all the Protesfor the reform of that order, and the bull which tants in his dominions, as well as to all members of he issued for this purpose was one of the last the Greek church: the dissolutionofa great number acts of his life. He died in 1758, when he had of monasteries, with the conversion of the buildattained the age of eighty-three years. He was ings into colleges, hospitals, or barracks, increased an erudite theologian, as his numerous works the indignation of the pope. The see of Rome evince, and a liberal patron of learning and the lost in consequence the presentation to bishoprics arts. Cardinal Rezzonico, bishop of Padua, in Lombardy and other Austrian dependencies; who succeeded him as Clement XIII., bad a its nuncios were deprived of their power and jugreater reputation for picty, and was more zea- risdiction in Germany, and the lustre of the lous for the high claims of the church, but he papacy was visibly eclipsed. was not so generally esteemed as his predecessor. There seemed to be a general disposition in During his pontificate the Jesuits became pecu- Catholic Europe, during tắis pontificate, to diliarly obnoxious. Their enemies in vain so- minish the authority of the papal see ; so that the modern bishops of Rome exhibit little more tive without the same consent. Ten archbishops and than an empty shadow of the authority of the fifty bishops were assigned to the whole republic; ancient pontifs. The sovereign princes and and it was required that they should be natives of states of Europe who embrace their communion France, aged at least thirty years. The subserno longer tremble at the thunder of the Vatican, viency of ecclesiastics of all descriptions to the but treat their anathemas with indifference. They civil power, in doctrine as well as in discipline, indeed load the holy father with pompous titles, formed a leading feature in this arrangement, and treat him with all the external marks of ve- The secularization of certain German churches neration ; yet they have given a mortal blow to and chapters in 1803, by the diet of Augsbury, his authority, by the prudent and artful distinc- which distributed some of them as indemnities tion they make between the court of Rome and to secular Protestant princes, gave occasion 10 the Roman pontiff. For, under the cover of this many despatches from Rome in the years 1803, distinction, they buffet him with one hand and 1804, and 1805, and particularly to an instrucsalute bim with the other. In 1796, when Buo- tion to the papal nuncio resident at Vienna in naparte was every where victorious, Pius com- 1805, in which Pius VII, says, that the church mited an act of aggression by suffering the Nea had not only taken care to probibit heretics from politan cavalry who were hastening to the succor confiscating ecclesiastical possessions; but that of the enemies of France to pass through the she had moreover established, as the peualty of territories of the church, and even directed their the crime of heresy, the contiscation and loss of mareh. When the pontiff was under the neces- all property possessed by heretics. This pesity of throwing himself on the clemency of the nalty, as far as concerns the property of private conqueror, he would not even grant him an individuals, is decreed, he says, by a bull of 11armistice but on very severe conditions. The nocent 111. cap. Vergentes X. de Hæreticis : pope was compelled to renounce the friendship and, as far as concerns sovereignties and fiels, it of the coalesced powers, and to shut up his ports is a rule of the canon law, cap. Absolutus XVI. against them; to surrender to the French the de Ilæreticis, that the subjects of a prince macities of which they already had possession, nifestly heretical are released from all obligaas well as the citadel of Ancona; to pay nearly tion to him, dispensed from all allegiance and all £1,000,000 sterling; and to deliver 100 pictures, homage. To be sure, his holiness goes on to say, busts, vasts, statues, &c., and 500 VISS., to be we are fallen into such calamitous times that it selected by commissioners who should be sent 10 is not possible for the spouse of Jesus Christ to Rome for that purpose. Europe beheld with as- practice, nor even expedient for her to recal her tonishment and regret this pontiff, a venerable holy maxims of just rigor against the enemies of ole man, degraded, insulted,' expelled from his the faith. But, although she cannot exercise her capital, and harassed with removals from place right of deposing heretics from their principali to place. During his pontificate he is said to lies and declaring them deprived of their property, bave deserved, by his good government and pub- yet can she not for one moment allow that they Tic spirit, the respect and affection of his subjects. should rob her of her property to aggrandise and Pius died at Briançou, in April 1799, in the enrich themselves! What an object of derision eighty-second year of bis age.

would she become to heretics and infidels, who, Alier the church had subsisted for some time in mocking her grief, would say, that they had without a head, the fuzitive members of the sa- found out a way of making her tolerant ! Essai cred college held a conclave at Venice, by desire Historique sur la Puissance Temporale des Papes. of the emperor of Germany: and the cardinal tom. II. p. 320. Di Chiaramonte, being honored with their The cliurch, however, was destined to be dealt suffrages, began to act as popuiff under the tille with on very ditierent principles by one of her dear of Pius VII. Immediately on his election he sons. Early in 1809, while Buouaparte was at announced his succession io Louis XVIII as the Vienna, he caused proclamation to be made in the lawtul king of France, though then in exile : public squares and market place of that city, that yet, in the following year, he entered into a con- from the 1st of June the papal territory should he cordat with Buonaparte. Rome being recovered united with the French empire; and that Rome by the arms of the allies, Pius was soon enabled should at the same time be declared a free to unite temporal power with spiritual authority. and imperial city. This decree, which fixed With him, therefore, Buonaparte condescended the annual revenue of the pope at 2,000,000 of to treat ; when this fortunate warrior, having ac- francs, was grounded on three propositions : first, quired the dignity of first consul or sovereign of that the territories of Rome were fiefs bestowed France, wished to show himself a friend to reli- by the emperor Charlemagne, the predecessor gion. It was stipulated between them that the of the emperor Napoleon, on the bishops of Rome, catholic, apostolic, and Romish religion, should to maintain the peace of his subjects; second, that be freely and publicly exercised in France; ever since that time the union of temporal and that a new division of dioceses should take spiritual power has been, and still is, the source place: that, as soon as the first consul should of dissension ; and third, that the temporal prehave nominated bishops, the pope should confer tensions of the pope are irreconcileable with the upon them the canonical institution; that the security of the French arny, the repose and prelates should appoint, for parochial ministers, prosperity of the nations subject to the sway of such persons as the cousul should approve: that Napoleon, and the dignity and inviolability of no council or synod should meet without the con- lis empire. The pope protested against This sent of the government; that no papal le rate or violence, excommunicating Buonaparte and all nuncio should act, and no bull or brief be operit- who adhered to him in his invasion of the papal states, but all without effect; though he con- Jesus Christ, who died, on the cross for the saltinued to exercise the functions of his office vation of all mankind, is the second person of without further interruption, but with little op- the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man; portunity for energetic conduct, till the subver that there is no remission of sin, nor salvation, sion of the Napoleon dynasty, when he resumed but through him; that the sacraments of bapthe full possession of his authority. In his pro- tism and penance are divinely appointed means clamation issued at Cezena on the 5th of May, for the remission of sin; that in the mass a previously to his return to Rome, his holiness true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice is offered applied to bimself the ancient title of God's to God for the living and the dead ; that the vicar on earth, and spoke of his temporal sove- souls detained in purgatory are helped by the reignty as essentially connected with his spiritual suffrages of the faithful; that the saints reignsupremacy.

ing together with Christ are to be honored and The papal see, after enjoying a short tran- invocated; that at the last day our bodies will quillity, was visited with repeated shocks in the be raised from death, and that Christ will come revolutions of Spain, Poriugal, and Naples. to judge all men according to their works; that With respect to these events, particularly the eternal happiness will be the reward of the good, latter, Pius acted a cautious part. Fearing pro- and eternal misery the punishment of the bably that the aroused energies of these nations wicked. If these, and other doctrines of Cawould involve the papacy in new difficulties, he tholic faith, are really revealed by Almighty declared the states of the church open to the God, they are not erroneous, but most true and passage of all friendly troops; but denouncing, certain they are not unscriptural, but agreeable in the strongest terms, the disorderly and factious. to the true sense of the written word of GodThe constitutional government of Naples, which the belief of them is not unreasonable, because gave the pope the greatest cause for uneasiness, it is reasonable to believe whatever is true, and was, however, overturned by the power of Aus- taught by the God of truth. The Catholic is tria ; and the invasion of Spain, hy the armies fully persuaded that all the articles of his faith of France, succeeded for a time in re-establish- are really revealed by Almighty God. Is he ing Romish tyranny and superstition in the whole not at liberty to think so, as well as others are of the peninsula. The subdued countries, how- to think the contrary; and in this empire espeever, present an appearance wbich promises cially, where liberty of thought is so loudly proany thing rather than continued repose. Pius VII. claimed and lauded? Is it reasonable or chadied August 20, 1823, and was succeeded by ritable to condemn him for thinking so, when he Leo XII.

may have good and solid grounds for his con

viction, and may feel that his eternal salvation PART II.

depends on his firm belief of all the doctrines

which Christ has taught ? DOCTRINES OF THE ROMAN CATHOLICS. "1"

11. On the grounds of the certitude which a Thus have we traced historically the rise, pro- Catholic has that all the doctrines which he begress, and comparative decline, of this great do- lieves, as articles of Catholic faith, are really mination : the writer as a Protestant, and a revealed by Almighty God.-Catholics are often Protestant clergyman, will, in the estimation of charged with grounding their faith on mere Catholic readers, perhaps, seem unduly biassed, human authority, and not on the word of God. and occasionally to display the advocate. Re- Catholics deny this, because they are convinced, collecting how large a portion of his countrymen that their faith is grounded on the word of God, are Catholics, the editor, therefore, thinks it fair proposed to them by the authority of that to subjoin without comment the last authentic ministry, which Christ established, and apcompendium of the principles of their church in pointed to teach his revealed doctrines to all the Declaration of the English Catholic bishops, nations. dated May, 1826. It must only be understood that The Catholic believes all those doctrines the Catholics now speak for themselves.

which God has revealed. The question, what

are those doctrines which God has revealed, is DECLARATION OF THE CATHOLIC BISHOPS, THE

a question of fact. It appears reasonable that VICARS APOSTOLIC, AND THEIR COADJUTORS, the existence of a fact should be ascertained by IN GREAT BRITAIN.

the evidence of testimony. I. On the general character of the doctrines The body of the doctrines, precepts, and inof faith professed by the Catholic church.—The stitutions, which were delivered by Christ to his doctrines of the Catholic church are often cha- apostles, constitutes the new or the Christian racterised as erroneous, unscriptural, and unrea- law; as the body of the doctrines, precepts, and sonable. All those doctrines, and only those institutions, which were delivered by the A.doctrines, are articles of Catholic faith, which mighty to Moses, constituted the old law. The are revealed by Almighty God. Whatsoever is true and certain knowledge of what is comrevealed by God, who knows all things as they manded by any law is generally communicated are in themselves, and who cannot deceive us and obtained by the authoritative promulgation by teaching falsehood for truth, is most true and of the law. By the ordinance of God, the doccertain ; though it may entirely surpass the com- trines and precepts of the old law were made prehension of created minds.

known to the Israelites and Jewish people, by On the authority of divine revelation, the Moses, and the priests in succession, till the end Catholic believes, as doctrines of faith, that in of the law. By the ordinance of God, the docone God there are three distinct persons, the trines and precepts of the new law were to be Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; that made kuown to all nations, in all ages, by the

apostles and their successors, to the consum- Whether the Holy Scriptures, which ought mation of the world.

never to be taken in hand but with respect, On the spiritual authority of the apostles and should be made a class-book for children, is a their successors, who were divinely commis- matter of religious and prudential consideration, sioned to promulgate and teach the law of Christ on which the pastors of the Catholic church to all nations; and on the uniform and universal have a right to decide with regard to their own testimony, belief, and practice of all Christian flocks; and we hold that in this matter pone churches from the beginning, the certitude of have a right to dictate to them. The Catholics the Catholic is grounded, that all the doctrines in England, of mature years, have permission which he believes as articles of Catholic faith, to read authentic and approved translations of and all the sacred precepts and rites which he the loly Scriptures, with explanatory notes; observes as the ordinances of Christ, were really and are exhorted to read them in the spirit of revealed and instituted by Almighty God; and piety, humility, and obedience. are the same as were originally delivered by Pope Pius VII, in a rescript dated April Christ to his apostles, and by them promulgated 18th, 1820, and addressed to the Vicars Aposover all nations.

tolic in England, earnestly exhorts them to conThe Catholic is fully satisfied that this me- firm the people committed to their spiritual thod which he follows, for ascertaining what are care, in faith and good works; and, for that end, the revealed doctrines of divine faith, is the to encourage them to read books of pious idright rule, and that it leads him to the unity of struction, and particularly the Holy Scriptures, truth. Is he not at liberty to follow a rule which in translations approved by ecclesiastical authogives such satisfaction and security to his mind! rity; because, to those who are well disposed, Is it fair for others who, by following a different nothing can be more useful, more consoliny, o. rule, are led into a countless variety of contra- more animating, than the reading of the sacred dictory doctrines on matters of Christian belief, Scriptures, understood in their true sense-iher 10 disturb the tranquillity of the Catholic on serve to confirm the faith, to support the hope, this head, or to condemn him for his submission and to inflame the charity of the irue Chrisuan. 10 the authority of a ministry which he is con- But when the reading and the circulation of vinced was established by Christ for the purpose the Scriptures are urged and recommended as of bringing all nations to the certain knowledge the entire rule of faith, as the sole means by of his law, and to the unity of faith? Is not which men are to be brought to the certain and this rule perfectly natural and reasonable? Can specific knowledge of the doctrines, precepts, any human legislator condemn the principle and and institutions of Christ; and when the Scriprule of the Catholic in this regard ? I

t ures so read and circulated are left to the interIII. On the Holy Scriptures.-In England pretation and private judgment of each indit'ie Catholic church is held out as an enemy to vidual : then such reading, circulation, ar. the reading and circulating of the Holy Scrip- interpretation, are forbidden by the Catholic tures. Whereas the Catholic church venerates church, because the Catholic church knows that the Holy Scriptures as the written part of the the circulation of the Scriptures, and the interword of God; she has in all ages been the faith- pretation of them by each one's private judsful guardian of this sacred deposit; she has ever ment, was not the means ordained by Christ for labored to preserve the integrity of these in- the communication of the true knowledge of his spired writings, and the true sense, in which law to all nations-she knows that Christianity they have been universally understood, at all was established in many countries before one times from the apostolic age.

book of the New Testament was written-that it The Catholic church has never forbidden or was not by means of the Scriptures thai the discouraged the reading or the circulation of apostles and their successors converted nations, authentic copies of the sacred Scriptures, in the or any one nation to the unity of the Christian original languages. She binds her clergy to the faith-that the unauthorised reading and cireuduly recital of a canonical office, which com- lation of the Scriptures, and the interpretation prises a large portion of the sacred volume, and of them by private judgment, are calculaied to to read and expound to the faithful, in the verna- lead men to contradictory doctrines on the pricular tongue, on Sundays, the episile or gospel mary articles of Christian belief; to inconsistent of the day, or some other portion of the divine law. forms of worship, which cannot all be consti

Is to translations of the Holy Scriptures into tuent parts of the uniform and sublime system mo lern languges, the Catholic church requires of Christianity ; to errors and fanaticism in relithat none should be put into the hands of the gion, and to seditions and the greatest disorders faithful but such as are acknowledged by eccle- in states and kingdoms. siastical authority to be accurate, and conform- IT. On the churge of idolatry and superstition. able to the sense of the originals. There never - Ignorance or malice has gone so far as to charge was a general law of the Catholic church pro- the Catholic church with idolatry, in the sacrihibiting the reading of authorised translations fice of the mass-in the adoration (as it is of the Scriptures; but, considering that many, called) of the Virgin Mary, and in the worship by their ignorance and evil dispositions, have of the saints, and of the images of Christ and perverted the meaning of the sacred text to their of the saints; and with superstition, in invoking own destruction, the Catholic church has thought the saints, and in praying for souls in purgait prudent to make a regulation that the faithful tory. Now idolatry consists in giving to any should be guided in this matter by the advice of creature that supreme adoration, honor, or wor. their respective pastors.

ship, which is due only to Almighty God. The

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