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or a usurper, and whether those who killed him command of all the fleets of the empire. His merited reward or punishment. There were next step was the quelling a sedition of the many of those who had received their promo- people, who rose to revenge the death of Cæsar, tions from Cæsar, and had acquired large for and putting their leader Amathus to death, who tunes in consequence of his appointments; to pretended to be the son of Marius. He after vote him a usurper therefore would have en- this pretended to dread the resentment of the dangered their property; and yet to vote him multitude, and demanded a guard. The senate innocent might" endanger the state. In this granted it; and, under this pretext, he drew dilemma they tried to reconcile extremes : round him a body of 6000 resolute men, attached they approved all the acts of Cæsar, but granted to his interests. Thus he continued every day a general pardon to the conspirators. This making rapid strides to absolute power; all the decree did not satisfy Antony, as it granted se- authority of government was lodged in his curity to a number of men who were the avowed hands and those of his two brothers, who shared enemies of tyrrany, and who would be foremost among them the consular tribunitian and prætoin opposing his schemes. As therefore the rian power. His vows to revenge Cæsar's death senale had ratified all Cæsar's acts, without dis- seemed postponed or forgotten; and his only tinction, he formed a scheme upon this of aim was to confirm himself in that power which making him rule when dead. Being possessed he had thus artfully acquired. But an obstacle of Cæsar's books, he prevailed upon his se- to his ambition soon arose in Octavius, or Octacretary to insert whatever he thought proper. vianus Cæsar, the grand nephew and adopted By these means, great sums of money, which son of Cæsar, who was at Apollonia when his Cæsar never would have bestowed, were or- kinsman was slain. He was then about eighteen dered to be distributed among the people; years old, and had been sent to that city to imand every man who was averse to repub-prove himself in Grecian literature. Upon the lican principles was sure of finding a gra- news of Cæsar's death, notwithstanding the tuity. He then demanded that Cæsar's funeral earnest dissuasions of his friends, he returned to obsequies should be perforined; which the Rome to claim the inheritance, and revenge the senate could not decenily forbid, as they had death of his uncle. But Antony, whose projects never declared him a tyrant. Accordingly the were only to aggrandise himself, gave him but a body was brought forth into the forum with the cold reception, and, instead of granting him the utmost solemnity; and Antony began to excite fortune left him by Cæsar's will, delayed the paythe passions of the people. He first read Cæsar's ment of it upon various pretences. Octavianus, will, in which he had left Octavius, his sister's instead of abating bis claims, sold his own patria grandson, bis heir, permitting him to take the monial estate to pay such legacies as Cæsar had name of Cæsar; and three parts of his private left, and particularly that to the people. By fortune Brutus was to inherit in case of his these means he gained a degree of popularity, death. The Roman people were left the gardens which his enemies vainly labored to diminish. which he had on the other side the Tiber; and The army near Rome, who had long wished to every citizen was to receive 300 sesterces. This see the conspirators punished, began to turn last bequest greatly increased the people's affec- from Antony to bis rival, whom they saw more tion for Cæsar; they considered him as a father, sincerely bent on gratifying their desires. Anwho, after doing them the greatest good while tony having procured also the government of living, thought of benefiting them after his death. Hither Gaul from the people, two of the legions As Antony continued reading, the multitude were that he had brought hone from his former moved, and lamentations were heard from every government of Macedonia went over to Octaquarter. Antony now began to address the vianus. This produced, as usual, interviews, assembly in a more pathetic strain; he presented complaints, recriminations, and pretended rebefore them Cæsar's bloody robe, and, as he un- conciliations, which only widened the difference; folded it, took care they should observe the so that at length both sides prepared for war. number of stabs in it; he then displayed an Thus the state was divided into three distinct image of the body of Cæsar, all covered with factions; that of Octavianus, who aimed at prowounds. The people could now no longer con- curing Cæsar's inheritance and revenging his tain their indignation; they unanimously cried death; that of Antony, whose sole view was to out for revenge; ‘and the multitude ran with obtain absolute power; and that of the conspiHaming brands from the pile to set fire to the rators, who endeavoured to restore the republic. conspirator's houses. They, however, being weil Antony, being raised by the people to his new guarded, repulsed the multitude; but, perceiving government of Cisalpine Gaul, contrary to the their rage, they thought it safest to retire from inclinations of the senate, resolved to enter upon the city. Divine honors were then granted to that province immediately, and oppose Brutus, the fallen dictator; and an altar was erected on who commanded a small body of troops there, the place where his body was burnt, where after- while his army was yet entire. He accordingly wards was erected a column inscribed, To the left Rome, and, marching thither, commanded FATHER OF his COUNTRY. In the mean time Brutus to depart. Brutus, being unable to Antony, having gained the people by his zeal in oppose him, retired with his forces; but, being Cæsar's cause, next endeavoured to bring over pursued by Antony, he was at last besieged in the senate, by a seeming concern for the freedom the city of Mutina, of which he sent word to of the state. He therefore proposed to recall the senate. In the meanwhile, Octavianus, who Sextus, Pompey's only remaining son, who had by this time had raised a body of 10,000 men, concealed himself in Spain, and to grant him the returned to Rome; and being resolved, before we attempted to take vengeance on the conspi- it was, that the supreme authority should be ators, if possible to diminish the power of lodged in their hands, under the title of the Antony, began by bringing over the senate to triumvirate, for five years ; that Antony should second his designs. In this he succeeded by the have Gaul, Lepidus Spain, and Octavianus credit of Cicero, who had long hated Antony. Africa and the Mediterranean Islands. As for Accordingly, by his eloquence, a decree was Italy, and the eastern provinces, they were 10 passed, ordering Antony to raise the siege of remain in common until their general enemy Mutina, to evacuate Cisalpine Gaul, and to wait was entirely subdued. But the last article of • the further orders of the senate upon the banks their union was a dreadful one. It was agreed of the Rubicon. Antony treated the order with that all their enemies should be destroyed; of contempt; and, instead of obeving, began to which cach presented a list. In these were show his displeasure. On this the senate de comprised not only the enemies but the friends clared him an enemy to the state, and sent of ihe triumvirate, since the partisans of the ope Octavianus, with the army he had raised, to curb were often found among the opposers of the his insolence. The consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, others. Thus Lepidus gave up his brother joined also their forces; and, thus combined, Paulus to the vengeance of his colleaugue; Asthey marched at the head of a numerous army, tony permitted the proscription of his uncle against Autony into Cisalpine Gaul. After one Lucius; and Octavianus delivered up the great or two ineflectual conflicts, both armies came to Cicero. The most sacred rights of nature were a general engagement; in which Antony was violated ; 300 senators, and above 2000 knights, defeated, and compelled to fly to Lepidus, who were included in this terrible proscription ; iheir commanded a body of forces in Further Gaul. fortunes were confiscated, and their murderers This victory, however, which promised the senate enriched with the spoil. Rome soon felt the so much success, produced effects very different effects of this infernal union, and the horrid from their expectations. The two consuls were cruelties of Marius and Sylla were renewed. mortally wounded; but Pansa, previous to his As many as could escape the cruelty of the death, called Octavianus to his bed-side, and triumvirs, Hed into Macedonia to Brutus, or advised him to join with Antony, telling him found refuge with young Pompey, who was now that the senate only desired to depress both, by in Sicily, and covered the Mediterranean with opposing them to each other. The advice of his numerous navy. Their cruelties were not aimed the dying consul sunk deep on his spirits; so at the men alone ; but the softer sex were also that from that time he only sought a pretext to marked as objects of avarice or resentment. break with them. Their giving the command of They made ont a list of 1400 women of the a part of his army to Decimus Brutus, and richest in the city, who were ordered to give in their denying him a triumph soon atier, served an account of their fortunes to be taxed. But to alienate his mind entirely from the senate, and this was so firmly opposed by Hortensia, that made him resolve to join Antony and Lepidus. they were content to tax only 400. Ilowever, lle was willing, however, to try the senate they made up the deficiency by extending the thoroughly, before he came to an open rupture; tax upon men; nearly 100,000, as well citizens wherefore he sent to demand the consulship, as strangers, were compelled to furnish supplies which was refused. He then privately sent to to the subversion of freedom. At last, both the sound the inclinations of Antony and Lepidus, avarice and vengeance of the triumviri seemed concerning a junction of forces, and found them fully satisfied, and they went into the senate to as eager to assist as the senate was 10 oppose declare that the proscription was at an end; and him. Antony was in fact the general of both thus having deluged the city with blood, Octaarmies, and Lepidus was only nominally so, his vianus and Antony, leaving Lepidus to defend soldiers refusing to obey him upon the approach Rome in their absence, marched with their forces of the former. Wherefore, upon being assured to oppose the conspirators, who were now at the of the assistance of Octavianus upon their arrival head of a formidable army in Asia. in Italy, they soon crossed the Alps with an army Brutus and Cassius, the principal conspirators of seventeen legions, breathing revenge against upon the death of Cæsar, being compelled 10 all who had opposed their designs. The senate quit Rome, went into Greece, where they pernow began, too late, to perceive their crror in suaded the Roman students at Athens to declare disobliging Octavianus; and therefore gave him in the cause of freedom ; then, parting, the forthe consulship which they had so lately refused; mer raised a powerful army in Macedonia and and, to prevent his joining with Antony, flatter- the adjacent countries, while the latter went into ed him with new honors, giving him a power Syria, where he became master of twelve legions, superior to all law. The first use Octavianus and reduced his opponent Dolabella to such made of his new authority was to procure a law straits that he killed bimself. Both parties soon for the condemnation of Brutus and Cassius; after joining, at Smyrna, the sight of such a lorafter which he joined his forces with those of midable force began to revive the declining spiAntony and Lepidus. The meeting of these rits of the party, and to unite the two generals three usurpers of their country's freedom was sull more closely. The Rhodians and Lvcians near Mutina, upon a little island of the river having refused their usual contributions, the Panarus. Their mutual suspicions were the conspirators made their reduction their first bucause of their meeting in this place. Lepidus siness. The Lycians, rather than submit, bumed first entered, and, finding all things safe, marle themselves alive in Santhus; the humanity of the signal for the other two to approach. Their Brutus could save only 150 from the flames. conference lasted three days; and the result of As Antony and Octavianus were now advanced
into Macedonia, they soon after passed over begged permission to retain his patrhmonial farm. into Thrace, and advanced to Philippi, dear Virgil obtained his request, but the rest of his which the forces of the triumvirs were posted. countrymen of Mantua and Cremona were A battle soon ensued, in which the republicans turned out without mercy. Italy and Rome were defeated, and Cassius killed. Previous to now felt the most extreme miseries; the insolent this battle Brutus is said to have seen a spectre, soldiers plundered at will; while Sextus Pomwhich warned him of the issue. Brutus, when pey, being master of the sea, cut off all foreign he became sole general, assembled the dispersed communication, and prevented the people's retroops of Cassius, and animated them with fresh ceiving their usual supplies of corn. To these hopes of victory. As they had lost all they pos- mischiefs were added the commencement of sessed, by the plundering of their camp, he pro another civil war. Fulvia, the wife of Antony, mised them 2000 denarii each man to make up who had been left at Rome, had felt for some their losses. Still, however, he had not confi- time all the rage of jealousy, and resolved to dence to face the adversary, who offered him try every method of bringing back her husband battle next day. His aim was to starve his from the arms of Cleopatra. She considered a enemies, who were in extreme want of provi- breach with Octavianus as the only probable sions, their feet having been lately defeated. means of rousing him from his lethargy; and But his single opinion was over-ruled by the accordingly, with the assistance of Lucius Antorest of his army, and he was, after a respite of nius, her brother-in-law, who was then consul, twenty days, obliged to comply with their solici- and entirely devoted to her interest, she began to tations to try the fate of the battle. Fortune bow the seeds of dissension. The pretext was, again declared against him; and the two trium- that Antony should have a share in the distribuviri expressly ordered by no means to suffer the tion of lands as well as Octavianus. To negogeneral to get off, lest he should renew the war. ciations succeeded war, and Octavianus, being His friend Lucilius giving himself as Brutus, he victorious, generously pardoned the conquered, effected his escape; but however, finding all hopes but obliged Fulvia to quit Italy. Antony, learnof retrieving his affairs lost, he slew himself the ing what was passing, resolved to oppose Octasame night.
vianus without delay. He accordingly sailed at After Brutus's death the triumviri acted as the head of a considerable fleet from Alexandria sovereigns, and divided the Roman dominions to Tyre, thence to Cyprus and Rhodes, and had among them. However, though there were åp- an interview with Fulvia at Athens. He blamed parently three who thus participated the power, her for occasioning the late disorders, expressed only two were actually possessed of it. Lepidus the utmost contempt for her person, and, leaving was admitted merely to curb the jealousy of An- her upon her death-bed at Sicyon, hastened into tony and Octavianus, and possessed neither in- Italy to fight Octavianus. They met at Brunduterest in the army nor authority among the dusium. Antony's forces were numerous, but people. Their first care was to punish those mostly newly raised; but he was assisted by whom they had formerly marked for vengeance. Sextus Pompeius, who was daily coming into The head of Brutus was sent to Rome to be power. Octavianus was at the head of those thrown at the foot of Cæsar's statue. His ashes, veterans who had always been irresistible, but however, were sent to his wife Porcia, Cato's who seemed not disposed to fight against Antony, danghter, who afterwards killed herself by swal- their former general. A negociation was therelowing burning coals. Of all those who had a fore proposed, and a reconciliation effected. All hand in Cæsar's death, not one died a natural offences were mutually forgiven; and a marriage death. The power of the triumviri being thus was concluded between Antony and Octavia, the established, upon the ruins of the commonwealth, sister of Octavianus. A new division of the Antony went into Greece. Thence he passed Roman empire was made between them; Octaover into Asia, where all the monarchs of the vianus was to have the command of the west, east, who acknowledged the Roman power, came Antony of the east, while Lepidus was to have to pay him obedience. Among other sovereigns the provinces in Africa. As for Sextus Pompeius, Cleopatra came to him at Tarsus, and he was so he was permitted to retain all the islands he had captivated by her charms that he returned to already possessed ; together with Peloponnesus: Egypt with her, and gave himself up to love. he was also granted the privilege of demanding While he thus remained idle, Octavianus, who the consulship in his absence, and of discharging undertook to lead back the veteran troops and that office by any of his friends. It was also stipusettle them in Italy, was assiduously employed lated to leave the sea open, and pay the people in providing for their subsistence. He had pro- what corn was due out of Sicily. Thus a general mised them lands at home, as a recompense for peace was concluded. This calm was continued for their past services; but they could not receive some time: Antony led his forces against the Parnew grants without turning out the former inha- thians, over whom his lieutenant Ventidius had bitants. In consequence of this, multitudes of gained great advantages, while Octavianus drew women, with children in their arms, whose ten- the greatest part of his army into Gaul, where there der years and innocence excited universal com- were some disturbances; and Pompey went to sepassion, daily filled the temples and the streets cure his newly ceded province. It was on this quarwith their distresses. Numbers of husbandmen ter that fresh motives were given for renewing and shepherds came to deprecate the conqueror's the war, Antony, who was obliged by treaty to intention, or to obtain a habitation in some other quit Peloponnesus, refused to evacuate it till part of the world : amongst this number was Pompey had satisfied him for such debts as were Virgil the poet, who in an humble manner due to him from the inhabitants. This Pompey
refused; but immediately fitted out a new feet, months in the company of Cleopatra, who stuand renewed his former enterprises, by cutting died every art to increase his passion, and relain off such corn and provisions as were consigned him in her chains. Not contented with sharin: 10 Italy. Thus the grievances of the poor were in her company all the delights which Egyp: again renewed; and the people, instead of three could afford, Antony was resolved to enlarge his tyrants, were now oppressed by four. In this sphere of luxury, by granting her several of those evivence, Octavianus, who had long meditated kingdoms which belonged to the Roman empire. diminishing the number, resolved to begin by lie gave her all Phænicia, Colo-Syria, and Cygetting rid of Pompex lle was master of two prus; with a great part of Cilicia, Arabia, and fleets ; one of which he had caused to be built Judea; gifts which he had no right to bestuur, at Ravenna ; and another which Menodorus, but which he pretended to grant in imitation of who revolted from Pompey, brought to his aid. Hercules. This complication of vice and joliy This first attempt was to invade Sicily ; but being at length exasperated the Romans; and Octaoverpowered in his passage by Pompey, and his vianus took care to exaggerate all his faults. At fleet' afterwards shattered in a stormi, he was length he resolved to send Octavia to Antony, obliged to defer his design till the next year. as if with a view of reclaiming her husband, but During this interval he was reinforced by a teet in fact to furnish a sufficient pretext of declar.nig of 120 ships, given him by Antony, with which war against him. Accordingly, Antony ordered he resolved once more to invade Sicily. He her to return without seeing her. Octavianus was again disabled and shattered by a storm: had now a sufficient pretext for declaring war; which so raised the vanity of Pompey that he and informed the senate of his intention. But began to style himself the son of Neptune. he deferred it for a while, being then emplove? However, Octavianus having retitted his navy in quelling an insurrection of the Illyrians. The and recruited his forces, he gave the command following year was taken up in preparations of both to Agrippa, his faithful friend, who against Antony. Antony ordered Canidius with proved himself worthy of the trust. lle began his army to march into Europe; while he and his operations by a victory over Pompey; and, Cleopatra followed to Samos, to prepare for carthough he was shortly after worsted, he soon afier rying on the war with vigor. The kings who gave his adversary a complete and final over- attended him endeavoured to gain his favor more throw. Pompey resolved to fly to Antony, from by their entertainments than their warlike prewhom be expected refuge, as he had formerly parations; and the provinces sirove rather to obliged that triumvir by protecting his mother, please him by sacriticing to his divinity, than by Ilowever he tried once more, at the head of a their alacrity in his defence. In short, his buat small body of men, to make himself independ- friends now began to forsake him. His delay a: ent, and surprised Antony's officers who had Samos, and afterwards at Athens, where he carbeen sent to accept of his submissions. But he ried Cleopatra to receive new honors, was eiwas at last abandoned by his soldiers, and deli- tremely favorable to the arms of Octavianus; vered up to Titus, Antony's lieutenant, who who was at first scarcely in a situation to oppove caused him to be slain. The death of this ge- him, had he gone into Italy; but he soon found neral removed one very powerful obstacle to the time to put himself in a condition for carryin: ambition of Octavianus, and he resolved to get on the war. All Antony's followers were inrid of the rest of his associates. An offence vited over to join him with great promises of was soon furnished by Lepidus, that served as a rewards. Their armies were suitable to the empretext for depriving him of his share in the tri- pire they contended for. The one was followed umvirate. Being at the head of twenty-two by all the forces of the cast; the other by the legions, with a strong body of cavalry, he sup- strength of the west. Antony's force composed posed that his power was more than equivalent a body of 100,000 foot and 12,000 horse; his to the popularity of Octavianus. He therefore fleet amounted to 500 ships of war. The army resolved to add Sicily to his province; pretend- of Octavianus mustered only 80,000 foot, but ing a right, as having first invaded it. Tlis col- equalled his adversary's in number of cavalry: league having previously expostulated without his tleet was but half as numerous as Antony's; success, and knowing that his secret intrisues however his ships were better built, and mannel and largesses had entirely attached the army to with better soldiers. The great decisive engagehimself, went alone to the camp of Lepidus, de- ment, which was a naval one, was fought near prived liim of all his authority, and banished him Actium, a city of Epirus, at the entrance of the to Circæum. There remained now but one ob- gulph of Ambracia. Antony ranged his ships stacle to his ambition, viz. Antony, whom he before the mouth of the gulph; and Octavianus resolved to remove, and began to render his cha- drew up his in opposition. The two land arracter as contemptible as he could at Rome. mies on opposite sides of the gulph, were drawn In fact Antony's own conduct contributed up only as spectators. The battle began on greatly to promote the object of his rival. He both sides with great ardor; nor was there any had marched against the Parthians with a pro- advantage on either side till of a sudden Cleo digious army; but was forced to return with the patra fled from the engagement attended by sixty loss of the fourth part of his forces, and all his sail ; what increased the general amazement was baggage. This greatly diminished his repu- to behold Antony himself following soon at:er. tation ; but his making a triumphal entry into Yet the engagement continued with great obstiAlexandria, soon after, entirely disgusted the citi- nacy till 5 P. M., when Antony's forces sube zens of Rome. Ilowever Antony, totally dis- mitted. The land forces soon after followed the regarding the business of the state, spent whole example of the nary; and all yielded without striking a blow the fourth day after the battle. scourged, sent him back to his patron. Mean
When Cleopatra fled Antony pursued her in a while, the war was carried vigorously forward, five-oared galley; and, coming along side of her and Egypt was once more the theatre of the ship, entered without seeing or being seen by contending armies of Rome. Gallus, the lieuher. She was in the stern, and he went to the tenant of Octavianus, took Paretonium, which prow, where he remained for some time silent, opened the whole country to his incursions. holding his bead between his hands. In this Octavianus himself was in the mean time admanner he continued three whole days; during vancing with another army before Pelusium, the which, either through indignatior, or shame, he governor of which gave him possession of the neither saw nor spoke to the queen. At last, place. Antony, upon his arrival, sallied out to when they arrived at the promontory of Tenarus, oppose him, fighting with great desperation, and Cleopatra's female attendants reconciled them, putting the enemy's cavalry to flight. This slight and every thing went on as before. Still, how- advantage revived his declining hopes, and he ever, he had the consolation to suppose his army reentered Alexandria in triumph. Then, going continued faithful; and accordingly despatched to the palace, he embraced Cleopatra, and preorders to his lieutenant Canidius to conduct it sented her a soldier who had distinguished himinto Asia. When however he arrived in Africa, self in the late engagement. The queen rewarded he was informed of their submission to his rival. him very magnificently; presenting him with a This account so transported him with rage that head-piece and breast-plate of gold. With these, he was hardly prevented from killing himself; however, the soldier went off the next night to at length, at the entreaty of his friends, he re- the other army. Antony could not bear this turned to Alexandria. Cleopatra, however, seemed defection; he resolved, therefore, to make a to retain that fortitude in her misfortunes which bold expiring effort by sea and land, but previhad abandoned her admirer. Having amassed ously offered to fight his adversary in single considerable riches, by confiscation and other combat. Octavianus coolly replied that Antony acts of violence, she formed a very singular pro- had ways enough to die besides single combat. ject, to convey her whole fleet over the isthmus At day-break Antony posted the few troops he of Suez into the Red Sea, and thus save herself had remaining upon a rising ground near the with all her treasures in another region beyond city: whence he sent orders to his galleys to enthe reach of Rome. Some of her vessels were gage the enemy. There he waited to be a specactually transported thither, pursuant to her tator of the combat; and, at first, he saw them orders; but the Arabians having burnt them, and advance in good order; but his approbation was Antony dissuading her from the design, she turned into rage, when he saw his ships only saabandoned it for the more improbable scheme luting those of Octavianus, and both fleets unitof defending Egypt. She made all preparation ing, and falling back into the harbour. At the for war; at least hoping thereby to obtain better same time his cavalry deserted him. He tried, terms from Octavianus. In fact, she had always however, to lead on his infantry; which were loved Antony's fortunes rather than his person; soon vanquished, and himself compelled to reand if she could have fallen upon any method turn into the town. His anger was now ungoof saving herself, though even at his expense, vernable ; he could not help crying out aloud as she would have embraced it. She even still he passed that he was betrayed by Cleopatra, had some hopes from the power of her charms, and delivered by her to those who, for her sake though she was almost forty; and was desirous alone, were his enemies. In these suspicions he of trying upon Octavianus those arts which had was not deceived; for it was by secret orders been so successful with the greatest men of from the queen that the feet had passed over to Rome. Thus in the three embassies which were the enemy. · Cleopatra had for a long while sent from Antony to his rival in Asia, the queen dreaded the effects of Antony's jealousy; and had always her secret agents, charged with par- had some time before prepared a method of obticular proposals in her name. Antony desired viating any sudden sallies it might produce. only that his life might be spared, and to pass Near the temple of Isis she bad erected a buildthe rest of his days in obscurity. To these pro- ing, which was seemingly designed for a sepulposals Octavianus made no reply. Cleopatra chre. Hither she removed all her treasure and sent him also public proposals in favor of her most valuable effects, covering them over with children; but at the same time privately resigned torches, faggots, and other combustible matter. him her crown, with all the ensigns of royalty. This sepulchre she designed to answer a double To the queen's public proposal no answer was purpose; as well to screen her from the sudden given; to her private offer he replied, by giving resentments of Antony, as to make Octavianus her assurances of his favor in case she sent away believe that she would burn all her treasures in Antony or put him to death. When these nego- case he refused her proper terms of capitulation. ciations came to the knowledge of Antony, his Here, therefore, she retired from Antony's fury; jealousy and rage were heightened to the utmost. shutting the gates, which were fortified with He built a solitary house upon a mole in the sea; bolts and bars of iron : but in the mean time where he passed his time, shunning all commerce gave orders to spread a report of her death. with mankind, and professing to imitate Timon This news, which soon reached Antony, recalled the man-hater. But his furious jealousy drove all his former love. He now lamented her death him even from this retreat; for hearing that Cleo- with the same violence he had but a few minutes patra had many secret conferences with one before seemed to desire it; and called one of his Thyrsus, an emissary from Octavianus, he seized freed men, named Eros, whom he had engaged upon him, and, having ordered him to be cruelly by oath to kill him whenever fortune should