her again by looking back upon her in the confines
of light, concludes with a very elegant and forcible
application. “Whoever you are that endeavour to
elevate your minds to the illuminations of Heaven,
consider yourselves as represented in this fable; for
he that is once so far overcome as to turn back his
eyes towards the infernal caverns, loses at the first
sight all that influence which attracted him on high:”
Vos haec fabula respicit,
Quicunque in superum diem
Mentem ducere quaeritis.
Nam qui Tartareum in specus
Victus lumina flexerit,
Quidduid praecipuum trahit,
Perdit, dum videt inferos.

It may be observed, in general, that the future is purchased by the present. It is not possible to Secure instant or permanent happiness but by the forbearance of some immediate gratification. This is so evidently true with regard to the whole of our existence, that all the precepts of theology have no other tendency than to enforce a life of faith; a life regulated not by our senses but our belief; a life in which pleasures are to be refused for fear of invisible punishments, and calamities sometimes to be sought, and always endured, in hope of rewards that shall be obtained in another state.

Even if we take into our view only that particle of our duration which is terminated by the grave, it will be found that we cannot enjoy one part of life beyond the common limitations of pleasure, but by anticipating some of the satisfaction which

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should exhilarate the following years. The heat of youth may spread happiness into wild luxuriance, but the radical vigour requisite to make it perennial is exhausted, and all that can be hoped afterwards is languor and sterility. The reigning errour of mankind is, that we are not content with the conditions on which the goods of life are granted. No man is insensible of the value of knowledge, the advantages of health, or the convenience of plenty, but every day shews us those on whom the conviction is without effect. Knowledge is praised and desired by multitudes whom her charms could never rouse from the couch of sloth; whom the faintest invitation of pleasure draws away from their studies; to whom any other method of wearing out the day is more eligible than the use of books, and who are more easily engaged by any conversation, than such as may rectify their notions or enlarge their comprehension. Every man that has felt pain, knows how little all other comforts can gladden him to whom health is denied. Yet who is there does not sometimes hazard it for the enjoyment of an hour ! All assemblies of jollity, all places of public entertainment, exhibit examples of strength wasting in riot, and beauty withering in irregularity; nor is it easy to enter a house in which part of the family is not groaning in repentance of past intemperance, and part admitting disease by negligence, or soliciting it by luxury. There is no pleasure which men of every age and sect have more generally agreed to mention with * contempt, than the gratifications of the palate; an * entertainment so far removed from intellectual so


happiness, that scarcely the most shameless of the sensual herd have dared to defend it: yet even to

this, the lowest of our delights, to this, though

neither quick nor lasting, is health with all its activity and sprightliness daily sacrificed; and for this are half the miseries endured which urge impatience to call on death. The whole world is put in motion by the wish for the riches and the dread of poverty. Who, then, would not imagine that such conduct as will inevitably destroy what all are thus labouring to acquire, must generally be avoided ? That he who spends more than he receives, must in time become indigent, cannot be doubted; but, how evident soever this consequence may appear, the spendthrift moves in the whirl of pleasure with too much rapidity to keep it before his eyes, and, in the intoxication of gaiety, grows every day poorer without any such sense of approaching ruin as is sufficient to wake him into caution. Many complaints are made of the misery of life; and indeed it must be confessed that we are subject to calamities by which the good and bad, the diligent and slothful, the vigilant and heedless, are equally afflicted. But surely, though some indulgence may be allowed to groans extorted by inevitable misery, no man has a right to repine at evils which, against warning, against experience, he

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entini deliberately and leisurely brings upon his own : pāho head; or to consider himself as debarred from hapintelo, piness by such obstacles as resolution may break :less or dexterity may put aside. et of Great numbers who quarrel with their condition, is to have wanted not the power but the will to obtain a allibi better state. They have never contemplated the ld first difference between good and evil sufficiently to mplio quicken aversion, or invigorate desire; they have indulged a drowsy thoughtlessness or giddy levity; the so have committed the balance of choice to the manh) to agement of caprice; and when they have long acillio; customed themselves to receive all that chance aqi offered them, without examination, lament at last so that they find themselves deceived.

o: No. 179. TUESDAY, DECEMBER 3, 1751

Illso Perpetuo risu pulmonem agitare solabat. Juv. Sat. x. 33. liff | Democritus would feed his spleen, and shake

}I) of His sides and shoulders till he felt them ake. DRYDEN. ld VERY man, says Tully, has two characters; k one which he partakes with all mankind, and

by which he is distinguished from brute animals; another which discriminates him from the rest of his own species, and impresses on him a manner and temper peculiar to himself; this particular character, if it be not repugnant to the laws of general humanity, it is always his business to cultivate and

preserve. Every hour furnishes some confirmation of Tully's precept. It seldom happens, that an assembly of

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pleasure is so happily selected, but that some one finds admission, with whom the rest are deservedly offended; and it will appear, on a close inspection, that scarce any man becomes eminently disagree

able, but by a departure from his real character, and

an attempt at something for which nature or edu-
cation have left him unqualified.
Ignorance or dulness have indeed no power of
affording delight, but they never give disgust except
when they assume the dignity of knowledge, or ape
the sprightliness of wit. Awkwardness and inele-
gance have none of those attractions by which ease
and politeness take possession of the heart; but
ridicule and censure seldom rise against them, un-
less they appear associated with that confidence
which belongs only to long acquaintance with the
modes of life, and to consciousness of unfailing pro-
priety of behaviour. Deformity itself is regarded
with tenderness rather than aversion, when it does
not attempt to deceive the sight by dress and
decoration, and to seize upon fictitious claims the
prerogatives of beauty.
He that stands to contemplate the crowds that
fill the streets of a populous city, will see many
passengers whose air and motion it will be difficult
to behold without contempt and laughter; but if he
examines what are the appearances that thus power-
fully excite his risibility, he will find among them
neither poverty nor disease, nor any involuntary or
painful defect. The disposition to derision and insult
is awakened by the softness of foppery, the swell

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