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Knappach, in Gaelic A' Chnapaich, the hilly or knobby land. It is a common place-name, especially in Ireland, appearing there as Knappagh and Nappagh.

Ruthven, which is also the first form the name appears in in 1370, when the “Wolf” took possession of the lordship of Badenoch. It was here he had his castle. In 1380 the name is Rothven and Ruthan. The name is common all over Pictland, mostly in the form Ruthven, but also at various times and places spelt Ruthfen, Ruwen, Ruven, Riv(v)en, &c. The modern Gaelic is Ruadhinn, which simply means the “red place,” from ruadhan, anything red. The v of the English form lacks historic explanation. Brae-ruthven gives the phonetically interesting Gaelic Bréruadhnach.

Gordon Hall (so in 1773 also) is in Gaelic Lag-an-Nòtair, the Notary's Hollow, for it is a hollow. The name and its proximity to Ruthven Castle mutually explain one another : Gordon Hall was doubtless the seat of the Gordon lords of Badenoch, when the castle of Ruthven was changed to barrack purposes. Here the rents used to be “lifted” for the Gordon estates.

Killiehuntly, Keillehuntlye (1603), Blaeu's Kyllehunteme, in present Gaelic Coille-Chuntainn, the wood of Contin. Huntly is. in Gaelic Hundaidh, and M‘Firbis, in the 16th century, has Hundon; hence arises the English form. The popular mind still connects it with the Huntlies. Contin is a parish in Ross-shire, and there was a Contuinn in Ireland, on the borders of Meath and Cavan, which is mentioned in connection with Fionn's youthful exploits. It has been explained as the meeting of the waters, con(with) and tuinn (waves), but the matter is doubtful.

Inveruglas, Inneruglas (1603), in Gaelic Inbhir-ulais, the inver of Ulas, although no such stream exists now, receives its explanation from the old Retours, for in 1691 we have mention of Inveruglash and its mill-town on the water of Duglass, which means the stream passing the present Milton. Hence it means the inver of the Duglass or dark stream, dubh (black), and glais (stream).

Soillierie, in Gaelic Soileiridh, means the “bright conspicuous: place,” on the rising beyond the Insh village.

Lynchlaggan stands for the Gaelic Loinn-Chlaiginn, the Glade of the Skull, possibly referring to the knoll above it rather than to an actual skull there found ; the name is applied in Ireland tosuch skull-like hills.

Am Beithe means the Birch.

Farletter is the old name for Balnacraig and Lynchlaggan, and it appears in 1603 as Ferlatt and Falatrie (1691). It took its. name from the hill above, now called Craig Farleitir. The word Farleitir contains leitir, a slope or hillside, and possibly the preposition for (over), though we must remember the Fodderletter of Strathavon with its Pictish Fotter, or Fetter, or Fother (?).

Forr is situated on a knolly ridge overlooking Loch Insh, and evidently contains the preposition for (over), as in orra for forra, on them. The last r or ra is more doubtful. Farr, in Strathdearn, is to be compared with it.

Dalnavert, in 1338 and 1440 Dalnafert, in 1603 Dallavertt, now in Gaelic Dail-a-bheirt, which is for Dail-an-bheart, the dale of the grave or trench, from feart, a grave, which gives many place names in Ireland, such as Clonfert, Moyarty, &c.

Cromaran is possibly for Crom-raon, the crooked field.
Balnain is for Beal an-àthain, the ford mouth.

Ballintian, the town of the fairy knoll, was called of old Countelawe (1603) and Cuntelait (1691), remembered still vaguely as the name of the stretch up the river from Ballintian, and caplained as Cunntadh-làid, the counting (place) of the loads ! Perhaps, like Contin, it is for Con-tuil-aid, the meeting of the waters, that is, of Feshie and Fernsdale, which takes place here.

Balanscrittan, the town of the sgrìodan or running gravel.
Bulroy, for Bhuaill-ruaidh, the red fold.
Tolvah, the hole of drowning.

Achlean, for Achadh-leathainn, is broad field. Beside it is Achlum, for Achadh-lium, the field of the leap.

Ruigh-aiteachain may possibly be a corruption for Ruigh Aitneachain, the Stretch of the Junipers.

Ruigh-fionntaig, the Reach of the Fair-stream.

In the Dulnan valley is Caggan, the Gaelic of which is An Caiginn, and there is “a stony hill face” in Glen-Feshie of like name.

19th MARCH, 1890. On this evening, Mr William Mackay, solicitor, Inverness, read a paper before the Society, entitled “How the Macleods lost Assynt.” Mr Mackay's paper was as follows :

HOW THE MACLEODS LOST ASSYNT. The wild district of Assynt, in the west of Sutherlandshire, was possessed by a branch of the great family of Macleod from the beginning of the fourteenth century, when Torquil Macleod of the

Lews acquired it by marrying the heiress of Macnicol of Assynt, till the latter half of the seventeenth century, when Neil Macleod was deprived of it by the Mackenzies of Seaforth. The commonly received story of the loss of the estate is that Neil, who, in 1649, seized the Marquis of Montrose after his defeat in Rossshire, and sold him to the Covenanters for £20,000 Scots and 400 bolls of sour meal, was, after the Restoration, so persecuted by the Government and the Mackenzies that in some way or other he lost the estate, and the Mackenzies succeeded to it. The precise manner in which he was deprived of it has, however, not been condescended on by the writers on the subject, and the following “ Information” may therefore be of interest to the members of this Society, and of use to the future Highland historian. The document was written in 1738 for the use of the Laird of Macleod, who interested himself in the dispossessed family. It came into the possession of the famous Simon Lord Lovat, with whose papers it passed into the hands of the Rev. Donald Fraser of Killearnan. It now belongs to Mr Fraser's great grandson, the Rev. Hector Fraser of Halkirk, who has kindly placed it at my disposal. INFORMATON CONCERNING THE METHOD BY WHICH THE MCLEODS WERE

DISPOSSESSED OF THE ESTATE OF ASSINT–WRITTEN ANNO 1738.

It is tho't fit to make a short naratione of the hardships which Neil of Assint and his family suffered from the family of Seaforth and the Friends yreof which ended in the possessing at length of the sd Assints Estates, together wt a brief accott of the original ground and Claime upon qch yey at first pretended to found yeir right, and cruel procedure, and of ye steps taken by Niel of Assint for recovering of his right and that for the informaton of the Lawyer to be employed by the Laird of McLeod whatever use yey may have opportunity to make yereof in Pleading or otherwise.

Its hopd that as yere is a younger son of the family by a Second marriage that pretends some right to the Estate of Assint, it will not be improper to give some accott how the late Niel, who was the direct heir male of ye Family, attained the possession of the Estate, and is as follows :—Donald McLeod, alias Nielson of Assint, and grand fayr (father] to the Late Niel, was first married to a Daugr of Lord Reays, by whom he had Niel, who was Fayr to the late Niel of Assint, and John, who was Fayr to Captain Donald McLeod of Geanzies. Niel, son to Donald, died young, a long time before his Fayr, 2 leaving his two sons Niel and John infants

1 Macleod of Cadboll descended from Hugh, son of Donald Macleod of Assynt, by Christian Ross, his second wife.

2 Mackenzie (History of Macleods, page 410) says that Neil was tenth of Assynt, and “ does not seem to have long outlived his father.” It appears from this Information that he predeceased his father.

to yeir grandfayrs care, but yr Grandmother dying before Niel his son married, Donald married ---, Ross, Daugr to Pitcalney, by whom he had two sons, the eldest called Donald commonly called Donald Baine Oig, and Second Hugh, yrafter of Cambuscurry, whose Second Son Angus was Fayr to this Cadboll, there being no direct Issue now liveing of his Son Roderick, but one Daugr now married To John Urquhart of Mount Eagle. Donald's second wife haveing got the management of her husband (he being old) and of his Estates She wt the Rents yrof purchased Pluscardies apprising and Severall other debts on the Estate, and bought the Lands of Cambuscurry from her Broyr Pitcalny, and took Assignation to all those debts in the Person of her eldest son Donald qo by virtue yreof possessed the Estate severall years, tho his fayr was alive, but he dying unmaeried before his Fayr was succeeded by his Broyr Hugh who possessed the Estate for two years till his nephew Niel the Late Assin was Major, at which time Hugh disponed him the Estate, who thereon was infeft, as appears by an instrument yreon dated the 12th Septr 1649, and registrate the 8th Jany 1650, Fol. 65 and 66, Vols. 1st, John Gray, Notar.

Tho it is probable by qt follows that Hugh, upon disponing the Estate to Niel, did not give up all the Rights and Tittles His Broyr and he had to the sd Estate, its likely yt some of ym have come into hands that now have tho't of Quarrelling Niel's Tittle by saying that Hugh did not serve heir or make up proper tittles To his Broyr Donald, tho he disponed Neil the Estates ; but as Niel was in possession of the Estate from the year 1650 to 1672, when he was violently dispossessed by Seaforth, and was also from ye year 1672 to 1692 (when he obtained the decret of Spoulizie) endeavouring to recover his right, and the Mackenzies have possessed it upon Niel's Right from that time till now, and this being about 90 years, it is expected that these rights, tho better founded than they seem to be, will not now avail much. It is also to be noticed that on the reduction and Improbation which Niel executed agst all his creditors Hugh his uncle is contained in it, and his son Angush the late of Cadboll.

It appears also that Niel pursued his uncle Hugh in a process of exhibition, in qch there was an Act and Commission ordaining Hugh to depone before the Sheriff depute of Sutherland on the writts he had belonging to Niel, and tho Hugh compeared Niel was not willing that his oath should be received till first he had delivered and given him the whole writts and Evidences of the Estate of Assint, which the sd Hugh had in his possession, and which he was obliged to give him conform to the bond of

Alienation and Disposition made and granted by the said Hugh to him of the sd Estate, and upon upgivving of them he was willing to take his Oath as to all other writs and evidents which he had, as appears by ye prinll (principal] Instrument extant dated at Dunrobin the 12 of Septr 1683.

It is to be adverted that the following narrative is taken from som old papers write for Niel McLeod of Assint, chiefly these which follow, viz. :

1st. Informa’on (Anno 1673) Niel McLeod of Assint, contra the Earle of Seaforth and the name of McKenzie, showing yir inhuman dealings with him and his family.

2nd. Anoyr information (Anno 1683) ye Tittle whereof is in words to the same proport wt the former.

3rd. Information for the Laird of Assint agst ye Earle of Seaforth, and his Brother, Mr John McKenzie, and oyrs (Anno 1684), Beside oyr Papers yt may be hereafter mentiond.

From qt is represented in yese informations, it would sappear that from the time yt Seaforth made a right (such as it was) to the Isle of Lews for paymt of 10,000 mks, and afterwards, in Lieu of that, for a mile of the wood of Letterew, that he and his family had it still in view to make ymselves masters of the Estate of McLeod of Assint qo was Lineal heir to the Estate of Lews.

In consequence of this view and design, Seaforth purchased Sevrall old Claims (some of ym very unjust, as they are particlary represented in Niel's information, Anno 1673) agst Assint, qch were put in person of Pluscardy, Seaforth's Brother. In 1637 Seaforth and Pluscardy, by virtue of these claims and ye Tittles founded thereon, gave a Wadsett of ye Lands of Assint To Kenneth McKenzie of Scatwell, för Security of 40,000 mks, Anno 1640. The Legal of those Claims and Apprisings being expired, Seaforth did, with his friends and Clan, to the number of 1000 men, Invade Assint, and did yere committ great outrages. He being for this pursued at Law, was decerned in 40,000 pds Scots of Dammages This payd a great part of his claim, and qt remained was payed, or oyrwise transacted, as appears by what follows :

The Ld (Lord] Register Tarbat, being Long after yt called as a Witness in the Process of Spoulize of Assint's Charter Chiest, depones in the following tearmes, viz. :-That he, the depon't, haveing right by Assignation from John McKenzie of Scatwell to an infeftm’nt of annual rent of ye sum of 40,000 miks, granted by George, Earle of Seaforth, and Thomas McKenzie of Pluscardine,

To Kenneth McKenzie, Fayr to the Sd John, in the Lands and Estate of Assint, in ye year 1637, or in ye year 1638, or yere

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