Bolivia. The Aymaras were a great people before the conquest of the Incas, in 1100. At Tiahuanaca, on the south of Lake Titicaca, which was the capital of the Aymara land, ruins of magnificent palaces and temples occur. The conquest of this city was completed in 1289, but violent revolts ensued. Aymara is probably the equivalent of Kemer, or Khmer, the name of the Cambodians, and of Sumer—the name of the people connected with the Akkadians. The Kissii, or Cissii, near Babylon, may be said to be represented by Quichua in Peru and Quiché in Mexico. The Aztek culture ard language of Mexico, as was well seen by Humboldt, were derived from the old world. The language is to be classed with Sumero-Akkadian, and is intermediate between Aymara and Otomi. The Otomi is allied to the Circassian, and its resemblance to Etruscan, though distant, is remarka',le. The Otomis may have had connections or dealings with the monumentbuilding races of North America, and at a later period, when the Sumero-Akkadian kingdoms of Mexico had become weaker, returned and invaded Mexico. The Maya language of Yucatan comes within the Sumero-Akkadian class.

Dr Hyde Clarke tells us that “ The nomenclature of Ptolemy and the other geographers is of the Akkad epoch; and that of the early Biblical books, Akkad or Babylonian ”—(“Researches in Prehistoric and Proto-historic Comparative Philology,” p. 60); and at p. 63, Ibid., he says of speech—“Its influence is, of course, a disturbing one as well, and hence, although not decisive for ethnological determination, it is none the less to be regarded. Speech is the heir, the representative, the transmitter of the accumulated experience of civilisation in thousands of years.”

When I began this paper on the Picts, I thought, at the commencement, that I had to do with a tree, the roots whereof terminated in the north-west of Europe, among the Finnish nations to the east of the Baltic, and in the south-west in Spain ; but as I proceeded with the inquiry, I ascertained that the roots of the tree encompassed the globe and crossed immense oceans, and although this is a long paper, it does nothing like exhaust the subject-in fact, it merely points to several landmarks which may suggest some notions of the importance of the topic. It may be seen from what I have written that the Inverness Gaelic Society is 'in the centre of an area where important results might be attained by diligent research among the Gaelic dialectal peculiarities which it presents. The fact is, research may yet discover forms of words and phrases that may throw much light on the pre-Keltic dialects of the North of Scotland,

16th ÁPRIL, 1890. At this meeting Mr R. L. Mackintosh, wine merchant, Bridge Street, was elected a member of the Society. Thereafter the Secretary read a paper contributed by the Rev. Archibald Macdonald, Greenock, entitled—“Some Hebridean Singers and their Songs,” Part II. Mr Macdonald's paper was as follows :


Part II. Besides John Mac Codrum and Archibald Macdonald (Gille na Ciotaig), who, in their own particular vein, were the ablest of the Hebridean bards, there were minor luminaries in these western regions whose poems are worthy of preservation. The Uist bards are characterised by a sly and racy humour, bordering sometimes on the extravagant and grotesque, but always expressed in the happiest diction ; and even to this day, Hebrideans who practise the art of versification seem more inspired by the humorous than the sentimental elements of life.

A bard of local celebrity in his day, and one who possessed a large fund of humour, was Donald Maclean, or, as he was known among his compeers, “Domhnull Mac Eoghainn," or, from the name of the croft he occupied, “ Domhnull Bàn na Camairt,” a place in the neighbourhood of Lochmaddy. He was born at Griminish, in North Uist, during the last quarter of last century, and obtained the elements of an English education in the parish school. He could speak English well—an uncommon accomplishment for a Highland peasant in those days—but accounted for in his case by his having been sent as a youth to learn the cooper trade in Greenock, a lucrative occupation in the palmy days of sugar refining. Donald, however, did not long continue to work at the coopering. He pined to exchange the bustling energy of Sugaropolis for the more leisurely life of his beloved island, “far amid the melancholy main,” where time need not be measured by the clock, but by those chronometers of nature's provision, which the old Highlander preferred to artificial aids—“ mo shuil mo bhrù 's an coileach.” Indeed, in those days the means of intercourse between remote Highland districts and the south were so inexpeditious and rare that the journey from Uist to Greenock was far more formidable than that to America in our day, and the Lowlands were generally regarded as terribly far away. This intensified the Scottish Highlander's affection for his native strath or glen or moorland, and the attachment was often in direct ratio

to the remoteness and barreness of the natale solum. Only by bearing this in mind can we understand the strong desire expressed by a native of lochdair, South Uist, when home-sick and far away

“Na' feighinn mo leud ann am mointeach an Iochdair
'S cuideachadh siol buntàta !

Donald Maclean left Greenock for North Uist, and took up his residence on the croft of Camairt, where he reared a large family of sons and daughters. To his crofting avocations he added the employment of gamekeeper and kelp officer, and latterly of auctioneer. His wife was a Roman Catholic, and a daughter of “Fear an Dun-Ghaineachaidh,” in Benbecula, but notwithstanding the difference of faith, they lived happily together. They first met under circumstances illustrative of how times have changed. Before the days of the prevention of cruelty to animals, it was the custom to have a cock-fighting, “Cath Choileach,” in connection with every school, about the Candlemas season. The boys scoured the country in search of the conquering rooster, and the possessor of the victorious bird was king for the nonce. It was on one of these barn-door excursions that Donald first saw his wife. In after years he came back and married her; and, as her voice finds utterance in one of her husband's songs, and she is referred to in another, it is desirable that she should be mentioned here. Humour, which is sometimes fantastic, characterises Oran na Camairt," but it is apt and clever, and the language is classic in its idiomatic purity. It was composed in dispraise of “Camairt,” and the difficulties which its sterility and unproductiveness presented in the support of a large family are graphically told. In the very first verse he breathes an imprecation on the land whose nakedness he exposes, and he refers to periodical expeditions in search of the necessaries of life. His journey to Paible to purchase meal ; the niggardliness of the Macaulay from whom it was bought; the indifferent quality of the meal, and the gigantic size of the mites in which it abounded ; Donald's altercation with the wife, and, finally, their mutual pledging of one another in mogan, and the discovery of third cousinship under its mellowing influence, are all told. It is sung to the same melody as Mac Codrum’s “ Oran a Bhonn-a-sia.”

Mile molachd dɔ 'Chamairt
Seach aon fhearann an Alba !
'S ann a dh'fhag i mi direach,
'Na mo shineadh an ainmheach,

Ged a dheanainn a churachd,
Cha'n fhas ach buinteag a's sealbhag ;
'S bi mi bharr air an t-Samhuinn
Air uiread caillich a dh'arbhar.

Chorus-Haoi-o-baoiri, horo-hall,

Haoi-o-baoiri, horo-hall,
Haoi-o-haoiri, horo-hall,
'S mairg a thachair 's an aite,
Far nach àraichear clann.

Tigh 'n as aonais na mine,
Cha'n fhaod gillean bhi meamnach ;
Ann a' freasdal bhuntata,
'S gun 's a' bhlar dheth ach meanbhlach :
Ged a rachainn do ’n traigh dhoibh,
Ni na bairnich am marbhadh ;
'S a dhol 'g am ghearain ri Bailidh,
Gur beag stath tha 'nam sheanchas.

Haoi-o, &c.

Tha mo cheann-sa air liathadh
'S gur e 'm biadh a dh'fhag ann e;
'S iomadh taigh n' dean mi, “ Dia so !"
Dol 'ga' iarraidh 's an t-Samhradh ;
Nuair a leumas an t-Samhuinn,
A falbh gu baile Chloinn Aulaidh ;
Iad dhomhsa ruladh a bharraich,
'S iad fein ag arrach air cabhraich !

Sud na fir a bhios moiteal
Ni iad fortan am bliadhna ;
Ma 's e eorna no coirce
Gheibh iad ochd sgillin deug air :
Bi na bodaich ri mogan,
'S cha bhi sogan 'ga dheanamh ;
'S far an càirear am pige,
Cha tig driog as le fialachd.

Turus thug mi do Phabuill,
Gu h-airtneulach cearbach,
Dol a dh'iarraidh na ceannachd,
Ann a meadhoin na h-aimsreach ;

Poc' a dh'fhianagan lachdunn !
Mi fein a's m'each air ar marbhadh,
Mi gan iomain le bata,
Chuid nach fanadh 's a' bhalg dhiubh.

Mile molachd do Ruairi,
'S gu'm a buan sud mu 'Shealbhan ;
Ged a gheibhte' rud uaithe,
Righ! bu chruaidh e mu bhargan :
Boineid ghlas air a' fiaradh,
Air de cheud bhadhar Fhearchair,
'S gu'm be 'n cùineadh 'g a' fhaighneachd,
Air neo line Ailein Chamshroin.

’N am bhi tomhas bhuntata,
Mu'n robh lan anns a' chliabh dheth,
'S ann a labhair a chailleach,
Aig an teine gu fiadhaich,
“ Tha thu nis air fas gorach,
'Nuair bu choir dhuit bhi crionna
”Toirt do chodach do Dhombull,
'S e cheart cho seolta ri Iamhar.”.

“ Eisd a bhorrasach shalach,
'S maith a b'aithne dhomh riamh thu,
C'uim’ nach fanadh tu samhach,
'S gu'n do phaigh mi na dh'iarr thu ?
Ach chuir an donas glas lamh ort,
Mar bhios meairleach an iarrunn;
'S ged a tha thu shiol Adhamh,
Tha thu grannd air do dheanamh.”

“ Cum fo riaghailt do theanga
'S gheibh thu barrachd 's a dh'iarr thu ;"
Fhuair i botal a's gloine,
'S bha i ealamh 'gan iarraidh :
Dh' ol i sud air mo shlainte,
Lom-lan gus an iochdar,
'S nuair a shloinneadh an cairdeas,

B’ i fein 's mo mhathair an t-iar-ogh In his song to Iain Ruadh Valegui, Donald still complains of the “ Camairt,” but hopes for better times. His senior in estate employment might drop off, and Donald would succeed him in

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