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NUTS AND NUTTING. I.
land we meet with hedges or coppices of hazel, or
The soil which produces the most plentiful growth
of these trees is that which is somewhat mossy, and Where on a “sunshine holiday" I strayed,
retentive of moisture; but they are found likewise in Plucking the ripening nuts with eager glee,
high and mountainous situations, and on a sandy or Which from the hazel boughs hung temptingly.
TWADLEY. even rocky soil. Evelyn speaks of their prospering
where quarries of freestone lie underneath, and cites Many of our readers probably look back with plea- three examples, i.e., Hazelmere, in Surry; Hazel. sure on the expeditions of their early youth, when, bury, in Wiltshire; and Hazelingfield, in Cambridgewith friends that time and change may now have shire. If suffered to attain their full growth in a severed from them, they set out to the woods for a favourable situation, hazles will sometimes shoot out day's "nutting." Duly prepared for an encounter poles to the length of twenty feet; but they are with briars and brambles, bearing on the shoulder usually cut down before this length has been attained, the long nutting crook and ample wallet, they may and applicd to the various purposes which we shali have passed many a happy hour in exploring woods presently mention. and intricate paths, and making their way through The hazel, from its shrubby and inferior growth all the difficulties presented by thorny brakes and scarcely deserves to rank as a forest tree: we find it, beds of matted fern, until they reached some untrod- however, universally described as such, and, indeed, den nook, surrounded with hazel bushes, where they the agreeableness of its fruit, and the usefulness of were repaid for all their toil by finding a rich harvest its wood go far to compensate for its dwarfish appearof nuts. The excitement attending these excursions, It is also a very early and pleasing herald of the search, sometimes a long protracted one, ere a the spring's approach; the yellowish-green catkins favourable spot is discovered, the cool shades that presenting perhaps the earliest symptom of vegetable are explored, the perfect liberty that is enjoyed by expansion in the month of January, when they geneall the party, the separations in quest of fruitful trees, rally begin to unfold. The fruit-bearing buds do not the unexpected meetings when each thought he had show themselves till the latter end of February, or chosen a distinct path, the rural meal enjoyed beneath the beginning of March, when they burst, and dissome aged oak, where moss and harebells form the closing the bright crimson of their shafts, look carpeting on which the weary party reposes, -all extremely beautiful. Then these things make a day spent in nutting one of the
Hazel-buds with crimson gems, pleasantest and merriest days of the year to young
Green and glossy sallows, people, and one of the most agreeable to look back and various other indications of the approach of the on when youth has passed away.
genial season delight the eyes of those who are sighAs the period of the year has nearly arrived when ing for the days of warm sunshine, gentle airs, and these pleasures may be and will be enjoyed by num sweet flowers. bers of our young friends, we propose to offer them The hazel is known by its shrubby habit, by its some account of the trees and fruit they so much broad leafy husks, much lacerated and spreading at admire, with the improved varieties obtained by cul- the point, by its roundish heart-shaped leaves, and tivation, and several interesting particulars respecting rough light-coloured bark. Its wood is of close and the history of these trees, and of the insects by which even grain, and the roots beautifully veined. Of the they are infested.
agreeable flavour of the fruit we have hardly need to The botanical name of the common hazel-nut is speak. The nuts abound with a mild oil, which may Corylus Avellana, The word corylus is from the Greek, be extracted by expression.
On account of the preand significs a bonnet or helmet: the Roman name sence of this oil nuts are often found injurious to of Avellana was added on account of the abundant weak stomachs, particularly the common hazel-nut, growth of the hazel in the neighbourhood of Avellino, which contains a much larger proportion of it than a city of Southern Italy, where, in good years, the the filbert. They are likewise considered to be diffi. profit resulting to the inhabitants from these trees cult of digestion, and therefore should be eaten was said to be 60,000 ducats. We have still to sparingly. inquire the derivation of the common name, hazel. The uses of the hazel arc many: the roots afford This appears to come from hæsil, the Saxon term for beautiful wood for inlaying; the suckers and branches a head-dress, so that the English, as well as the Greek form walking-sticks, fishing-rods, stakes, hurdles, term, bears allusion to the peculiar growth of the hoops, panniers, and baskets. Excellent charcoal is green calyx of the nut, which shields and envelopes obtained from the wood, and artists are thus supplied the fruit in the same way that a helmet or bonnet with crayons, which are preferred to all others, for protects the head.
the freedom of the strokes produced, and the ease The hazel is a native of all the cooler parts of with which they can be erased. Chips of hazel-wood Europe, Northern Asia, and North America, and from are said to purify muddy wine, in the space of twentyit arc derived all the numerous varieties of nuts and four hours. The nuts are so agreeable to most filberts now in cultivation. That it is indigenous to palates that immense quantities are consumed every our island there can be little doubt: it seems to have year: nay so great is the demand for this fruit that been especially prevalent in the northern parts of the the produce of our own woods is insufficient to meet kingdom, for Sir William Temple says, “ The north- | it, and more than a hundred thousand bushels of west part was called CAL-DUN, signifying hills of foreign nuts are annually imported. Nuts form the hazel, with which it was covered, from which the favourite food of the squirrel, who lays up a hoard Romans, forming an easy and pleasant sound from every year for winter use, and carefully selects the what was harsh to their classical ear, gave it the best he can find for that purpose. The oil obtained name of CALEDONIA." Hazel-wood and nuts are from nuts is sometimes used by painters for mixing frequently found in the peat-bogs of that country, their colours. and some of the latter have even vegetated, notwith Before we proceed to notice the superstitious cusstanding the length of time which they have probably toms connected with the hazel, we must mention two remained in the bogs. In almost every part of Eng- or three foreign species, as distinguished by botanists. ,
Corylus rostrata, or the horned hazel-nut, is a species And if this be true, as it is, then why should the vulgar inhabiting the mountains of the Carolinas. Even so familiarly affirm that eating nuts causeth shortness of when cultivated, it seldom exceeds four feet in height, breath? than which nothing is falser. For how can that and is otherwise known from the common hazel by confess the opinion is far older than I am: I knew tradition
which strengthens the lungs cause shortness of breath ? I the comparative smoothness of the bark, the different
was friend to error before, but never that he was the father shape of the leaves, which are oblong instead of heart- of slander; or are men's tongues so given to slandering shaped, and the globular form of the husks. Corylus one another that they must slander nuts too, to keep their colurna, the Constantinople nut, is a white-barked tongues in use ? If anything of the hazel-nut be stopping, tree, twenty feet in height, with an erect trunk and it is the husks and shells, and nobody is so mad to eat spreading head. The leaves of this tree are shining, kernel you may easily pull off.
them except physically; and the red skin which covers the
And so thus have I made much less wrinkled than those of our hazel, heart
an apology for nuts, which cannot speak for themselves. shaped, and slightly hairy on the under surface. The branches are destitute of glands, the husks are bell-shaped, and the nuts roundish and very hard.
THE INFLUENCE OF FLOWERS. It seldom produces nuts in this climate.
There are The interest which flowers have excited in the breast two other species of hazel, found in the Himalaya of man, from the earliest ages to the present day, has mountains, not very different from those already never been confined to any particular class of society, mentioned: one is named Corylus lacera, the other or quarter of the globe. Nature seems to have Corylus ferox.
scattered them over the world, as a medicine to the Among the many charms or superstitious customs mind, to give cheerfulness to the earth, and furnish connected with the vigil of All Saints' Day, the burn- agreeable sensations to its inhabitants. ing of nuts is one, and Allhallows Eve has therefore The savage of the forests, in the joy of his heart, acquired in some places the name of nut-crack night. binds his brow with the native flowers of his woods, These practices are more common perhaps in Scot- whilst their cultivation increases in every country in land than among ourselves; but even in remote parts proportion as the blessings of civilization extend. of England we find many vestiges of those ancient Of all luxurious indulgences, that of flowers is the customs, the original forms of which have been pre- most innocent, they are of all embellishments the sented to us by Brand, and other writers. The vain most beautiful, and of all created beings, man alone wish to penetrate the secrets of futurity, and to dis seems capable of deriving enjoyment from them, cover how much of good or ill is likely to be blended which commences with his infancy, remains the dein the lot, is the natural feeling of every uninstructed light of his youth, increases with his years, and bemind, and in proportion to the ignorance which pre comes the quiet amusement of his age. Every rank vails in any particular country or district is the im- of people seem equally to enjoy flowers as a gratificaportance attached to customs such as we are alluding tion to the organs of sight and smell; but to the to. The burning of nuts on Allhallows' Eve is a very botanist, and the close observer of nature, beauties are favourite charm, and according to the manner in unfolded and wonders displayed that cannot be conwhich they burn, the happiness or misery of many an ceived by the careless attention of the multitude, who affianced pair is foretold. the nuts, when they are regard these ornaments of nature
wild or savago placed on the fire, burn quietly side by side with a persons would do a watch: they are dazzled with the steady flame, the persons represented by them are to splendour of the case and the beauty of the appendbe faithful to each other, and lead a happy life; if a ages, but look no further, because they know not nut cracks, or starts from the fire, the youth or dam- where to look. The artist, while he enjoys the extersel whose name it bears is to prove untrue, or the nal covering, looks into the interior, and as he regards marriage to prove unfortunate. This old custom has the movements and learns the various uses, he is struck been noticed in the following lines:
with admiration at the ingenuity of the mechanism.
The botanist has the same delight when he looks into ON NUT-BURNING, ALLHALLOWS' EVE,
the blossoms of flowers; for he there beholds the wonThese glowing nuts are emblems true Of what in human life we view;
derful works of the Almighty with amazement—there The ill-matched couple fret and fume,
he sees movements and regulations, with which all the And thus in strife themselves consume;
combined ingenuity of man cannot compare. Or, from each other wildly start,
Flowers have ever been the favourite embellishment And with a noise for ever part.
of the fair in all ages and countries. They have been But see the liappy happy pair
made the happy accompaniment of bridal parties, and Of genuine love and truth sincere; With mutual fondness while they burn,
they have likewise been made the representatives of Still to each other kindly turn:
regard to deceased friends—thus ornamenting alike And as the vital sparks decay,
the joyous altar and the silent tomb. Flowers have Together gently sink away:
also formed a principal feature in symbolical language, Till life's fierce ordeal being past,
which is the most ancient as well as the most natural Their mingled ashes rest at last. -GRAYDON.
of all written languages. The above is but one out of the many superstitions The fondness for plants is natural to all men who respecting hazel-nuts. It was formerly affirmed that possess the least sensibility; and however their attenthe oil contained in the kernels was an antidote for tion may be engaged by other pursuits, it generally poison; that by means of wands made of hazel divi- happens that this predilection shows itself during some nations could be performed, subterraneous treasures period of their lives. Nature seems to have designed discovered, &c., &c. On this subject we refer our men for the culture of her works, and to have ordained readers to the ninth volume of the Saturday Magazine, that we should be born gardeners, since our earliest p. 36. We cannot conclude without noticing old Cul- inclinations lead us to the cultivation of flowers. The peper's warm vindication of hazel-nuts from the infant can no sooner walk than its first employment charge of being unwholesome. After recommending is to plant a flower in the earth, removing it ten times the milky juice of the kernels with mead or honey- | in an hour to wherever the sun seems to shine more water as a remedy for a cough, (or, if it be preferred, favourably. The schoolboy, in the care of his little an electuary made of the kernels themselves,) he plot of ground, lessens the anxious thoughts of the
home he has left. In manhood our attention is genesays
rally demanded by more active and imperious duties ; ; borders of their little plots. The well-known lilacbut, as age obliges us to retire from public business, tree, and the old cabbage rose-bush, start up in the the love of gardening returns to soothe our declining picture; whilst the quince-tree, or the wide spreading years.
The truth of this is daily made manifest to us medlar, presents itself to the memory, as half hiding by the fact that those persons devote themselves the well repaired sty, which we ever wish to regard as to gardening, whose busy occupations in other pur- forming the pride of the industrious cottager. suits we should have thought must have given a dis These momentary visions bring the harmony of taste for this quiet employment.
the poets to our recollection, and we are almost ready We shall notice some of the advantages which are to exclaim, derived from a fondness for this pursuit. First, it That hut is mine; that cottage half embowered attaches men to their homes; and on this account With modest jesaamine, and that sweet spot
Of garden ground, where, ranged in neat array, every encouragement should be given to increase a
Grew countless sweets, the wall-flower and the pink. taste for gardening, in general, in country towns and
And the thick thyme-bush, even that is mine: villages. It is a recreation which conduces materially
And the old mulberry that shades the court to health, considerably promotes civilization, and
Has been my joy from very childhood up! softens the manners and tempers of men: it creates
KIRKE WAITE. a love of the study of nature, which leads to a contemplation of the mysterious wonders that are dis- Mitford, who says :
On this subject we may justly use the lines of Miss played in the vegetable world around us; and these
"Twere hard to sing thy varying charm, cannot be investigated without bending the mind to
Thou cottage, mansion, village, farm, wards a just sense of religion, and a due acknowledge
Thou beautiful epitome ment of the narrow limits of our intelligence, com
Of all that useful is and rare, pared with the incomprehensible power and wisdom of
Where comfort sits with smiling air, God. Addison observes that “it gives us a great in
And laughing hospitality. sight into the contrivance and wisdom of Providence,
[Puillips, Flora Historica.] and suggests innumerable subjects for meditation. : I cannot," says he,“ but thivk the very complacency Ler not seducing dreams leave us a prey to ambitious and and satisfaction which a man takes in these works of disappointing desires at our awakening. It is in the sphere nature, to be a laudable, if not a virtuous habit of where Providence has placed us that we must search for mind."
the means or being useful; and if there are pleasures which In the flower-garden, the student in chemistry will belong only to opulence, there are others which can best be find how imperfect is his art in comparison with natu- found in mediocrity. Perhaps, in giving ourselves riches,
we shall realize but half the dream of virtue and contentral chemistry, which distils from the earth, and con
ment. " It seems to me," says Plato, “ that gold and virtue veys by distinct channels, in the smallest stem, all that
were placed in the opposite scales of a balance; that we cannot is necessary to produce foliage flowers, and fruit, throw an additional weight into one scale, without subtracttogether with colour, smell, and taste; the most oppo- ing an equal amount from the other."-D. site fluids and liquids being separated only by divisions, so delicate ao scarcely to be deemed as substance.
Among the obstacles which are at war with our repose, one The research into the wonders displayed in vegetation of the greatest, and at the same time the most frivolous, is may be entered into without hurting the sensibility of instead of becoming calmly sufficient to ourselves.-D.
the fatal necessity of becoming of importance to others, the most tender feelings, ás plants and roots may be dissected without those disagreeable sensations which I can conceive that a depraved man will commit fewer follow the dissection of animals.
faults, in yielding to the caprices of opinion, than in ahanAmongst the delights of the garden, the pleasure of doning himself to his own errors. There are cruel passions presenting fowers to our friends is not the lcast. and shameful vices, which he reproves even in the midst Bouquets of flowers may be safely presented, to ac of his aberrations; but in so doing he gives to falsehood the knowledge obligations, or to show respect, where, in
name of politeness, and to cowardice the title of prudence. many instances, any other return for favours received His
favourite inculcation is the terror of ridicule; whereas,
to form true men, it is indispensable that this precept would appear impertinent, or look like a desire to be should be engraven on their hearts- Fear nothing but discharged of the obligation conferred on us. They remorse.-D. are a kind of present that may be made between equals and mutual friends to show regard, and that may also A VIRTUE which at least commends the esteem of our fellow be made by the poorest peasant girl to the richest creatures is integrity. Not only is he who practises it peeress of the realm without fear of offence.
faithful to his engagements, since he allows no promises of To those who are confined to the metropolis, or
his to be held slight, but his uprightness makes itself felt
in all his actions, and frankness in all his conversation. other large cities or towns, where they are debarred The faults that he commits he is prompt to acknowledge; from the enjoyment of a garden, a basket of flowers he confesses them without false shame, and seeks neither of the season is received as one of the most agreeable to exaggerate nor extenuate them. Touching the interests presents; and when these are known to be the pro- which are common to him and other people, he decides for duce of the parterres over which we gambolled in our simple justice; and, in so awarding, does not deem that he childhood, or presided in our youth, the gift becomes injures himself
, his first possession being his own self
respect. Without rendering me high services, he obliges doubly acceptable: they picture to the imagination
me in the lesser charities, and procures me one of the most happy scenes of our younger days, and throw present vivid pleasures I can taste, -that of contemplating a noble cares aside, to recall to our“mind's eye” the minutiæ character.-D. of the garden: each border seems to arise fresh to our ideas; each clump of pinks, each bower of woodbines, I HAVE often observed that resignation is never so perfect and each bank of violets, are instantly pourtrayed to as when the blessing denied begins to lose somewhat of its
value in our estimation. our memory
These are frequently accompanied by other recollections, which seem to present us with a momentary
LONDON: sight of some kind and benevolent friend; the good
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. nurse of our infancy, or some favourite domestic of PUBLISHED IN WELKLYNUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTIQ our youth; our fancy pictures them between the
Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kiogdom.
The church consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, details of different dates, the middle and side aisles
NAJAM TAHOTA CHT
tinham st iz 1979.95 O ESTE
92 9755 NO 527.
Goin BTT s per SEPTEMBER
15 TONE PENNY. LOUTH CHURCH, LINCOLNSHIRE. Louth Church, in the eastern part of Lincolnshire, is the west end. At the east end-the one shown in one of the finest examples which England presents of our cut—is a large central window of seven lights, the style of architecture prevalent shortly before the with very beautiful tracery, and two lateral windows, Reformation; and it is further remarkable from the admitting light into the side aisles: the tracery work fact that scarcely any of the stone of this building is of the large window is well relieved by a pair of niched to be found in that part of the country, so that the and canopied buttresses; and the whole is finished parties who built it, notwithstanding their limited at the top by an angular point, supporting a fleury funds, had to send to a considerable distance for
The exterior of the sides of the church are building materials. The body of the church is sup- now rather plain; although there appear to have posed to have been built about the middle of the been originally figures of saints placed in appropriate fifteenth century; and the tower, which is much niches ; the walls are embattled, and have numerous superior to it, somewhat later, probably in the reigns crocketed pinnacles. of Richard the Third and Henry the Seventh.
The interior of the church exhibits architectural
Before the book was missing, some
the chancel appears to have been erected at the same
filled up with bold relief and the outward period as the steeple. The nave is separated from the edges are adorned with crockets similar to those of aisles by octagonal columns, the alternate sides of the spire. which are relieved by single flutes; and the pointed Such is the church of St. James at Louth, and the arches between the columns are groined by arcs of reader will judge from the description, that it is a circles whose centres are the opposite imposts. Above beautiful specimen of architectural skill. Who were the pillars is a range of windows, which admit light the parties by whom the expense of the erection was to the top of the middle aisle. The chancel, which, defrayed not now well known; but a document as we have observed, is rather more modern than the which, though now probably lost, has fortunately other part of the body of the church, is divided into been partially copied into the Archæologia, affords us a middle and side aisles by means of pillars : each of some curious information respecting the details of these pillars is composed of four circular shafts, expense incurred during the erection. The book to forming a quatrefoil, connected at the corners by a which we here allude was a M.S., written, it is supcove, and their bases rest upon very high plinths, posed, by an inhabitant of the town of Louth, and surrounded by fascia.
containing many details respecting the antiquities of But by far the most attractive feature of this church the church and other parts of the town. Its existence is the tower, with the spire with which it is sur can be traced back to the year 1688, after which time mounted, and which is one of the loftiest in England. it was sometimes kept in the “paryshe cheste," and The entire steeple may be considered as consisting of at other times lent out to enterteyne" the inhabitfour parts,-a tower, divided into three stages, and a ants. The last notice found of the book is in a spire. The whole steeple is supported by its four parish entry, to the following effect:corners, consisting on the outside of similar but
“Mem. June 16, 1734. The parish clerk stands chargetresses, two at each angle. Each inside corner of able with Imprs, among other things these abutments swells into an elegant clustered three Item. A book giving account of the edifices and build. quarter pillar, resting on a plinth about four feet ings of the church and steeple, &c., and curiosities thereof." high, and surrounded with double fascias. From the
of the inhabit. capitals of these pillars spring four pointed arches, ants took extracts from it, and one of these extracts which meet in the centre : one of these arches forms was procured by Sir Joseph Banks, and inserted in the western entrance to the church ; another forms a the tenth volume of the Archæologia. communication between the steeple and the body of The extract from this old book gives the prices paid the church; and the remaining two are seen exter for stone, the price of carriage from the “ quarrell" nally, and are open as high as the side aisles, the (quarry) to Louth, the wages of workmen, and space above being occupied as windows.
numerous other items, of which we will here give a Above the arches which terminate the lower stage few of such sort as will illustrate the difference in or story of the steeple is a gallery extending round the commercial value of labour and materials at that it, at a height of fifty-three feet from the floor, time, as compared with that of the present day. and guarded by a balustrade of tracery-work. The
s. d. second story now commences, and is about thirty. Item, paid to William Nettleton for riding to the quarrell to buy three feet in height, having eight large regular pointed
stone for the steeple, and for to get a master mason to take charge of the said steeple, four days....
2 0 windows to light the interior, two on each side: these Item, paid to John Cole, master masoa, and to William Johnwindows are separated from each other, at the corners
son, riding to the quarrell for to buy stone for the steeple.. 3 4
Itein, paid to William Thomas, to fetch him divers things.... 0 10 and middle of the sides, by shafts and cornice-work : liem, paid for packthread, glue, and nails .. and from these shafts spring diagonal ribbed arches, Mem. That master master and William Johnson bought stone
at the quarrell of Roger Hawking and Edmund Shepherd, which support a beautiful dome-shaped summit to
100 fooi, price a foot 21d.; and to William Camworih 100 this part of the steeple. We have now reached a foot, price a foot 21d.; also to John Glover, for eight load of height of about eighty-eight feet above the ground;
great stone, 3s. 4d : and also to the said master and William
for their costs 3s. 4d. and at this point a gallery, guarded by a parapet, runs round the exterior of the steeple : above this
It appears that at one time the master master is the third stage of the steeple, which adds about quarrelled with his employers, for there is the followsixty feet more to its height, with two highly or
ing entry :namented windows in each face, surmounted by Item, paid Lawrence Mason for riding to his master in North crocketed canopies in bold relief. Here, at a height
Country, to ask him whether he would make cntry of the
steeple, and he said he would deal no more with it, but he of one hundred and forty-seven feet above the ground, showed his councel terminates the tower by a series of battlements, each | Item, William Walker and Lawrence Mason, riding to Boston side of which is pierced by embrasures.
to speak with master master to make end of steeple 2 0 Above the tower is the delicate spire, shooting up The details are exceedingly minute and curious to a height nearly equal to that of the tower itself, so but the above will be a sufficient sample of them. that the total height from the ground to the summit The stone employed seems to have cost from two to of the spire is very little short of three hundred feet. three-pence per cubic foot : lime and mortar about The spire is octangular ; and four of its sides are sixpence per bushel : one yew-tree from the abbot's connected with the corner turrets by spandrels or grounds, three and four-pence, with about a shilling flying buttresses of light and elegant workmanship. more for felling, carting, &c. : twenty-four fathoms of In the remaining four faces, opposite to the four great cable, to wind up the stones, sixteen shillings. cardinal points, are small pointed windows, and the The entire expense of the steeple amounted to about edge of each face is ornamented with crockets, which three hundred pounds. The account book also states contribute much to the decorated appearance of the the weight and value of several bells wbich were placed spire. The buttresses at the four corners of the in the steeple, and the sum paid to one William Foster tower contract as they advance in lieight, still pre for “ riding to the bell-maker at Nottingham to see serving the fine proportion between their several the bells cast." parts: at each contraction the preceding or lower The original spire was blown down on the 11th of stage terminates with elegant pediments supported by October, 1634, and the present one erected under grotesque projecting corbels: these pediments are each the direction of Thomas Turner, at an expense of only formed by two graceful curves, the compartments of 1351.