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battalions firing on each other from the two ends of the returned to France. He was received with acclamations: same street; cannons sweeping off a whole line of persons; and both parties immediately began to court his assistance muskets fired from windows, house-tops, churches, bridges, against the others. He however had plans of his own, which &c.; these marked the whole of this dreadful night, for the he fully succeeded in carryirig, through the aid of Siéyes, contest did not cease until 6 o'clock on the morning of the who was in his interest. On the 9th of November, 1799, day following. The result was a complete victory on the part the seat of legislature was, by some specious argument of the troops belonging to the convention, and the insur- used by Buonaparte's emissaries, removed from the Tuileries gent party were not able to prevent the passing of an to St. Cloud, six miles from Paris. On the following day, act relating to the new constitution. The national conven therefore, the council of five hundred met at St. Cloud; tion, which had sat for three years, then dissolved itself, and soon afterwards received a letter from Legarde, secreafter having been the instrument and the object, by turns, i tary to the directory, stating that four of its members had of some of the most extraordinary events that are re serit resignations of their offices, and that the fifth (Barras) corded in history. Its last legislative act was a commend, was in custody by order of general Buonaparte, who had able one, so far as it went; viz., the granting of an universal been appointed commander of their guard by the council pardon for political offences ;-this meant, not that they of ancients. While the members were deliberating, would allow the royalists to return to France, but that those Buonaparte entered the hall, attended by about twenty engaged in the late tumults should not be further punished, officers and grenadiers; and advanced towards the chair,
where his brother Lucien sat as president. Great con, ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTORY.
fusion ensued: he was branded with the epithets of a We now enter on a new stage in the history of Paris ; Cromwell, a Cæsar, an usurper: the members began to viz., that in which the legislative powers were vested in a press upon him; and one of them attempted to stab him. council of five hundred, and a council of ancients, while the Lucien Buonaparte then left the chair, and cast aside the executive was administered by a directory of Gye.
badge which he wore as a member of the council. The conThe directory were to remain in office five years, one fusion did not diminish: a party of armed men rushed in, going out in the May of each year; the council of five hun. and carried off Lucien. A tumultuous debate began, in dred, which was something similar to the English house of which it was proposed that Buonaparte should be declared commons, nominated fifty persons, each person to be not an outlaw; when suddenly the doors of the hall were burst less than forty years of age; and from this number the open,---military music was heard,-a body of troops entered council of ancients selected five to be the directors, of whom the hall
, and dispersed the members. In the evening a one was secretary. The members of the legislative body select number of the council of ancients met by their own were elected for three years, one-third to go out each authority, and voted that the grenadiers, who had made a year. It followed from these arrangements, that the spring rampart of their bodies around the commander-in-chief, of each year witnessed a violent contest between opposite had deserved well of the country. A committee of five parties for the attainment of supremacy. About this time was formed to consider of measures of public safety. At was established the National Institute of France, an assembly eleven o'clock, Boulay de la Meurthe, appearing as their of the most distinguished scientific and literary men of the reporter, declared the radical defects of the existing concountry: this institute still exists, and numbers among its stitution; and the council, after decreeing the abolition of members some of the most eminent men in Europe, the directory, vested the powers of the state in Buonaparte,
It was not until May, 1797, that the directory again felt Şiéyes, and Roger Ducos, under the title of Consuls. the power of the Jacobin faction; for in the interval, the almost unexampled successes of Buonaparte in different
FORCIBLE APPOINTMENT OF THE CONSULATE, UNDER parts of Europe had so much flattered the feelings of the
BUONAPARTE. French, that they seem to have had no wish for civil disturb Thus ended the directory, after having been at the head ance. But the time had now arrived when one-third of the of affairs from October, 1795, to November, 1799, In representatives were to give up their seats, and one of the December, 1799, a new constitution was presented to the directors to retire. The new ihird was composed of men chambers, dictated according to the ambitious views of almost wholly hostile to the directory, and headed by generals Buonaparte. There was in it a show of popular representaJourdan and Pichegru, who had distinguished themselves tion; but in fact all real power was vested in Buonaparte, by their military deeds. Barthelemy was elected as the who was chosen consul for a period of ten years. new director, and he and Carnot were for peace; while As soon as that extraordinary man found the manageBarras and the remaining two directors were for con ment of the kingdom to be in his own hand, he proceeded tinuing the war in which France was engaged. There to make many changes, some for the better, others for the ensued violent debates in the two houses of legislature:
The system of peculation and squandering of the it was found that the directors had put into their own public money by officials was done away; and the laws relatpockets a large amount of the national wealth: this was ing to emigrants were ameliorated. Buonaparte placed the first time that such a charge had been brought men of ability in all the public departments, and endeathroughout the revolution. There was now a general wish voured, as much as he could, to conciliate different parties. to get rid of Barras, Reubel, and Lepaux, the three ob From this period, Buona parte was alternately engaged in poxious directors; and they would in all probability have the internal government of the kingdom, and in those been deposed, had they not, in violation both of the spirit extraordinary military exploits which contributed so much and the letter of the new constitution, secretly ordered to make him a favourite among the French people. In generals Hoche and Augereau to bring their armies to February, 1804, Paris was agitated by a plot formed for the Paris. On the 4th of September, Augereau, with twelve overthrow of the consular government. In this plot, Pichethousand troops, invested the ball of assembly: he affixed gru and Moreau were implicated, together with other perhis seal upon the doors of the place of meeting of the couneil sons of less note; but the position of Buonaparte was by of ancients, and planted a battery in front of it; while this time so consolidated, that the conspiracy was rendered general Lemoine proceeded with another body of troops to completely nugatory, overawe the council of five-hundred. The result was, that Buonaparte brought down upon him the indignation of all the three directors obtained a complete triumph over their good men about this period, by the execution of the Duke cnemies; Carnot and Barthelemy, unquestionably the two d'Enghien, a distinguished member of the deposed royal most conscientious members of the directory, were driven family. The duke was suddenly seized, in the duchy of ignominiously from France; and a large number of the Baden, by some of Buonaparte's cavalry, who had crossed deputies who were hostile to Barras, were, by a glaring the Rhine for that purpose ; hurried to Paris,-a distance of violation of the new constitution, declared ineligible, and a four hundred miles,--and tried and condemned to death on legislative body was collected, almost wholly subservient to the same day that he arrived. He was led out by torchBarras.
light into the wood of Vincennes, near Paris, to be shot. The year 1799 witnessed similar scenes to those which It was proposed to bind a handkerchief oser bis eyes; but had before occurred, arising out of a new election, Siêyes, he prevented it, saying, A loyal soldier, who has often a man of considerable influenee, was now chosen one of the been exposed to fire and sword, can face death with open directors; and the legislative chambers received large acces eyes, and without fear." He then looked at the soldiers sions of men holding violent or republican prineiples. In a who had levelled their pieces, saying, “Grenadiers, lower very few months it became evident that a fierce struggle for your arms, otherwise you will miss or only wound me." the mastery would soon ensue. Just at this time, Buona of the nine who fired, seven hit him: two bullets pierced parte, who had been foiled in Egypt, and who perceived that his head, and five his body.Thus perished the brave son his ambition was likely to be gratified at Paris, suddenly of the Duc de Bourbon.
BUONAPARTE'S ASSUMPTION OF IMPERIAL DIGNITY.
allies on the throne which he inherited from his brother : but
the army was dissatisfied at losing the successful commander The next important event in which the Parisians were who had so often conducted them to battle; and certain especially engaged, was the assumption of the title of em internal regulations which Louis made in the government peror by Buonaparte. The first public step towards this end of France were not of a kind to conciliate the Parisian peowas taken on the 27th of March, when the senate presented ple. It was this feeling of discontent which enabled Buonaan address to Buonaparte, entreating him to accept the title parte, after escaping from Elba in the month of February, of hereditary emperor of France. Buonaparte of course re 1815, to recover his former popularity in France in an turned a fitting answer; and on the 1st of May it was almost incredibly short space of time. He entered Paris proposed in the tribunate that a law should be passed to in a sort of triumph on the 20th of March,—the king and that effect. On the 18th, the law was passed, and a depu- his adhérents tled, -and in a few days, the new order of tation proceeded to St. Cloud, to present an address of con things was almost wholly overturned. The events which gratulation to Buonaparte and to his wife Josephine. followed this return to Paris, and which terminated with
Every arrangement was soon made for converting France the battle of Waterloo, are beyond our present purpose. from a republic to an empire; thus presenting to the rest Suffice it to say that, on the 22nd of June, Buonaparte, in of Europe the striking spectacle of a nation first deposing a proclamation addressed to the French nation, resigned and murdering a king, and some years afterwards submit the crown, and declared his son emperor, under the title ting to call by the name of "emperor" a man who had of Napoleon the Second: the latter part of this declaration, raised himself to pote by being a successful soldier! On however, was of no effect, for on the 7th of July, Louis the the 19th November, 1804, Buonaparte was crowned emperor Eighteenth again took possession of the throne, and Buona. of France in the cathedral of Notre Dame. The pope was parte was sent to St. Helena. summoned from Rome to perform the ceremony; and many Thus ended a period of twenty-six years, unexampled in of the petty princes of Europe, were required to assist. the history of nations for the importance of the events which
Mighty warlike events followed, until the year 1810, marked it, and which may be mentioned in the following when peace was proclaimed. Buonaparte showed that he order:—The assembly of the states-general in May, 1789:could sacrifice the tenderest ties to his ambition. Josephine, the assumption by the tiers état of the name of national the empress, was divorced from him, in order that he
assembly, in the following June :-the destruction of the might marry the archduchess Maria Louisa, daughter of Bastille, in July:-the compulsory removal of the king from the emperor of Austria. This marriage was celebrated at Versailles to the Tuileries, in October; and the successive Paris on the 10th of March, 1810.
approaches towards democracy made in the national assemWe come now to the year 1814, when the allies, having bly during the next two years:—the king's vain attempt at beaten Buonaparte at every point, advanced towards the flight from Paris, in June, 1791, followed by his acceptance city of Paris. The loss of life among the French soldiery of the new constitution in September:—the appointment of had been so prodigious, that the Parisians became some the legislative assembly, in October :-lhe attack on the what disheartened, and no longer felt for Buonaparte that Tuileries, August, 1792, and the still more serious one in enthusiasm which had so long distinguished them. Besides September, followed by the committal of the royal family this, the troops which the emperor had left to protect the to the temple :—the first meeting of the national convention, city were both inconsiderable in number, and insufficiently and the establishment of a republic, September 21st:armed. On the 30th of March, a severe action was fought the executions of the king, queen, &c., throughout the year near Montmartre, Belle Ville, and other places near Paris : 1793:-the fall of Robespierre, July, 1794:—the superseding the French displayed their wonted bravery and courage, of the national convention by the directory, in October, but it was impossible longer to oppose the immense force 1795:-the rise of the military glory of Napoleoni, and the brought against them; and the allies entered Paris.
assumption by him of consular power, in November, 1799: Then ensued the train of political events which terminated -the further assumption of the title of emperor, in May, in the consignment of Buonaparte to the island of Elba as a 1804:—and the almost incessant train of military operationis sort of state prisoner, and the entry of Louis the Eighteenth, for eleven years following that event;-constituted a series brother of Louis the Sixteenth, into Paris, which latter of events which at various times completely overturned the erent took place May 3rd, 1814. Louis was placed by the political and social systems of Europe.
According to the ancient geography we learn that is to describe more particularly that part of the mounthe Peneus, a river of Thessaly, rose on Mount tain-range near the village of Kalabaki, which presents Pindus, and fell into the Thermean Gulf after a wan to the eye a number of rocky, vertical promontories, dering course between Mounts Ossa and Olympus, bearing the general name of METEORA, because they through the plains of Tempé Thessaly still bears its are high up in the air; for which reason also we call ancient name, but is now a small part of a province certain luminous appearances, which are high up of Turkey in Europe. The Peneus now bears the in the heavens, by the name of meteors. The monasname of Salympria; and the Thermean Gulf, so called tery of BARLAAM, situated on one of the rocks just because of the hot springs in its neighbourhood, is alluded to, and of which a view is given above, transmitted into the Gulf of Saloniki. The once cele seems to have been almost unknown to the world, brated mountains, Ossa and Olympus, Pelion and Pin- until the interesting researches of the Rev. Messrs. dus, raise their time-honoured heads from the ranges of Hughes and Jones, about thirty years ago, caused the this district. The views from these classic heights are reading part of the world to give some little attention beautiful; and the aspect of one mountain, when seen to the peculiar situation and inmates of this place. from the top of another, and lighted up by the sun. There are several monasteries on the rocks of shine, is truly sublime. Our present purpose, however, I Meteora which are seen from a great distance in deVol. XVII.
130 scending the valley of the Salympria. They rise from such results should ensue from the infliction of Turkish the comparatively flat surface of the valley, about a despotism upon this fair land, can be no great matter mile distant from the river. They form a group of of wonder to us, who are used to the more enlightened insulated masses, cones, and pillars of rock, of the governments of the West. average height of four hundred feet; and for the most Another great curse which at intervals befalls these part so perpendicular in their ascent, that each one of beautiful regions—but perhaps scarcely more desolattheir numerouse fronts seems to the eye as a vast wall, ing than the oppressive sway of the Turks—is the formed rather by the art of man than by the more plague. When the Rev. Mr. Jones and his companion varied and irregular workings of nature. The village left the monastery of Barlaam, they pursued their of Kalabaki is situated immediately below the loftiest journey from Kalabaki to Triccala, over an immense of these curious pinnacles of rock, which seems plain, sixty miles long, and twenty broad. This city to impend over the place and its inhabitants.
had been for some time greatly declining; the plague When the Rev. Mr. Jones, in the course of his had carried off four thousand persons only a little travels, proceeded to inspect the loftiest of these while before Mr. Jones visited it, and many of the inrocks, which was Barlaam, the subject of our paper, habitants had also fled from the exactions of Ali and he found the monks employed in drawing up pro- his son Vely Pasha. There is at Triccala an old Greek visions and wood by means of a rope and pulley from castle of the middle ages. Between Triccala and a pent-house at the left extremity of these aërial Larissa is another great plain. The “ Plain of the ferbuildings. On his requesting to ascend to their tile Larissa" was an epithet applied to this land by habitations in the air, a rope of greater thickness was Horace, eighteen hundred years ago: but at the time let down, with a net at the end of it, in which he was of which we write, all the country round bore melanplaced, and drawn up to the height of about two hun. choly testimony of the effects of the plague. Whole dred feet above where he was standing. When he villages were found entirely devoid of inhabitants; and had been dragged in and disengaged from the net, it in Larissa alone, it was computed that not less than was let down a second time for his attendant Nicolo, eight thousand persons had fallen victims to this who could not at first be persuaded to enter, but deadly and unsparing malady. whom it was necessary to have as an interpreter. În journeying on southward, travellers arrive sucThe monks received him with great kindness, and cessively at three places most celebrated in ancient showed him several of their numerous apartments. history - the plains of Pharsalia, the pass of ThermoThere were two churches or chapels, and a library pylæ, and the mountain of Parnassus. containing about three hundred volumes, among which On the plains of Pharsalia was fought the battle were the principal writers of the ancient Greeks. The between Julius Cæsar and Pompey, in the year 48 B.C. prior of this society said that he had resided in this By the defeat of the latter, and the general degeneracy airy monastery for seventy-two years, and recollected of moral feeling among the Romans, their state became Jacob, the Swedish traveller, visiting the monastery. subject, in a very few years, to a series of despots, who After partaking of refreshments, the visiters descended owned scarcely any law or rule, but their own impeby the way they went up.
rial wills. Mr. Cockerell, in a letter to the Rev. Mr. Hughes, The past of Thermopyle is celebrated for a battle speaks of the surprise and pleasure which he felt in which was fought there, B.c. 480, between Xerxes and viewing such curious abodes, planted like the nests the Greeks, in which three hundred Spartans resisted, of eagles upon the summits of high and pointed rocks. for three successive days repeatedly, the attacks of the As he himself and his attendant Michaëli wished to bravest and most courageous of the Persian army, visit the monastery, they soon found themselves, to which amounted, according to some historians, to five their great alarm, put into a het very much like a cabo millions of souls. This pass has a large ridge of bage bag, and drawn up into the air by a rope mountains on the west, and the sea on the east, with scarcely one inch and a half in diameter; all the while deep and dangerous marshes; and the road was at surrounded by precipices on all sides.
that time, in the narrowest part, only twenty-five feet There were once eighteen of these monasteries, but broad. This place received its name from the hot the number is now reduced to ten, and even these springs which were near; and the sea was named, as have suffered considerable decay. The monks are in we remarked before, the Gulf of Therma. Mr. Cock a state of great ignorance, and know almost nothing erell gays in his letter to Mr. Hughes,—" The therma, of their own history. The circumference of the ground or hot springs, have no doubt accumulated a quantity at the top of the rock of Barlaam is about two hun- of stony sediment, and widened the passage to its predred yards. The prospect is not extensive from this sent extent, which is about one quarter of a mile: beheight, being confined by the other rocks and their mo low is a considerable marsh gained from the sea, but nasteries. Close to Barlaam is a great rock, called Me further to the south-east are some low hills, which an teora, which gives its name to all the rest collectively. army would still find it difficult to pass: the present
The village of Kalabaki, before mentioned, was go- road winds round the point of these for several hunverned by Vely Pasha, who had very greatly increased dred yards, and is not above thirty feet wide: here I the taxes or tributes laid upon the land; which was should conceive the famous pass to have been." the main cause of the wretched condition in which The valleys and green woods that covered the sides the monks were found, as well as the inhabitants of of the mountain of Parnassus, rendered it in ancient the country in general, who all complained grievously times agreeable, and fit for solitude and meditation. of the vizier's exactions, which they said were not a Hence, it was the sacred haunt, real or ideal, of the regulated sum, but depended upon his own arbitrary poets of those days. The scenery is still fine and rowill. The inhabitants were then in great distress, but mantic; but modern thieves and robbers have suceeded endeavoured to avoid becoming chiflick, which implies to the inheritance of the poets. Parnassus is said to a sort of general bankruptcy, when, being unable to be one of the highest mountains of Europe, and is answer the extortionate demands of their governor, easily seen from the citadel of Corinth, eighty miles they throw up their land into his hands. They spoke distant. The ancients considered this mountain to be with great horror of such a disaster, and of the mis one day's journey round. fortunes of several neighbouring villages under the jurisdietion of Vely, which had become chiflick. That
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MONTHS. and decked round with a few pale scattered flowers, X. OCTOBER.
Th' ensanguin'd dog.wood, and a thousand tints
Which Flora, dressed in all her pride of bloom,
Could scarcely equal,
to decorate the banks and hedge-rows during this
month. Slew great Orion ; and eke by his side
The open fields are again the scene of active inHe had his ploughing-share, and coulter ready tyed. dustry. Ploughing and sowing begin again to occupy
the husbandman, and both these operations present How gradually and almost imperceptibly do the an interesting spectacle :--seasons advance and retire! Day by day we are The plough moves heavily, and strong the soil, receiving fresh intimations of the departure of sum. And clogging harrows with augmented toil mer's days and scenery, and even of the decline of Drive deep : and clinging, mixes with the mould "sober autumn, fading into age;" yet, from the
A fattening treasure from the nightly fold, gentleness of the transition, and the many beautiful
And all the cow-yard's highly valued store,
That late bestrewed the blackened surface o'er. scenes presented to us in the changing aspect of
No idling hours are here, when fancy trims nature, we almost forget to mark the steps of the Her dancing taper over outstretched limbs, pale-descending year, and are sometimes carried far And in her thousand thousand colours drest, on our way towards the succeeding season, ere we Plays round the grassy couch of noontide rest : are reminded, in any painful degree, that the rigours
Here Giles for hours of indolence atones
With strong exertion, and with aching bones; of winter have yet to be endured.
And knows no leisure, till the distant chime, Perhaps there is not a more beautiful sight through,
Of Sabbath bells he hears at sermon time, out the whole year, than that which is presented by That down the brook sound sweetly in the gale, our woods and groves in the month of October, Or strike the rising hill, or skim the dale. The richly-diversified tints and hues of forest-trees
Farmer's Boy at this season give an air of grandeur to the land, Unless wet weather intervene, sowing is carried on scape, which is altogether unrivalled; and yet, accom-throughout this month, and the crops of wheat are panied as it is, and must be, with the thoughts of generally consigned to the earth ere its conclusion, decay and approaching desolation, the scenery of The introduction of machinery for agricultural purautumn generally inspires the observer with pensive poses has tended greatly to lessen toil, and to promote emotions, approaching to sadness. The foliage of the interests of all classes; but it takes from us those trees which lose their leaves the soonest, such nevertheless much that is pleasing to the eye, as it as the lime, horse-chestnut, birch, and ash, are either regards the operations of the field. The sowing of yellowish-green, or gold-colour; the planes and syca: the seed "by hand" is one of the most pleasing rural mores have various hues of yellow and brilliant occupations that can greeť qur view; the action of red: the elms acquire a fine rich tint of orange- the husbandman, as thus engaged, may truly be called brown, and the beeches have yet a deeper shade of graceful; the casting forth the grain by handsful rich brown tending towards red. The oaks are ex upon the open face of the earth has a far more tremely variable in their appearance, according to poetical effect than sowing it "in drills;” the quiet circumstances of age or soil : some appear almost in and placid air of the sower accords with the nature their summer dress, others wear a more dusky garb of his employment, which is one of trust and expecof green, and there are some that have assumed a tation of future benefit; and the protracted nature of robe of russet hue. Pollard-oaks, as well as young his operations, awakens and excites our attention to beech-trees, sometimes retain their foliage all the his work, and thus reminds us of our dependence on winter, until the young leaves appear and push it off; the God of seasons for our future harvest, and instils but deciduous trees, in general, lose the whole of their a grateful recollection of past mercies, with a hopeful foliage during this month and the succeeding one. anticipation of their renewal. It has been well remarked that “the fall of the leaf, In the intervals of ploughing and sowing, many indicates, not the death, but the life of the tree." other occupations demand the attention of the agriWere the tree dead, the leaves would all adhere to culturist. The potato-crops have to be secured from the branches, and it would be more difficult to remove the increasing coldness of the weather, and in the them, than in the case of a living tree; but in the gathering and storing of the winter supply many natural fall of the leaf, the sap retreats to the root, busy hands are employed. Forest and fruit trees and, by the contraction of its vessels, produces that have likewise to be planted; stubble-fields to be remarkable change which is so especially characteristic ploughed up for winter fallows; and various repairs and of the present season. In the removal of trees and alterations to be made, which the previous busy season plants, therefore, (for which this month affords in had withheld the execution of, In neighbourhoods many cases, a convenient season,) the cultivator may where the pleasures of the chase are keenly followed, anticipate the best results from such trees as shed the repair of hedges and banks is wisely postponed their leaves suon after the removal takes place: the to a later period of the year; for this is the height of sap has probably retreated to the root, and will put the hunting season, and the fields being cleared of forth again with renewed energy in the ensuing their produce, and the heat of the weather having spring. The tree on which the shrivelled leaves given place to the cold winds of autumn, it is, looking remain long, and cling closely, is probably dead. to convenience alone, decidedly the most favourable
The glowing hues of this month are not confined season for their sport. to the many-coloured woods: the hedges are decked The fields are now free to the entrance of the pack; with hip and haw, sloe, and blackberry, and with and the train of horsemen can do little injury to the many a brilliant and tempting-looking berry besides, majority of the grounds ; so that, according to Someragainst which we must warn the inexperienced ville, “no secret curse swells in the farmer's breast, youngster who would readily pluck and try them
But courteous now he levels every fence, all. These, interspersed with crimson or pink or Joins in the common cry, and halloos loud, yellow leaves, half-hidden with moss, and lichen, Charmed with the rattling thunder of the field.