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SALVATOR ROSA, AND HIS WORKS, him, was to be laid aside, and replaced by those I.

severer subjects, which, in accordance with the plan of

the monastie seminary, were indispensable to an SALVATOR ROSA was one of those irnaginative men aspirant to the church. These were logic, and such whom Italy bas at various times produced: men subjects as formed the philosophy of that day; togewho seem born to excel in those arts, which, from ther with the theological doctrines professed by the their elegance and their influence on the taste, are Church of Rome. But Salvator stopped at the very called Fine Arts. It is by no means uncommon in threshold of these studies: he felt such a disgust, the history of Italian art, to meet with individuals amounting almost to horror, at all studies in which whose acquaintance with painting, music, and poetry, the imagination took no part, that nothing could inwas so extensive, as to render it difficult to say in duce him to attend to the instructions prescribed for which they most excelled; and even those who have bim. He was often detected, with a crayon in his acquired an European reputation for their eminent hand, covering the walls of the convent with designs; skill in one branch, have frequently, perhaps we may and thus exposed himself to severe punishment. But say generally, attained considerable proficiency in the when at length it became evident that his dislike to others. Whether this results from the peculiar tem- scholastic studies was too deeply rooted to be overperament engendered by an Italian climate, from the come, he was expelled from the seminary, and sent patronage bestowed ou art and artists by the rulers back to his parents. and princes of Italy, or from the leisure possessed by He had now attained the age of sixteen, and it a people among whom mechanical and commercial does not appear in what manner his parents contrived industry are far less developed than in England, it to support him; but we find him studying music with would not be easy to say: probably all three circum. a passionate earnestness which nothing could control. stances combine to produce the result. Be this as it He composed many sweet canzonets and small pieces may, however, the fact is certain, that the fine arts of music, which were declared by Dr. Burney to be have been cultivated more zealously in Italy than in "pot only admirable for a dilettante, but in point of any other country in the world; if we except that melody superior to that of most of the masters of his brilliant period when the Grecian peninsula produced time." It was customary at that time for female so many master-spirits, whose works have served to spingers and knitters to sit at their work in the open form the taste of future ages.

streets of Naples; and these women were frequently The life of Salvator Rosą was so full of striking to be heard singing songs which had been both events, and the productions of his mind and hand written and composed by Salvator. He became a were so extremely diversified, that his biography par- serenader, lute in hand, under the windows of many takes much of a romantic character, and has been Neapolitan ladies; and gradually became involved in written at considerable length in different languages. a vortex of dissipation which grieved his parents, who We shall, however, in our sketch of his life and pro- though they could not appreciate the talents which he ductions, treat principally of those events which really possessed, were earnestly solicitous for his exerted most influence on him as an artist.

well-being. Salvator Rosa was born on the 20th of June, 1615, in The circumstance which turned his attention from the little village of Arenella, not far from Naples. His music to painting at this period, was the marriage of father, Vito Antonio Rosa, was an architect and land his sister with Francesco Francanzani, a painter of surveyor, of humble talents, and still humbler pro: considerable merit at Naples. Salvator used frequently spects; and his mother, Giulia Grecco, belonged to a to visit the studio of his brother-in-law, and watch family of painters, equally mediocre, and equally poor. the progress of the pictures which were on the As the boy grew up, the parents did not wish that he easel; sometimes copying portions of the picture on a should embark in that profession which had proved bit of board or paper; and receiving hints and instrucso little profitable to them; they determined, there: tions from Francesco. He soon began to sketch from fore, to educate him, to the best of their ability, for nature; he would sally forth at dawn of day, laden the church; and with that view gave him the name of with a portfolio containing primed paper, pencils, and Salvator, one which was looked upon with peculiar a pallet filled with oil-colours; and wander through reverence in Italy, Nature, however, frequently the rocky and woody scenes in the environs of Naples, frustrates the intentions, good though they may be, sketching wherever an object struck his fancy, Reof parents, by giving to their children a temperament turning to his brother-in-law's house in the evening, and a tone of mind incompatible with the mode of his portfolio would be examined by Francesco, and life marked out for them. So it was with Salvator, encomiums passed whenever they were merited. or as he was familiarly called, Salvatoriello, -"little Salvator was springing into manhood, and was as yet Salvi :" he loved to wander among the magnificent a burden to his relations; Francesco therefore was scenes around Naples, and to draw rude sketches desirous of bringing him forward sufficiently to be of trees and animals with bits of chalk or charcoal, able to provide for himself by his own earnings, better than to study the religious books which his It was customary at that time for young Italian mother placed in his hands. Being of a fiery and students, who intended to adopt the profession of a unruly disposition, he could not be kept under con painter, to make a tour through the principal cities of trol by his parents: and they therefore sent him to a Italy: visiting the work-rooms' of all the great painters; monastic seminary, many of which existed near observing and studying their styles; selecting one Naples.

master in particular as a model; and finally returning The earlier portion of his studies soon attracted home to prosecute that style which they had selected. and absorbed all his attention : this was classical and It was from this custom that artists were generally polite literature, by which he gained a knowledge of said to belong to the school of some great painter, such the imaginative productions of the ancients, as deve as the sehool of Caracci, uf Raphael, of Titian. So. loped in books. He thus laid in a store of classieal intense, however, was Salvator's love of uncontrolled knowledge, which had a great influence on his sub- liberty of action and of thought, that he disliked the sequent productions, and which was in harmony with idea of a school of painting as much as he had that of the poetic turn of his mind. But the time at length a school of philosophy and logic: system, method, arrived when this course of study, so congenial to subordination, were terms which he seems to have

been unable to appreciate : vehement passion and want of patronage; and his father, Vito Antonio Rosa, fertile imagination were the impulses to which he died shortly after his return, leaving the female memyielded, and to which it was in vain for his parents bers of the family wholly dependent on Salvator for to oppose their wishes and authority. Instead of support. This was a severe blow to him, as it checked visiting the schools of Italy, he left home at the age of at once that buoyant train of spirits which had so eighteen, and rambled on foot throughout the greater remarkably distinguished him: although it is not impart of the Kingdom of Naples, including Calabria probable that the necessity for providing for his and the Abruzzi; and it is supposed that many of the mother and sisters benefited him in some respects, finest pictures left by him,—of marine views, head. by sobering down some of his wildness. Although lands, castellated rocks, antiqne ruins, and savage his portfolio was full of sketches which would, in our evasts, identified by some particular and authenticated own day, fetch a large sum, yet they brought him feature, were either painted during this giro, or tour, nothing; for he was young and unknown, and had or else resulted from the impressions which the mag- powerful rivals. His poverty was such that he could nificent scenery of southern Italy left on his mind. not buy canvas to paint upon, and was therefore Sir J. Reynolds, in allusion to this tour of Salvator's, forced to use a kind of primed or prepared paper, says, “Salvator Rosa saw the necessity of trying which rendered it impossible for him to produce some new source of pleasing the public in his works. pictures of a permanent character. He worked all The world were tired of Claude Lorraine's and Gaspar day, assiduously, but with a heavy heart, in bis Poussin's long train of imitators; and he therefore garret; and as evening approached, he carried his prostruck into a wild savage kind of nature, which was ductions, hidden under his tattered cloak, to the reven. new and striking." But a subsequent writer has ditori, or dealers, who dwelt in Naples, and who paid remarked, that Sir Joshua was led into some error him a price which scarcely sufficed to procure the as to the relative periods when those three painters means of life. In a land where art flourished to such flourished; and was also wrong in stating that Salva an extent as in Italy, it may seem surprising that mas. tor "saw the necessity" of striking into a new path: terly sketches, such as those of Salvator, should he followed the dictates of his taste, and nothing more. scarcely meet with a sale in bis native town. But

Although Salvator, during his rambles, visited al. Naples never occupied such an eminent rank as Roine, most every part of the Neapolitan coast, yet the Florence, and Bologna, as a seat of the fine arts ; and elevated mountains of Calabria were the favourite it happened that a small coterie of painters, patron: spots among which he lingered, and sketched the ized by the Spanish viceroy (fur Naples was then a antique towns and villages-vestiges of the old Greek Spanish province), succeeded in keeping all competicolonies,—sometimes sheltered in a valley,—at others, tors in the background. This coterie, at the head of mounted on the summit of a rock, and inhabited by which were Spagnuolo and Lanfranco, succeeded in a race of men, whose restless and independent tone preventing Annibale Caracci, Domenichino, and Guido, of mind bore a strong resemblance to his own. One from being employed in decorating the Neapolitan event is related of him, which his biographers state churches. An incident occurred, however, which gave in various ways, but which appears to have been true hope to the young and dispirited Salvator. Laufraneo, in the main; viz., that he was made captive by some returning one day from the Jesuits' church, (which of the banditti of the Abruzzi mountains, and lived he was painting), happened to pass in his earriage by among them for a considerable period, --some say a mean shop, where a small picture was exhibited for voluntarily, others say by compulsion.

sale. He stopped his carriage, sent for the picture, The eircumstance is thus shortly alluded to by one and found it to be an exquisite sketch of the story of Writer:-“ We are told that he spent the early part of Hagar, at the point where, having left Abraham's his life in a troop of banditti, and that the rocky house, she and her child were wandering in the wildera desolate scenes in which he was accustomed to take ness of Beersheba. Lanfranco immediately perceived refuge, furnished him with those romantic ideas in that it was the production of one who possessed landscape, of which he is so exceeding fond, and in original genius, independent of any particolar school the description of which he so greatly excels. His of painting. He paid the price demanded for the Robbers, as his detached figures are commonly called, picture; and, as the vendor either could not or would are supposed also to bave been taken from the life." not mention the artist's name, Lanfranco looked for A fine picture, painted and etched by himself, is some symbol on the picture itself. Seeing the word supposed to represent a scene of his life at this ro “Salvatoriello" in one corner, he gave directions to mantic period :-a group of armed banditti occupy his pupils to purchase every sketch they might meet the foreground of a rocky scene, and look watchfully with, professing to come from that painter. The at a youthful prisoner, who, seated on a rock, exhibits dealer, and others of the same class, thus finding a in his countenance, in his drooping head, and in his market suddenly spring up for Rosa's pictures, were nerveless arm, the atter extinction of all hope : a fe more willing than before to treat with him, although male stands behind him, and, with a finger pointed they still refused to pay him more than a paltry price towards him, is evidently pleading in his favour, and for his prodactions. praying them to spare his life. -We may here re We shall resume the narrative in an early number. mark, that the lawless beings among whom Salvator was thus thrown, belonged to the class of Condottieri, or bandits who let themselves out for hire to any masters, or for any purpose, and who, when not thus The most perfect organization for happiness imparts at the

same time great force to resist the pains of life, and keen employed, infested the roads and villages in Calabria sensibility to enjoy its pleasures. and Naples, pillaging the rich, and domineering over

The sending our thoughts too much abroad, to discern the It is not known with certainty how long Salvator faults of others, hath the same effect as when a family never remained among the mountains of Calabria; but stayeth at hoine: neglect and disorder naturally followeth,

as it must do within ourseives, if we do not frequently rurn when he returned home, he encountered domestic

our eyes inwards, to see what is amiss with us, where it is scenes which sickened his heart, and dashed his en.

a sign we have an unwelcome' prospect when we do not care thusiasm. His brother-in-law, Francanzani, though to look upon it, but rather seek consulation in the faults of a clever painter, was reduced to great distress for those we converse with. --The Lady's New Year's Gift.


the poor.


Damascus, and in the interior; while the Ansaries, ENGLAND, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, are at the (wandering Arabs,) reside on the border of the western present moment in alliance with the Sultan of Turkey: the schismatic Mohammedans almost exclusively

desert toward the Euphrates; and the Maronites and for the purpose of assisting him in a war against his revolted subject, Mehemet Ali, the pacha of Egypt. occupy distinct districts of Lebanon.

The population of the whole country is very limited, The first blow has been struck at Beyrout, on the

and especially so on the sea-coast, where it is mainly coast of Syria, and public interest has thus been ex

collected at the few places which carry on commerce cited towards a tract of country, limited, indeed, in

with Europe; in these towns it is of the most motley extent, but rich in historical recollections. The interest, description and indifferent character. At intervals, however, which attaches to the places thus rendered the where the mountains skirt the strand, other races, of scene of warlike operations, arises mainly from events of no recent date, and can only be appreciated by the be found any semblance of industry or freedom.

nobler appearance, are met with, in whom alone is to classical scholar, or the Biblical or historical student; They are, however, generally animated by a fanatical for such alone can identify the rough fortress bearing hatred of all but their own tribe, and though more the barbarous name of Djebail, which we read of as having just repulsed an attack of British marines, intelligent than the inhabitants of the towns, are also

more ferocious, and not more honest. with the classic Byblos, the seat of the idolatrous

The Mohammedans, who for ages have been the worship of Adonis, –

ruling power in the open country, and have by their Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured

tyranny completely broken the spirit and destroyed The Syrian damsels to lament his fate;

the character of the population of the plains, have nor would the fishing village called Sour, where a few

never been able to obtain more upon the coast than house, be readily apprehended by the general reader military possession of a few points. Their attempts


the mountaineers have never been permanently as all that remains of the stately Tyre," the crowning successful, though their efforts have engendered a city, whose merchants were princes, and her traffickers spirit of deadly hatred, and by keeping a great part the honourable of the earth.”

of the population constantly in arms, have perpetuated This consideration induces the belief that a brief to our day a state of society in which neither life nor notice of the ancient and present state of the coast of Syria, the cradle of commerce and its attendant civi- property is for an instant safe. The object of these lization, whose ruined cities bear awful testimony to

papers being not a description of the whole country,

but only of a part, it is therefore unnecessary to say the fulfilment of prophecy, in whose immediate vici. nity “the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among have avenged upon the Greeks and the Jews all the

more of the Mohammedans than that in general they men," the scene alike of the exploits of Nebuchadnez

losses they have thus sustained, and that the latter zar and Alexander, of the heroes of chivalry and of

people, though they form a considerable part of the modern Britons, cannot prove wholly uninteresting.

population of the country, are detested alike by all The coast of Syria forms the eastern boundary of parties, in this, their own land; and in no part of the the Mediterranean Sea, the “Great Sea" of Scripture,

world are they perhaps worse treated. Yet they still and extends in a line, having a general tendency rather

maintain their ground, and "lend upon usurv to the to the west of south, for about 450 miles, measuring

stranger. from the Bay of Scanderoun on the north to El Arish

The usual language of all classes in Syria is Arabic, on the south. Its general character is bold and

mixed among the Maronites with some remnants of rocky, and it presents very few good harbours, while

old Syrian. The Mohammedan custom of seclusion sandbanks and reefs are found at the mouth of almost

of women also very generally prevails in the plains, every one of the numerous streams which descend

but in the mountains the women enjoy more liberty, from the mountains to the sea. Occasionally the

and mainly assist in the cultivation of the land. shore is a sandy flat, particularly towards the south,

As might be expected from its geographical position, but the cliffs are usually lofty, and many bold head

the climate of Syria is hot, and in the plains the soil lands occur; those of Cape Blanco and Mount Carmel,

is fertile, producing, besides abundant crops of wheat, being among the most striking objects in the Levant.

cotton, hemp, indigo, sugar, and tobacco; while the The population of Syria is small in comparison to

mountains are clothed with valuable timber; mulberrythe extent of the country, which is estimated at about trees abound, furnishing food for silk-worms; and 50,000 square miles. The estimates vary from one to two millions; but Dr. Bowring, the latest authority, stuffs.

also olives, vines, valonea, madder, and other dye

Attempts have also recently been made to thinks 1,250,000 the nearest to the truth. Of this number more than half are Mohammedans, either The air is of course keen and bracing in the upper

introduce cochineal, and seem likely to be successful. orthodox or schismatic, and Greeks*, Maronites, and parts of Lebanon, but along the coast the climate is Jews, form the remainder, in the following proportions: extremely unhealthy, and intermittent fevers and Mohammedans


other diseases common to marshy localities are the Ansaries

15,000 Mutualis and Yezidis... 12,000

scourge of the population, their operation being ren. Druses


dered still more desolating by the general want of Greeks


habits of order and cleanliness. Maronites and Roman Catholics ...... 170,000

From the Bible we learn that the first-born of Jews......


Canaan, the grandson of Noah, was named Sidon,

and that shortly after the Flood, the families of the 1,249,000

Canaanites spread abroad from Sidon unto Gaza, With the exception of the Jews and the Greeks, it

(Gen. x. 15—18.) The land on which they had may be said that in general the various religious sects

settled was quite unsuited for the pastoral life ; occupy distinct territories. Thus the orthodox Mohammedans and the Greeks and Jews are found They, therefore, from necessity, became fishers; and

was it better adapted for the pursuits of agriculture, chiefly in the great cities of Antioch, Aleppo, and the forests of Lebanon supplying timber, ultimately

* The native Christians of the plains are so termed, as they are in navigators. When the children of Israel took posgeneral members of the Greek church, while those in the mountains are principally in alliance with Rome.

session of the promised land, they little coveted the


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barren shore of the Great Sea, and in consequence a made, and some detached cities along the coast were considerable number of the Canaanites retained their maintained for a hundred years longer, the power of ancient seats. As each party was in possession of the Franks was irretrievably broken, and they were articles desirable to the other, in time a friendly finally expelled from Acre, their last stronghold, in intercourse grew up, as we see in the case of Solomon 1291, by the Mameluke sultan of Egypt. and Hiram, king of Tyre, and the corn and honey of From this period Syria was ruled by the military Palestine were exchanged for articles of use or luxury, aristocracy of the Mamelukes for more than 200 which the Tyrians had then begun either to manu years, for although ravaged in the year 1400 by facture or to procure from foreign nations.

Timour, it was not subdued. At length both Syria In the twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel is an and Egypt were conquered by the sultan, Selim II., account of the trade of Tyre in the sixth century in 1517, and for a period of nearly three hundred before the Christian era, of which further notice will years, no event requiring detail, as involving a change be taken. Shortly after, both Syria and Palestine in its political condition, occurred; but in 1799 the were annexed to the Assyrian empire, upon the fall country was invaded from Egypt by the French under of which they passed to the Persian monarchs, and Napoleon Buonaparte, who sustained his first defeat appear to have been governed by them with much at Acre, from a few undisciplined Turks supported by mildness and equity. In the year 333 B.C., Alexander a handful of British seamen. After severe loss, the the Great, the “,

rough goat, the king of Grecia,” French retreated, and were eventually driven from (Dan. viii. 21,) appeared in Syria, which he speedily Egypt, after having destroyed in that country the conquered ; and when after his death his empire was power of the Mamelukes, a circumstance which helped partitioned among his lieutenants, it fell into the to bring forward one of the most remarkable men of hands of Seleucus, by whose posterity it was ruled the present day, from whose proceedings greater for nearly 250 years. Judea was included in the changes have already arisen in the East, than would new kingdom, but the outrageous oppressions and probably have otherwise occurred in the lapse of insults of the Syrian rulers provoked a rebellion, centuries. which ended in the acknowledgment of the Jewish Mehemet Ali, a native of Roumelia, born in high priests as sovereign princes, (B.C. 142.) At 1769, first visited Egypt, as second in command of a length, after a series of civil wars, by which the small detachment of recruits for the corps of Mamecountry was utterly exhausted, it was conquered by lukes, in 1800. His abilities soon procured him the Romans, (B.C. 64,) and remained in their pos. advancement, and in due time he became one of the session nearly 700 years, during which time it was twenty-four beys by whom the country was ruled. the frequent battle-field of the Romans and the Per. Possessing a fund of political wisdom with which no sians, being indeed ravaged from one extremity to the considerations of good faith or mercy seem ever to other by Sapor, A.D. 260, and subdued by Chosroes II. have been permitted to interfere, after he had attained in 611, and retained by him till delivered by the to power by the slaughter of his old comrades, the Emperor Heraclius, in 622. At length a new power Mamelukes, he began to form fleets and armies on emerged from the deserts of Arabia, to whose fanatic the European model, the first steps being taken by a valour all the resistance that the feeble Eastern renegade French officer (Colonel Seve), who now comEmpire could oppose, proved utterly useless. Syria, mands in Syria under the title of Soleyman Pacha. from its proximity to Arabia, was the first object by Mehemet Ali had some time before obtained from which the followers of Mohammed were allured. It the Sultan a recognition of his office as viceroy was attacked in 632, and completely subjugated by of Egypt, upon condition of paying the customary the year 639, the city of Jerusalem falling into the tribute. This tribute, however, was irregularly renhands of “the votaries of the False One," in 637. dered, and the Sultan, being fully engaged with the

In time the fanaticism of the Saracens, which Greek insurrection, was obliged to accept the offer of had at first prompted them to hinder all approach to his powerful vassal to discharge the debt by means the holy city, gave way, and from motives of gain of military service. Accordingly, an Egyptian squathey not only permitted unarmed pilgrims and priests dron with land forces on board sailed for the Morea, to pay their devotions at the Holy Sepulchre, but where the fleet was annihilated at the battle of Navasedulously guarded them from insult in their passage rino, and the troops were soon after expelled by the through all places subject to their control. At length, French expedition. When the war came to an end, early in the eleventh century, a barbarous horde of on the recommendation of the Allied Powers, the Tartars, called Toorks, lately converted to Moham Greek island of Candia, which had rebelled but been medanism, who from being the mercenary guards unable to establish its independence, and was, therehad become masters of the dominions of the Caliph fore, compromised with the Sultan, was transferred of Bagdad obtained possession of Jerusalem, and to the viceroy, and is still held by him. ill-used or murdered the Christian pilgrims. This In the ill-governed Turkish empire, the governors state of things continued for a time, until roused by of distant provinces frequently assume the right of the energetic appeals of Peter the Hermit, (A.D. 1095,) levying war with each other, and a dispute having princes, nobles, and peasants, banded together to occurred between the pachas of Egypt and Acre, the rescue the sepulchre of Christ from the hands of the former despatched a strong force under his son Ibrainfidels, and “all Europe," to use the expression of him, who had commanded the expedition to the the imperial historian, Anna Comnena, loosened | Morea, to bring the Syrian chief to terms. Ibrahim from its foundations, was precipitated upon Asia." landed at Acre in November, 1831, and captured

By the first of the celebrated expeditions called the it in May, 1832. The Sultan then interfered, and Crusades, a Christian kingdom, co-extensive with peremptorily ordered the Egyptian force to withdraw, that of David, was established, but intrinsically weak, instead of which Ibrahim immediately advanced, because opposed to the religious feelings of the ma overran the whole of Syria, defeated the Sultan's jority of its subjects, and distracted by the jealousies general near Aleppo, forced the passes of Mount and civil wars of those who might have been expected Taurus, and gained so decisive a victory at Konieh to be its firmest supporters; it fell under the victorious (the ancient Iconium), in Asia Minor, that the road Saladin (A.D. 1189) after ninety years' duration, and to Constantinople lay open to him. The European though many gigantic efforts for its recovery were Powers then interfered, and a treaty was concluded

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