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No. 516.

JULY

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TOGLA KABAD. VITHIN a few miles of the city of Delhi*, in India, i supporters he put to death after he had gained the tand the remains of a once populous and important imperial dignity,-a species of gratitude not at all wn, named Toglakabad, or Tughlickabad. It was a uncommon in oriental countries: it is not improbable vrtified town with a strong citadel, situated in the that monarchs, who hold the sceptre by so loose a ·rritories assigned to the Mogul in the province of tenure, apprehend that those who have power to lelhi, and named from its founder the Emperor put them on the throne may also be able to remove ughlik. A few miserable huts contain all the them from it. Mubarick disgusted many of the resent inhabitants of Tughlickabad; but the rude, nobles of his court by heaping honours and re.assy, and stupendous ruins of its walls, palaces, and wards on slaves and persons of the lowest degree. Ibterranean apartments, still attract the curiosity of Among others, Hassan, one of his slaves, the son of a avellers. Within a separate irregular fortification, seller of rags in Guzerat, received the title of onnected with the town by a causeway, stands the Chusero, and, through the king's partiality for him, Tausoleum of the Emperor Tughlik Shah, (who became the greatest man in the empire: he was igned about A.D. 1321,) built of gigantic blocks of appointed to the command of the army, and at the anite, in the form of a truncated pyramid, the walls same time to the office of vizier; without possessing onverging as they ascend.

any of the talents necessary for those offices. The Toglakabad appears to have been intended as a king then entered on a series of wars, which, being rt of citadel for the defence of the imperial city of generally successful, enabled him to heap favours on elhi, and to have arisen out of the disturbed state his favourite Chusero. These favours so increased the * Hindostan at an early period of its history. In the influence and the ambition of this minion, that he ar 1317 (717 of the Hegira) Mubarick the First began to have designs against the throne, and tamcended the throne of Delhi, through the instru- pered with the officers of the army to gain them over entality of some of his military officers. Thesc to his purpose; this they refused to do, and they

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. X., pp. 130, 186. informed the emperor of the designs of Chusero, but VOL. XVII.

516

the latter contrived to gain credence for a false tale, during the prosperous times of the empire of Delhi. by which he was pardoned and the officers punished. Half way to Furreedabad we passed the gigantic ruins Chusero, however, afterwards succeeded, by the aid of of Toghlikabad, on a hill about a coss* to our right. a band of hired ruffians, in murdering the emperor I regretted that we could not see them nearer; but and all his supporters, and then mounting the throne the stage was of sufficient length for our horses, and of Delhi under the title of the Emperor Chusero. the few remaining hours of daylight, without this

These scenes excited disgust in the mind of Ghazi, addition. Mr. Elliot described them as chiefly inteGovernor of Lahore, who, being resolute and well. resting from their vast dimensions, and the bulk and intentioned, resolved to do his utmost to get rid of a weight of the stones employed in them.” cruel usurper, who, as well as the man whom he had From Major Archer, however, we obtain more just murdered, had no legitimate right to the throne. detail on the subject. He says that the new city of He collected around him all the omrahs and chiefs Delhi, and the old fort of Toglakabad, form a contiwho had resolution enough to oppose the tyrant, and nuation of each other, extending seven or eight miles. marched with a powerful army towards Delhi. The Toglakabad he describes as one of the grandest sights usurper with his army came out to meet them, and he ever witnessed, although nothing more than the was utterly defeated, taken, and slain. Ghazi then deserted ruins of a huge fortress, the rearing and entered Delhi, where the omrahs and magistrates of building of which must have cost infinite time and the city came to meet him. He then inquired labour. The beholder is struck with awe at the whether there were yet living any descendants of the colossal remains, which seem rather the work of legitimate line of princes whom Mubarick and Chu. “ Titans" than of men. The circumference of the sero had set aside; and if not, desired them to choose fort is from five to six miles: the citadel is very high a king to govern them in future. They answered and commanding; and to add to the strength of the with one voice that none of the royal family were whole, a large space on one side can easily be inunleft alive, and then at once proceeded to choose him dated. The king's tomb is outside the fort, and as emperor; and he accordingly, in the year 1321, forms a fortified outwork; the communication is by a ascended the throne of Delhi by the title of Tuglick stone causeway, arched. « The wonder," says Major the First.

Archer, "is excited how men could put such Tuglick exerted his utmost powers to repair the enormous blocks of stone together, and fashion them mischief which had fallen on the empire during the into fair proportions, when assisted so limitedly by preceding reigns; he repaired the palaces and fortifica- art, through the aid of mechanics: how they mations, founded others, and encouraged industry and naged is a secret which will doubtless rest with the commerce; men of genius and learning were called to inventors, for their descendants are as blessedly court; institutes of law and government were esta ignorant of any useful science as men need be," blished and founded; and a better system of govern Our frontispiece, which conveys a good idea of the ment pursued. Soon after his accession, he found it remarkable ruins we have attempted to describe, is necessary to send an army to bring to allegiance a taken from the valuable Indian Views of Captain revolted chief, Lidderdeo, the prince of Arinkil; and Luard, with his kind permission. the conduct of this army was given to Jonah, the

* A coss is the Indian name for a road-measure about a milc and emperor's eldest son. Through the treachery of a half in length. some of the omrahs, this expedition failed of success, but, in a few months afterwards, another army was collected, and despatched to Arinkil. This city was then besieged and taken, and Lidderden and all his THE EARTH IS THE LORD 8, AND THE FULNESS Thereof. family, together with their elephants, treasure, andriant richness must ever be, to the eye of faith and devo

- Interesting and lovely as the green fields in their luxueffects, were sent to Delhi. The emperor received

tion they are even more so: did we accustom ourselves to them in a citadel which he had built near Delhi, associate with their beauty the superintending providence called Tughlikabad, and this is the first mention of God, as well as the subordinate art and labour of man, which is made in the history of Hindostan of the they would possess an interest and a loveliness which the place represented in our frontispiece. We do not mere lover of nature never knew. The sweetest landscape propose to continue the details of the bistory; having is improved by the presence of animated objects

, which imshown what were the circumstances under which, and part a liveliness, an interest, as it were, an existence, to the

whole. What increased force and interest are added to it by whom, the city of Toglakabad* was built in the by the presence, su to speak, of the living God!

Shall we be so selfish as to ascribe the beauty of our The amiable Bishop Heber appears, from the cultivated and richly-laden fields to the mere assistant following extract from his Journal, to have contem- labours of our own fallen race, unto whom all beyond the plated a visit to Toglakabad, but to have been unable original curse of barrenness is mercy? Not unto us, not unto to fulfil his intention: “January 3.-This morning will praise thee for thy goodriess, and declare the wonders

us, O Lord, but unto thy name be all the praise. Yea! we early I sent off my tents and baggage to Furreedabad, which thou doest for the children of men. a little town about fifteen miles from Delhi, and in If we accustom ourselves to such meditations as these, the afternoon followed them on horseback, escorted if we view the earth as the Lord's, and the fulness thereof by five of Skinner's horse, and accompanied by Mr. if we view every good gift and every perfect gift as coming Lushington and Dr. Smith. We passed by Humai. | down from above, we shall find “good in everything ;" we oon's tomb, and thence through a dreary country, shall find more to occupy our

minds amid the green fields, full of ruins, along a stony and broken road, marked despite their solitude and stillness, than in the crowded

city;

each path will lead us to pleasure, to instruction, to God; out at equal distances of about a mile and a half, by the rolling year will be full of Him; the wide theatre of the solid circular stone obelisks, 'cross minars,' erected world will be to our minds but one universal house of * The orthography of Indian names is exceedingly confused and

prayer, one varied and beauteous temple of Him who dwelluncertain; there are half a dozen different modes of spelling the

eth not in temples made with hands; and all the countless name of the city which we call Toglakabad, and it is difficult to say creations of his bounty, all those kindly fruits of the earth which is the right one. We may mention, as another and still more given and preserved to our use, and in due time to be striking instance of this, the name of Genghis Khan, the Asiatic enjoyed by us, will constantly admonish us, as they rise into this name (such as Chengiskan, Gengiskhan, &c.), but we have strength and beauty, to give thanks unto the Lord, for he is actually known the same author spell it seven different ways in good; for his mercy endureth for ever.-Palin's Village different parts of the same volume.

Lectures on the Litany.

year 1323.

as

HISTORICAL NOTICE OF THE EDICT OF

into the southern provinces, where the Protestants NANTES,

were most numerous, to compel the unhappy inhabit

ants to abjure their faith; and, to prevent the In reading details of the history of the various emigration of the sufferers, the frontiers were guarded mechanical and manufacturing arts, we frequently with the utmost vigilance. But notwithstanding this fnd mention made of the Revocation of the Edict of strict watch, more than five hundred thousand Pro. Nantes, as being a means by which the regular course

testants contrived to escape from France, resolved of trade was much disturbed and turned into new

rather to expatriate themselves than to renounce channels. It may be interesting to general readers, their faith: this was about one-half of the whole particularly of a Protestant country, to know some number of Protestants in France. thing of the nature, the object, and the effect of that

It is not difficult to perceive the effect of this edict.

ruthless persecution of the Protestants: we see in it The Edict of Nantes was a sort of act of parlia- a wise and just ordination of Providence, by which ment passed in France in 1598, and the Revocation of those who embrue their hands in the blood of their the Edict of Nantes was the withdrawal of that act fellow-creatures to compel an abandonment of their in 1685; the object, in both instances, being of a faith, bring down on their own heads unforeseen and religious nature. The Protestants of France, during irremediable evils. France lost half a million of her and soon after the time of Luther, were called by best artisans, and the Protestant countries of Europe, the general name of Huguenots, the origin of which particularly England, Holland, and Brandenburg, term is rather uncertain; and in a recent Supplement gained a large accession of skilled labour, which soon on Paris*, we have given the outlines of the various had a most material influence on the manufacturing persecutions which the Protestants suffered from the interests of these countries. Weavers, and others Romish party, particularly the horrid event known as

connected more or less with the manufacture of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. The Edict of tapestry, were very numerous among the emigrants, Nantes was intended in some respects as a termina; and they carried the secrets of their trades to the tion of this series of injuries and persecution, and other countries which we have mentioned. took effect about twenty-six years after the date of

The grounds on which the Protestants gradually the massacre. When the weak and cruel Henry the found their position to be insupportable in France Third, who was a mere puppet in the hands of the

were numerous and most vexatious. Every species crafty and still' more cruel Catherine de Medicis, of favour was lavished upon converts, such died, the crown of France devolved upon Henry, exemption from taxes, enfranchisement from parental king of Navarre, who then took the title of King authority (if the parents persisted in remaining ProHenry the Fourth. He was originally a Protestant, testants), advancement in professions, in public ser. and however state policy may have led him to the vice, and in military rank; while, on the other hand, culpable weakness of changing his profession of faith disabilities of every kind were multiplied for those two or three times during his reign, there seems who adhered to the Protestant faith: all places of reason to believe that he always remained, at henrt, honour and profit were closed against them; and a Protestant. But be this as it may, in 1598 he those who had previously held such offices were passed or granted the Edict of Nantes, by which the compelled to resign them, The Protestants were Huguenots or Protestants had their civil rights next excluded from every kind of trade, and from the secured to them; the free exercise of their religion profession of law and medicine. All pensions and was confirmed to them; they were to have equal claims dignities were withdrawn from them; their names with the Roman Catholics to all offices and dignities ;

were erased from the books of the universities, and and they were left in possession of certain fortresses from the list of the royal household; and they which had been secured to them.

were forbidden to farn, the revenue, or to serve the The effect of this edict was, that the Protestants king in any capacity whatever. The chambers of much increased in power and influence in France, parliament, established for the maintenance of the and Protestantism might have taken deep root in Edict of Nantes, were suppressed. The Protestant the country; but, unhappily, Henry the Fourth was clergy were vexed and humiliated by many restrictions succeeded by Louis the Thirteenth, a man in every of a most harassing character; their synods were way his inferior. Under the influence of an ambitious made less frequent, and the subjects of discussion favourite and of a crafty confessor, Louis began to limited in number; their charitable funds were renew that narrow system of intolerance of which the applied to Roman Catholic purposes ;, they were Protestants had so long been the victims. A long forbidden to teach the languages, philosophy, or series of civil contests followed, which ended in the theology; and the flourishing college of Sedan was complete subjection of the Protestants to Louis, or suppressed, together with other schools and colleges, rather to his minister, Richelieu, at the siege of The Protestants inhabiting the towns were obliged to Rochelle in 1629. For some years after this period, abstain from secular employments on the festivals of the Protestants, though not possessed of any political the Roman Catholic church: they were also compelled or civil power, were allowed to perform the offices of to salute the host, and to perform many similar their religion undisturbed. But when Louis the offices repugnant to the principles of a Protestant, Fourteenth had been some years on the throne, and when they retired into the country, and attended had exchanged a life of voluptuousness and profligacy worship according to the form of their church, in the for one of gloomy bigotry, he recommenced the per- castles of the nobles of their own persuasion, the secution of the Protestants. Under the fallacious court limited their number, and disputed the right and most unchristian idea that Protestants were to be of the nobles to that feudal rank to which the liberty made Romanists at the point of the sword, he com

of worship in their own castles was attached. The menced a terrible series of oppressive and cruel acts. clergymen were next forbidden to preach, and were In 1681 he deprived them of most of their civil rights, discharged from their offices. and on the death of his minister, Colbert, who had

Is it surprising, then, that this series of cruel peropposed these violent measures, he proceeded to still secution should have led to the abandonment of greater extremities. Bodies of dragoons were sent home and country? and can we refrain from ex, * Saturday Magazine, Vol. XV., p. 250,

pressing admiration at the firmness which induced

the Protestants rather to go to foreign lands than to | afterwards pursued all who had fled on their approach give up their cherished faith? The consequences of to hide themselves among the rocks, and treated such these unrighteous proceedings on the part of the as they could find in a similar manner. Among French court were, as we have said, highly detrimental those who had taken flight, there were many who, to the true interests and the real prosperity of the finding they were pursued by the soldiers, threw French nation, by the prodigious emigration it themselves into the river which crossed their way, occasioned among the Protestants, who sought, in hoping to find the fording-place and to pass in safety; various parts of Europe, that religious liberty, and but as it was night, the greater part were unable to that humane treatment, which in their mother-coun- discover the ford, and were thereby carried away by try was so cruelly refused them. Those among them the current and drowned. M. d' Algue, their pastor, whom the vigilance of their enemies guarded so favoured by the darkness, escaped on this occasion, closely as to prevent their flight, were exposed to the but was taken some time after, together with his brutal rage of an unrelenting soldiery, and were friend, the Sieur Roques, one of the elders of the assailed by every form of barbarous persecution that church of Caderles. They had both remained firm might tend to subdue their courage, exhaust their to their religion, and had been compelled to seek conpatience, and thus engage them to a feigned and cealment, by wandering about in the forests for external profession of Popery, which in their con- eighteen or twenty months. They were at length sciences they beheld with the utmost aversion and arrested, and brought to trial: the crimes of which disgust. The inhabitants of Cevennes, who were they were accused were, the having kept themselves roused to attempt something in their own defence, concealed for a long time, that they might not be afterwards addressed a letter to the Dauphin, setting obliged to change their religion; and having assisted forth the reasons which had compelled them to resort at many Protestant assemblies, and performed in them to arms. After speaking of the persecution which the functions of ministers. They pleaded guilty to preceded the revocation, they proceed :

all these charges, with cheerfulness and readiness, as After they had done us all these mischiefs, the Edict of being charges at which they should feel glory rather Nantes was repealed. In the execution of the revocation than shame. They were condemned to death, but of this edict, they demolished our churches, and banished offered life if they would recant: this they scorned to our ministers out of the kingdom for ever, continuing to do, and both perished on the scaffold. us a thousand mischiefs, under divers pretences. All these dreadful forms of persecution astonished the Cevennois,

It was, then, by such means as these that Louis who had none to comfort them. Fear caused some of them the Fourteenth attempted to root out Protestantism to hide themselves in woods and dens; and others endea from the land of France. During the subsequent voured to thee out of the kingdom, that they might set their wars in which he was engaged, he gradually relaxed lives and consciences at liberty, according to the precept of the laws against the Protestants; but he could no? the Gospel

, “If they persecute you in one city, flee unto undo the serious injury already done to the country another." But the passages were so well guarded to hinder the flight of these poor people, that the greater part by the expatriation of such a vast body of industrious of them were taken and sent to the galleys. They that artisans, through the Revocation of the Edict of fied from the city were also taken and locked up in prisons, Nantes; and there are many acute persons who which were soon filled with these persecuted Protestants. think that this unrighteous proceeding was one of the

They proceed to state that while they were in con numerous causes that led, many years afterwards, to cealment, performing divine worship, in accordance the French Revolution, by exciting, in the minds o with the institutes of Protestantism,

the French people, a hatred of the Jesuits and priests The priest and friars, having notice of it, caused yet more through whose influence, principally, the revocatior dragoons and other troops to be sent into the Cevennes, was brought about. which they placed in ambuscade, in the places through which those that were of the assemblies were to pass on

TO A FRIEND IN SORROW. their return. They seized them and cast them into prison; On! ve long have loved and often met with bosoms beating condemned some of both sexes to be hanged, and others to

light, be carried away, the men to the galleys, the women to the nunneries. And if they happened to find the place where When the Spring that burst around us was smiling fair and

When the bark of hope bore gaily down the glittering strean they were assembled, they fired upon them without mercy, and without distinction of sex or age.

of life,

(strife

Nor coming clouds foretold of its course through storms ani These remarks it may be well to illustrate by one

Oh! we long have loved, and often met—but ne'er till now well-authenticated instance; and we will avail our

in sorrow,

(furrow selves, for that purpose, of an interesting little work, For care along our flowery path at length has drawn hi published a few years ago, on the subject of the Re- I thought of all that we had been when I kissed thy pallic vocation of the Edict of Nantes. A small band of

cheek,

[could not speak Protestants, with their pastor, M. d'Algue, met in a

And thy trembling form, that grief had changed, I saw, ang secret spot for the performance of Divine service, Yes! we long have loved in sunshine, but ne'er till now) having previously placed some of their body at all How deep affection's root ’neath the shade of sorrow grew; the avenues, to secure themselves against surprise. For friendship, in the bloom and spring of life begun, One of those to whom they had confided this office A lovelier tint shall wear in the Autumn's mellowing sun. quitted his post, and hastened to St. Etienne, where with interchange of deeper thought, with holier wishe he broke faith with his companions, and gave infor

fired,

(inspired mation of the assembly to the king's troops. An Een the chilling breath of Winter shall seem with warmt officer and twenty men put themselves under the

And while the brightness of our morning fades to evening'

gray, guidance of this unworthy person, who conducted

We have a beacon sure beyond, to light our sinking day.-J. F them to the place of meeting. They found the assembly engaged in celebrating the Lord's Supper; and All amusements which consist in inflicting pain upo: into the midst of this peaceful scene of Christian animals, such as bull-baiting, cock-fighting, &c., are purel communion the soldiers rushed with fury, making a

wicked. God never gave us power over animals for suc discharge which at once threw many to the ground. purposes, I can scarcely conceive of a more revolting exhi

bition of human nature, than is seen when men assemble i Then drawing their swords, they struckindiscriminately witness the misery which brutes intlict upon each other at all they met, whether men, women, or children, Surely nothing can tend more directly to harden men ir killing some, and wounding great numbers. They worse than brutal ferocity.--WAYLAND.

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I.

1824 his Majesty King George the Fourth gave to the There is no pause

town the name of Devonport, as it seemed no longer To the huge labours o. that Arsenal

fitting that it should continue to appear as a mere Whose foot the Tamar laves. There science lays The solid keel, and on it rears a frame

appanage to Plymouth. It thus appears that the two Enduring, fair, magnificent! The woods

towns of Plymouth and Devonport are so intimately Of Europe, Asia, Africa, devote

united and connected that it would not be easy to Their mightiest foliage to raise the vast, The thunder-bearing structure; till, at last,

treat of either one separately. We propose, therefore, By genius nobly formed, the finished ship

in three or four articles, to notice, Ist, the general Is ready for th' impressive launch. The day Arrives; the Atlantic tide is swelling high

position of the two towns with respect to the British To place her on its bosom. O'er her decks

Channel; 2nd, the most important events in their The streamers wave all gallantly, around

history; 3rd, the Government establishments conEnlivening music floats, while myriads crowd Where the bold vessel on her rapid plane

nected more or less with the Royal Navy; and 4th, the Sits proudly.. Hark! the intrepid artizans

principal objects (not naval) which usually attract the Remove her last supports ;-a breathless pause

attention of the visitor in these towns.
Holds the vast multitude ;--a moment she
Remains upon her slope, - then starts,-an' now,

In looking at a map of that part of the British
Rushing sublimely to the ilashing deep,

Channel contiguous to Devonshire and Cornwall, we
Amid the shouts of thousands she descends,
Then rises buoyantly, a graceful pile,

see that a small arm of the sea, or bay, separates the To float supinely on the blue Hamoaze,

coast line of the two counties. This bay may be conTill England the winged miracle shall send

sidered as the mouth of the river Tamar, which, as we To bear her dreaded banner round the globe.-CARRINGTON,

stated in two articles relating to it*, separates the two CARRINGTON, born and bred in the immediate vicinity counties nearly throughout its whole length. Or it of Devonport, thus speaks of the building and launch- might perhaps be more correct to say, that it is a small ing of those stupendous machines which are the pride bay into which the rivers Tamar and Plym empty of a maritime country like our own: nor is it sur-themselves. This bay is termed Plymouth Sound. prising that a tone of enthusiasm should pervade the From the Mewstone, at its eastern margin, to Penlee description; for there are but few productions of man Point, at the western, is a distance of about three more wonderful and admirable than a large ship, com- miles and a half; and the depth of the bay, from north pletely rigged and fitted for sea.

to south, is about four miles. Across the Sound, at Plymouth and Devonport are situated at the south about a mile from the entrance, is the celebrated west corner of the county of Devon. Plymouth has Breakwater, a description of which was given in the long been an important town,-indeed it was so before first volume of the Saturday Magazine, The object of Devonport was in existence,-but when Plymouth this stupendous undertaking was to afford a shelter to became a great naval station, and when all the neces the ships in the Sound and barbour from the storms sary arrangements were made for building ships in which frequently rage in the British Channel. the neighbourhood, the docks became gradually sur Beginning at the Mewstone, a solitary rock at the rounded by houses, the residences of those employed eastern margin of the sound, we proceed along therein; and thus a little town sprang up, which ob- the eastern shore to the north-east corner of the tained the name of Plymouth Dock. But so rapidly Sound. Here we find a body of water called the did its population and its importance increase, that in * Şee Saturday Magazine, Vol. XVI., pp. 153, 178:

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