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was brought by night from Jerusalem, when sent by the see of a Christian bishop, but its present inhabitthe captain of the temple to Felix (Acts xxii. 31). ants are wholly Mohammedan. A few miles further The only remains are of military works, and in their | is a ruined castle, evidently once a magnificent edifice, construction they much resemble those of Cæsarea. standing upon a rocky peninsula with a small bay to A few miles further is the plain of Arsouf, where the the south. This is the ancient Sycaminon, but it Saracens were most severely defeated by the Crusa- is now called by navigators Castel Pellegrino, and ders in 1191, and at the distance of thirty miles from a small village close by, constructed within the wall Jaffa are the ruins of Cæsarea, once the capital of of the ancient city, bears the name of Athlete. Palestine, and one of the finest cities of the East. It Tue coast, which begins to assume a bold character was originally called the town of Strato, from being at Tortura, continues to rise, and at length terminates built around a fortification called Strato's Tower, in the noble promontory of Mount Carmel, crowned erected by one of the Seleucidæ, but which afterwards by a Christian monastery, situated on the spot as. came into the hands of the Asmonean princes. Herod signed by tradition as the scene of the miracle of greatly enlarged it, erected many edifices in the Elijah (1 Kings xvii.) The mountain forms the Grecian style, and gave it the name of Cæsarea. He southern boundary of the bay of Acre, a recess of also added a safe harbour, by the construction of a considerable magnitude, and almost the only place magnificent mole, and the city became afterwards the deserving the name of a port along the whole line of seat of the Roman proconsul.
coast. The central part is encumbered by sandbanks, Cæsarea is connected with several important events but there is convenient anchorage for shipping at in the early history of the Gospel. Here Cornelius Haypha, a village on the south side, while on its was converted by St. Peter, here resided Philip the northern shore stands Akka, the most important evangelist, and here St, Paul pronounced his noble maritime town of Syria. This place, the Accho of oration before King Agrippa, and Festus, the Roman Scripture, the Ptolemais of antiquity, and the Acre of Governor. In this city, too, was the impious Herod the Crusades, has been several times reduced to ruin, struck by the hand of death, as related in the Acts of but its natural advantages have attracted attention the Apostles. At present very little remains of the alike in modern as in ancient days, though it now edifices constructed by Herod, as they have long doubtless presents but a faint image of its former served as a kind of quarry to the inhabitants of Acre, splendour. The present town, which is mainly con. and it is known that Baldwin I. of Jerusalem, when structed of materials from the ruins of Cæsarea, may he took the city by storm, in 1100, made great havoc. be said to owe its origin and its commercial importThe site is now enclosed by a wall of the era of ance to Sheik Daher, who, early in the eighteenth the later Crusades, and there is also a castle, as well century, established himself on this point, and long as several churches in a ruinous condition, which have defied the utmost efforts of the Sultan to displace evidently been constructed from the materials of him, but fell at last through treachery. Considerformer edifices, among which are fragments of marble able quantities of corn and cotton raised in the neighand granite pillars with sculptured capitals; the bourhood are exported, the imports mainly consistcastle also appears to occupy the site of an ancient ing of European and colonial produce. The town, amphitheatre, if not to be erected upon its foundations. which has a population of 20,000 persons, makes a
Ten miles beyond Cæsarea is the small town of noble appearance from the sea, and has a mosque and Tortura, the ancient Dor, taken by the tribe of baths of great elegance; it has also an arsenal, and has Manasseh, (Judges i. 27,) and afterwards known as of late been strongly fortified. It, as well as its preDora, in which Tryphon, the usurper of the Syrian decessors, has been the scene of some memorable throne, was besieged by Antiochus Sidetes, (B.c. 138). events, a brief sketch of which will form a portion of It was at one time possessed by Herod, and was long a future paper.
EDWARD THE SIXTH PRESENTING THE CHARTER OF THE HOSPITAL TO THE CORPORATION.
(From the old Picture by Hans Holbein.]
great was this increase, that, by the time of King There are many buildings in London which, when Henry the Third, there were in England no fewer the circumstances connected with their original esta- than five hundred monastic establishments. They blishment are duly inquired into, afford much valuable had in fact gained power and wealth too rapidly, and historical information: they carry us back to times became objects of dislike to all parties. The sovereign when the ecclesiastical, the legislative, and the social was dissatisfied with the opposition which, under the policy of England was such as we now no longer sanction of the papal see, they frequently showed to recognise; and thus they furnish a link to .connect his authority as a monarch; the nobles were jealous past and present times. Many such buildings have of the immense wealth of the monks; the parochial been described in former volumes of the Saturday clergy were indignant at the gradual usurpation of Magazine; and we now propose to introduce another, their privileges and possessions by the monks; and viz., Christ's Hospital (commonly known as the the people were discontented with the rigorous autho“Blue Coat School"), to the notice of our readers. rity which the monks exerted over them. It will be seen that a mere notice of the founding of Such circumstances tended to foster a desire to this excellent institution by King Edward the Sixth, curtail the power of these monks; and an opportunity followed by details of its subsequent history, would soon arrived for so doing, by the appearance in go but little way in demonstrating the necessity for England of some mendicant monks; a sect which difits establishment, since this necessity arose out of fered from the regular orders in the following points :the peculiar texture of English society long before that, while the latter had great possessions, the forthat amiable monarch existed. It will be incumbent mer were bound by their rule to remain unpossessed of on us to show that the monastic institutions which, fixed revenues; to live entirely by alms, and in volunprevious to the time of Henry the Eighth, were so tary poverty: they would hear confessions and grant numerous in England, were intimately connected with absolution at a cheaper rate than the regular monks, the circumstances out of which the necessity for and thereby furnish the people with an excuse for Christ's Hospital arose.
deserting them. The Mendicants belonged chiefly tu From the time of St. Augustine, who, towards the four orders, Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and end of the sixth century, was sent by Pope Gregory Augustinians ; but of these four the Franciscans alone to convert King Ethelbert and his Saxon subjects to are those to whom we need further allude. They Christianity, the establishment of monastic institu- derived their appellation from St. Francis, who, about tions spread gradually over England. Augustine him- the year 1200, made a vow to devote himself entirely self belonged to the Benedictines, whereby that order to religious mortification, and founded an order of gained a supremacy over all others in England. monks, whom he bound by a rule inculcating absolute During the subsequent contests between the Danes poverty as the germ of all religion. From their huand Saxons, and afterwards between the Saxons and | mility, (real or affected,) they termed themselves Normans, the monasteries suffered frequently and Friars Minor; and, from the colour of their dress, severely; but the pious zeal of the sovereigns, spurred Grey Friars, being thus distinguished from the Doon by the overwhelming power of the popes, restored minicans, who were termed Black Friars. these establishments, and added to their number. So į In the year 1224, nine of these Franciscans or Vol. XVII.
Grey Friars, arrived in England, with a letter of have been partially felt by the Franciscans, for they recommendation from the pope. They first resided at gradually relaxed the austerity of their rule. This a Benedictine pricry in Canterbury; then at a Do- gave rise to a schism; and a new party sprang up, minican friary in Oldbourne (Holborn); then at the who, by adhering to the original and rigorous rule, house of John Travers, sheriff of London; and, lastly, deemed themselves entitled to the name of Friars in a convent built expressly for them in the ward of Minims, the term minor not being humble enough. Farringdon, nearly on the spot where Christ's Hos The Friars Minor, under their relaxed rule, coupital now stands. The erection of this convent was tinued to receive the support of kings and nobles, entirely the result of individual munificence: one down to the memorable period when Henry the person presented the ground on which the convent Eighth, influenced by sordid motives which he masked was to be built; another built the choir of the church; under a religious veil, suppressed all the monastic a third built the nave; a fourth the chapter-house; a institutions in England. We cannot doubt for a fifth the vestry; a sixth the dormitories ; a seventh moment that this suppression was a blessing to the the refectory; and others supplied furniture and fit- country; for the enormous revenues possessed by tings-up, besides funds for other purposes.
these establishments became a source of evil in many There were nuns, as well as monks or friars, belong- ways, and the lives of the monks were too often ing to most of the orders. Those professing the rule disgraced by licentiousness: still, however, the wbole of St. Francis had a convent near Aldgate ; they were manner in which Henry brought about the suppression, called Minoresses, (the friars being Minors,) and their together with his mode of disposing of the revenues, house was called the Minories, a name which was prevent us from awarding him credit for the motives afterwards applied to the street in which it was situ- by which he was impelled. We have more than once ated. The foundress of the order was St. Clare, a had occasion to speak of the dissolution of monascotemporary and imitator of St. Francis ; and the teries ; and shall therefore refrain from entering into sisters were often termed poor Clares.
the subject, further than to say that the convent of The establishment of the new convent took place in the Grey Friars shared the common ruin that fell on the ninth year of Henry the Third's reign, and from these establishments, by which ten thousand persons that time its revenues or endowments were continually of both sexes were thrown on the world without the augmenting by private donations. Queen Margaret, means of subsistence. On the 12th of November, wife of Edward the First, was a munificent benefac- 1539, the Grey Friars, headed by their warden, surtress, advancing, in addition to other gifts, 2000 rendered their convent to Henry, and were obliged marks towards the erection of a new chapel
. This to sign a deed, in which they were made to state chapel appears to have been a splendid and costly that they "doo profoundly consider that the perfeccion structure, and is said to have been 300 feet long, 90 of Christian liuyng dothe not conciste in dome cerein width, and 74 in height: every part was erected monies, weryng of a grey cootte, disgeasing our selffe and adorned at the voluntary expense of individuals; aftyr straunge fassions, dokynge, nodyngs, and and so far did this subdivision of expense go, that the bekynge, in gurding our selffes wythe a gurdle full thirty-six windows of the chapel were glazed at the of knots, and other like papisticall ceremonyes, charge of an equal number of persons.
wherein we haue byn most pryncipally practysed, Benefactions continued to pour into the convent and mysselyed in tymes past." from all quarters; among which one of the most When the friars had left their house, the church useful was that of a library of books, and a receptacle was converted into a storehouse; the consecrated in which to deposit them, from the famous Sir | vessels were sold; and the monuments were defaced Richard Whittington, in 1421. Such was the repu- and- destroyed. Still, however, the buildings were tation which these friars obtained, that popes, cardi- not actually destroyed;
not actually destroyed; and they became, some nals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, and nobles were years afterwards, the seat of Christ's Hospital, on registered in the chronicles of the order; but one of account of these circumstances :-There were no the most remarkable evidences of this admiration, and poor-laws in those days; neither were there any one illustrative of the state of religious feeling in institutions analogous to the infirmaries and hospithose days, was that the great and noble deemed their tals which now so honourably distinguish this country. chance of future happiness greater if they were buried When, therefore, the poor were in actual want or in within the precincts of the convent, clothed in the sickness, there was no place for them to apply to but humble garb of the friars. To this superstition (for the monasteries; and it must in justice be mentioned, such we, acting on a purer creed, must assuredly call that, the doors of the monasteries were ever open to it) we must attribute the fact, that within the convent the relief of the humble and distressed: at many of were buried four queens, four duchesses, four count them there was a daily portion of food distributed to esses, one duke, two earls, eight barons, and thirty- the poor; and the monks were often capable of acting five knights.
in a medical capacity, in accordance with the rude It may probably occur to the reader to inquire knowledge of those times. But when Henry's ruthhow far all this celebrity and these benefactions com less spoliation took place, and the revenues, instead ported with the vow of poverty made by the Fran- of being applied to purposes of religion and charity, ciscans. A fair and rational interpretation of the were appropriated to his own use, this source was Gospel will surely show us that a tempered cheerfulness cut off, and the poor soon began to suffer great is not only unopposed to Christianity, but forms one misery, the loss of their former benefactors not being of its beautiful and, if we may use such a term, compensated by any new establishments. Education, amiable features. The humility of the heart does too, rude as it had been by the monks, was now at not necessarily call for such personal mortifications, a stand, for there were scarcely any schools. and even degradations, as the Franciscans, acting This state of things excited the compassion of from a narrow view of a few passages in Scripture, many benevolent persons in the city of London, imposed on themselves; and indeed it may well be among whom, Sir Richard Gresham, then Lord doubted whether a coarse garment, and coarser food, Mayor, petitioned the king to allow three hospitals, contribute one whit to the purification of the heart which had previously existed in London under the that beats within, since that purification must emanate hands of the monks, to be made over to the city of from a far different source. These truths appear to London, in order that the revenues accruing there
from might be applied to the healing of the sick poor,
THE SYRIAN COAST. III. the support of impotent persons unable to labour, and the occasional relief of distressed persons. This The original appellation of the town now known as petition was left unheeded by the king, until his Akka, or Acre, was one descriptive of its situation. approaching death induced him to think more seri- It was styled by its Canaanitish inhabitants, Accho, ously on the state of his poorer subjects: in the year signifying inclosedd, or shut-up; a term peculiarly 1545, the king made over to the corporation of appropriate to a town built upon a neck of land London the whole site of the Grey Friars' Convent, stretching two miles into the sea, and in all probability with all the buildings remaining on it, together with then, as it certainly was afterwards, and is now, Bartholomew's Hospital in Smithfield: he also made defended by a wall drawn from the open sea on the certain alterations in the parochial divisions of that west, to a small creek on the east, which served as a part of the city, and gave the name of Christ haven. It is mentioned as one of the cities which the Cuurch to the conventual church lately belonging Israelites were unable to subdue, (Judges i. 31,) but to the friars.
although it was of sufficient importance in the time But this gift was, from different causes, suffered to of Alexander to have a mint, (upon the coins struck lie dormant for several years; and it was not until in which it is styled Ako,) little notice occurs of the attention of the young Edward, son and successor it in history, until the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, to Henry the Eighth, had been drawn to the subject (B.C. 250,) who, having taken it from Antiochus II., by Bishop Ridley, that any real good was effected. rebuilt it, and named it Ptolemais. It was for some The king, after hearing a sermon on charity from considerable time possessed by the Egyptians, but Ridley, had a long conference with him ; the result of was in the following century in the hands of the which was, a communication to the city authorities, kings of Syria. Here the impostor Alexander Balas who promptly attended. A plan was soon arranged first established himself, who was assisted by the by which St. Thomas's Hospital was to be devoted to the Maccabees; and it was afterwards possessed by relief of the sick and diseased; Bridewell, for the Tryphon, who having persuaded Jonathan Maccabeus correction and amendment of the idle poor; and to visit him, made him a prisoner, and shortly afterChrist's Hospital, for the education of poor children, in wards put him to death (B.C. 143). addition to the maintenance provided by the gift of Ptolemais next fell into the hands of the Romans, Henry. It is related that when Edward, then sink- and was by the Emperor Claudius raised to the ing into the grave,-had signed the charter of this dignity of a colony; about this period it was visited gift, he ejaculated, in the hearing of his council by St. Paul, and it early became the seat of a Chris“Lord! I yield thee most hearty thanks, that thou tian bishop. It continued to form a part of the hast given me life thus long, to finish this work to Greek empire until the conquest of Syria by the the glory of thy name.” In June, 1553, a few days Saracens, (A.D. 636,) when it was occupied without before his death, Edward received the lord mayor resistance by the followers of the Prophet, and reand corporation at the palace, and presented them mained in their hands until 1104, in which year it with the charter. The scene which occurred on this was captured by the Crusaders, after a twenty days' occasion was depicted by the pencil of Hans Holbein, siege. The king, Baldwin I., was assisted in this in a picture which now adorns the hall of the institu- enterprise by a fleet of Pisans and Genoese, who retion, and which is represented in our frontispiece: ceived in return for their services, a grant of a quarter the king is seen seated on the throne; around him of the town, a practice very commonly followed in are some of his ministers; Bishop Ridley, kneeling, the Crusades, but from which much mischief arose is receiving the charter from the hand of the king; in after-times, as each. party possessed an indepenthe mayor and corporation are on the other side of dent authority, which was but too often exercised to the throne; members of the common council are the prejudice of all the rest. seen on either side; and in front are some of the Under the Crusaders, Prolemais, or, as it was then children, dressed in russet gowns. The picture, as a called, Acon, regained much of its ancient importance. work of art, has been the subject of some severe
Numerous churches and monasteries were erected; criticism; but as a national monument, commemo and it was so strongly fortified, as to be deemed imrative of an important event in the history of the pregnable; but when Saladin had annihilated the humbler classes of English society, it is both valuable chivalry of the Latin kingdom at the disastrous and interesting.
battle of Hittin, or Tiberias, (July 5, 1187,) Acon Thus arose CarIST'S HOSPITAL; and it will now opened its gates to him two days after, and remained be seen what has been our object in carrying the in his possession for four years, its fortifications being reader's attention back to monastic times, when two still further strengthened, a numerous garrison placed thirds of the entire area of the city of London was in it, and vast quantites of warlike stores laid up in occupied by religious houses and their various ap- it by the victor. The king, Guy de Lusignan, had pendages. It will be seen that the poor and sick been taken prisoner at Tiberias, and when, after a persons who had been assisted by the monks, and the while, he was released, he found that his authority poor children who had been in some sort educated by was not acknowledged in the few fragments of his them, were thrown friendless on the world, by the kingdom still in the hands of the Christians. De. sudden suppression of those institutions; and that termined, however, to persevere, he collected together Christ's Hospital was the first attempt to remedy the a small force of 700 knights and 9000 infantry, (some temporary evil occasioned thereby: we say temporary, the survivors of the battle, but the majority pilgrims for there is abundant proof that the improvement in who had recently arrived from Europe,) and being religion and morals, consequent on the suppression, assisted by a Pisan fleet, ventured to lay siege to ultimately counterbalanced, beyond all measure, the Acon, before which he arrived in August, 1189. The evil and suffering at first resulting from it. Having garrison was far more numerous than the besiegers, thus shown the causes which led to the foundation yet the latter made a desperate attempt to carry the of Christ's Hospital, we shall be prepared to trace place by escalade, on the third day after their arrival, its subsequent history, and to describe the buildings and would probably have succeeded, had they not at comprised within the precincts of the institution. the very moment of victory been induced to retire
to their camp by news of the approach of Saladin.
The besiegers were now besieged in their turn, and, | were sedulously attended to by the knights, and upon though they repelled several attempts to storm their them chiefly were expended the sums which were lines, were severely defeated in more than one battle yearly collected in Christendom for the relief of the which the disorderly multitude of pilgrims ventured Holy Land. The population was very large, but of a upon against the wish of their leaders.
very mixed character, and included a great number, In the mean time famine began to prevail in the of Mohammedans. In proportion as their other Christian camp, while the besieged, having the com- strongholds were wrested from them, Acre became of mand of the sea, (for an Egyptian fleet had driven more and more importance to the Christians; and at away the Pisans,) were plentifully supplied with pro- length, in the year 191, its walls inclosed all that re. visions, and often received reinforcements of men; in mained of the conquests of Godfrey, and Baldwin, the Christian camp sickness also raged to such an of Richard, and Edward I*. Feeble as the Christians extent, that for some time 200 pilgrims died in a day. now were, they still continued to provoke their Beside all this, disunion prevailed among their lead- enemies by plundering excursions into the neighbours ers.' Conrad of Montferrat, prince of Tyre, from ing country, and by shameless breaches of faith to whence most of their supplies were procured, used merchants who visited them for purposes of trade, and the influence he thus possessed, to thwart the plans when at length the Egyptian Sultan appeared before of the king, whom he desired to dispossess of the their walls, (April, 1291,) there was no unity of crown; and thus the camp was split into two factions, counsel, as to their measures of defence. All the the French pilgrims espousing the cause of Guy, while various powers which had heretofore possessed any Conrad was supported by the Germans, the wreck of portion of the Holy Land, had here their representathe crusade which the Emperor Frederic I. had con tives, who occupied distinct quarters of the town, in ducted by land as far as the confines of Syria, and who which they exercised sovereign power, and could reached Acon under the command of his son, the scarcely be brought to an agreement on any point, duke of Suabia*.
when the safety of all was at stake. At last, as Thus the years 1189 and 1190 wore away, the their only hope was in the courage of the military operations of the besiegers having been utterly with orders, the chief command was bestowed upon the out effect, and their loss most terrible; when news grand master of the knights of St. John, who bravely came that the kings of England and France were defended the city for thirty-three days; but the assailadvancing with numerous armies. Saladin imme- ants were twenty times as numerous as the garrison, diately threw a fresh garrison into the place, so that and on the 18th of May, 1291, the double wall was when the king of France arrived, (April 13, 1191,) he forced, 60,000 Christians either massacred or made found the siege in reality was yet to begin. He was, slaves, and vast numbers drowned in endeavouring however, unable to effect anything until Richard Cæur to escape by sea. The Knights Templars defended de Lion landed, (June 8,) and then the rivalry of their hospital three days longer, until the grand the two monarchs prevented their acting in concert, master was slain, and of 500 knights only ten were till they had each made an assault upon the town left alive. The fortifications were destroyed, as were and been repulsed. At length uniting their forces, the churches and the dwellings, the harbour became the place was surrendered on the 12th of July; the gradually choked up with sand, and for 200 years terms being the restoration of the wood of the “true Acre remained a ruin, inhabited only by a few fisher: cross," which Saladin had taken at Tiberias, the pay- men. ment of a large sum of money, and the liberation of At length it was in some measure restored by Fakr2500 Christian captives. The officers and great part el-Din, the prince of the Druses, who, in the sevenof the garrison were detained as hostages, and as the teenth century, aimed at opening a communication conditions were not fulfilled at the appointed time, between his country and Europe, and for that purpose were mercilessly massacred by order of King Richard made great efforts to rebuild some of the ruined cities on the 20th of August. Thus terminated the memo on the coast, but on his death, it sank into its former rable siege of Acon, which was more frightfully state; and 'so remained until raised again by the destructive of human life than any other event of Sheik Daher, who was for many years the actual ruler the kind on record; for beside the loss of the Mos. of Syria, and did much to make Acre more particulems, it is estimated by contemporary writers that out larly a place of importance. Upon his death, in 1776, of 300,000 pilgrims engaged, not one-tenth returned he was succeeded by Djezzar Pacha, who undid much to Europe.
that his predecessor had done, and in whose time, By the terms of the truce which Richard con- Acre sustained its memorable siege from the French, cluded before leaving the Holy Land, a strip of sea- under Buonaparte, who here met with his first serious coast extending from Jaffa to Tripoli was secured to reverse. The fortifications were at this time in a mi the Christians, and Acre remained in their hands serable state, and no resistance was anticipated; but Sir until their final expulsion from Syria. Its advan- | Sydney Smith, the British commodore, landed a party tageous position, and the excellent harbour which it of searen and marines, and by their aid, Djezzar was then possessed, occasioned it to become a place of enabled to repulse no less than twelve assaults on the great trade during the frequent truces which occurred, town, though one was treacherously made during the and contemporary writers speak of it as a most splen
* Edward, before he became king, served in the crusade before did city, particularly mentioning the great church of Tunis, where St. Louis died; finding the other princes disheartened, St. John (whence the name by which the city is often
and wishing to return home, he sailed for Acre, where he landed mentioned, of St. Jean d'Acre,) the cathedral of his force soon increased to seven times their number, with which
early in 1271, with only 6000 men, but his fame was such that St. Andrew, the fortified palaces of the three great he took the field, and speedily reduced Nazareth and several other military orders, who had here their head-quarters, and places, but finding it impossible that his acquisitions could be main
iained without a much larger force than there was any chance of formed the only defence that could be relied upon, an his being able to spare from his own dominions, and that no reliartificial port, and a noble aqueduct. The fortifications ance could be placed upon the energy of those he came to succour,
he entered into a truce for ten years with the sultan of Egypt, which
secured several advantages to the inhabitants of Acre, and left Syria, * A number of these Germans formed themselves into a third in May, 1272. Whilst he was at Acre, an attempt was made to military order, which bore the name of the Teutonic, and after the assassinate him by an Arab armed with a poisoned dagger, and the loss of the Holy Land employed itself chiefly against the pagan in-venom is said by some writers to have been sucked from the wound habitants of Lithuania. The other orders were ihe Knights Hospi- by his wife Eleonora ; on which Fuller remarks, “Pity it is that so tallers, or Knights of St. John, and the Knights Templars, both pretty a story should noi be true; yet can it not stand with what founded at Jerusalem, the former about 1050, the latter in i118. others have written."