a particular place, should receive aid in a particular Up to thc time of King Charles the Second, tho way. By the 43rd of Elizabeth, every parish was education received at the school was of rather an bound to provide in a certain way for the support of elementary nature; but in his reign, and through the its poor by the payment of poor-rates; and thus a instrumentality of Sir Christopher Wren, and other large amount of individual distress was relieved, which distinguished persons, a mathematical school was would otherwise have fallen upon the hospital. It established, which greatly raised the reputation of appears, that from the earliest period of its founda the institution. Forty buys were admitted into this tion, the hospital relieved two distinct classes of school, where they were to receive a mathematical persons: first, persons who, come from where they education, of such a character as would fit them for might, were in danger of perishing if not relieved by the naval service, after which they were to enter the hospital: second, the children of freemen, who either the King's or the merchant-service. The were in destitute circumstances; each child to be, on necssary funds for this object were provided, partly its reception, less than four years of age, and to be by the king, and partly by the munificence of private recommended by an alderman and six citizens: the individuals. Shortly afterwards Mr. Henry Stone, child to be taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, among other bequests, left a sum of money, the and at a proper age to be apprenticed out to some interest of which was to be devoted to the education respectable trade. Now the establishment of poor of an additional number of boys in the mathematical laws took away the necessity for receiving distressed school: these boys were at first associated with those persons for temporary assistance into the hospital; on the king's foundation, but were afterwards sepaand the governors were therefore able to devote their rated; and since then the "twelves," i.e., the twelve funds more particularly to education. It is also worthy boys on Stone's foundation, have been kept distinct of remark, that, from the very first, the children from the forty “king's boys.” Additions have been who were admitted, required strong recommendations since made to the number of mathematical boys by from the governors, or other city authorities; and bequests from Mr. Stock and Mr. Travers. therefore the plan at present pursued is not so much a

Immediately after the fire of London, the same departure from, as a modification of, the original plan. individuals who urged the king to found the mathe

From the time of the first foundation to the year matical school, also rendered their own services to 1600. the hospital received about ten thousand pounds repair the damage done by the fire. Sir Robert in donations and legacies, together with estates, which Clayton spent 50001. in repairing some of the buildai the present time produce as much as eight thou- ings; and Sir John Frederick expended a still larger saud per annum. But at that time the annual rental sum in rebuilding the Great Hall: this building was was not much above one-tenth of this large sum; a noble and commodious structure, and remained in and the governors found the income insufficient for use until the year 1827, when it was replaced by the the demands on the funds of the institution ; they present hall. were therefore obliged to diminish the number of

The donations made to the hospital, in the century children maintained at their charge, and to restrict between 1600 to 1700, amounted to 110,0001., besides the admission of new candidates within narrower the rentals of estates and the interest of monies in the limits than before. Although the number of persons funds; and since that period additional donations, having a right to admission was thus diminished, yet together with the very improved rental of the estates, the wishes of individual benefactors occasioned many have enabled the governors to meet all their expendiimprovements to be made in particular branches of tures. Repeated changes, however, were made in the the institution :-thus, Lady Ramsey, and after her limitation as to admission, arising from the wishes of other persons, left estates, the proceeds of which were different benefactors being from time to time complied to be applied to the support of some of the boys at the with. The decision finally arrived at, however, and universities, when they should have made a certain which is nearly the same as that at present acted on. advance in their studies ; the same lady also left an was briefly as follows:--Two-thirds of the applicants estate to be devoted to the foundation of a writing-school, must be the sons of freemen: the age of admission to in addition to the schools already established.

be, not before seven nor after ten years of age: two During the seventeenth century, the prospects of of one family may, under certain circumstances, the charity brightened, since we find that, in Camden's be admitted: no foundling, nor a child maintained at time, six hundred children were maintained in the the parish charge to be admitted: that no children house, and more than a thousand persons received who are any way deformed or diseased; or one who relief in alms. The establishment escaped pretty has any adequate means of support * be admitted : no well from the effects of the Great Plague in 1665; but child to be admitted without a certificate from the the fire of the following year greatly damaged the minister and churchwardens of the parish from whence buildings; and the liberality of the city authorities they come, as to eligibility, &c.; and lastly, that had to be appealed to in reparing the damage. We all the parties concerned must be strictly examined find that at about this period, on the admission of a on these points before an admission can be granted. child it was required—that his father should be a Not only in the mode of admission, but also in the freeman, unable to support the child; that the child mode of government, changes were made from time should be not less than seven years of age; that he to time, Originally there were sixty-six governors, should be recommended by the minister and church. elected for two years from among the London corpowardens of the parish; and that the parish in which he ration; and afterwards this triennial election was was born should engage to discharge him from the abolished, and vacancies were filled up as they hospital at the age of fifteen. As the applicants became occurred. But subsequently, when large and valumore numerous, it was found necessary to make these able gifts were made to the charity, it was deemed regulations still more stringent, and it was ordered, proper to offer the right of patronage or presentation in addition, that no child should be admitted but one to those benefactors through whom the funds had who had lost one of its parents, and that no two

* We may remark, that if there is any part of the arrangements children of one family should be admitted.

which clashes with the intentions of the original founder, it seems to here mention that there was a school established in be this one; for the limit of incapacity is laid as high as 3001. per Hertfordshire, where the girls and the younger boys annum ; that is, a parent may have an income as high as 3001. per

annum, and still send his son to this establishment to receive gratuiwere maintained.

tous maintenance and education,

We may

been increased. In 1782, accordingly, an Act of | hall, after the design of Mr. Shaw. The first stone Parliament was passed, by which the common coun of this elegant building was laid by His Royal cil were empowered to appoint twelve governors, with Highness the Duke of York, on 28th of April, 1825. the same privileges as other governors: any other The construction of the hall occupied about four person, likewise, on making a donation of 4001., or

years, and it was opened on 29th of May, 1829, in upwards, became a governor ; as did likewise a certain the presence of a large number of distinguished pernumber of persons nominated by the ex-officio gover- sons. It is this building, which meets the eye of a nors. Thus there are ex-officio governors, benefactors, spectator on the north side of Newgate-street, the governors, and presentation-governors, of which only governors having determined to keep an open space thirty-eight, (viz. twenty-six aldermen and twelve between the play-ground in front of the hall and the common councilmen,) are ex-officio, the others, street, the two being separated by iron railings. amounting to several hundreds, belonging to the We have thus endeavoured to trace the chief events other classes.

in the history of this noble institution, from the About the year 1790 the grammar-school, together times anterior but preparatory to its establishment with some other parts of the building, had become so down to the present time. We shall now have to dilapidated as to render rebuilding necessary. Accor- give a description of the various buildings forming dingly, a building, containing an upper and lower Christ's Hospital, and to describe the mode of educagrammar-schools, and another apartment, was built tion adopted, together with the internal economy of out of funds supplied through the benevolence of one the establishment. of the friends of the establishment.

Unfortunately, however, the materials of which this building was

GEMS AND PRECIOUS STONES. formed became so decayed through dry-rot, that in a few years it was found necessary to pull it down, and

IV. to erect in its stead a new building, in which the

6. We come now to notice the Topaz, a wellgrammar, mathematical, and drawing schools were

known stone of great beauty, but of small value. Its contained under one roof. Had the funds of the chief colours are a bright yellow and a fine pink, but institution been such as to leave a surplus for the the latter colour is generally produced by the action entire rebuilding of the whole hospital on one uniform of heat. It is sometimes found quite colourless, or plan, it is probable that the ultimate expence would with a faint tinge of blue, in which latter case it has have been less than that which has actually been in the name of oriental aquamarine. Topazes are found curred; but such a plan was impracticable; and the go- in Brazil, Saxony, Siberia, the Oural Mountains, vernors had therefore to make improvements and alte- Kamschatka, Mucla, in Asia Minor, Cairngorm, in rations as rapidly as their funds would permit: in fur- Scotland, and in New Holland; at all which places it therance of this plan, a subscription was set on foot, at occurs in loose crystals, like pebbles among the the head of which the corporation of the city of London remains of broken rocks. The pale and straw-coloured appeared with the noble donation of one thousand Saxon topazes, brought from Schneckenstein, lose pounds. Out of the fund thus produced, the expense the colour entirely when heated. Some of the topazes of the new grammar and mathematical schools was of that country assume a green tint, when they are defrayed.

erroneously called Saxon or occidental chrysolite. In proportion as education spread throughout the The price of this stone varies exceedingly. When country, it became matter for inquiry, how far the Cook first visited at Rio Janeiro, the best topazes system of education pursued in Christ's Hospital was are said to have been sold, large and small together, adequate to the objects intended to be produced. in octavos, or eighth parts of an ounce, at the This was matter of discussion towards the end of low rate of 4s. 9d. the octavo. This forms a sinthe last century; and still more about thirty years gular contrast with the account given by Tavernier of ago, when a Committee of Education was chosen from à topaz in the possession of the Great Mogul, which among the governors, to investigate the whole subject, only weighed 157 carats, (rather more than an ounce and report on such changes as might appear most and a quarter,) and yet cost 20,0001. This was prodesirable. Considerable improvements were the re-bably, however, an oriental topaz, which, as we have sult of this inquiry; aided also, it is probable, by a already seen, is the name given to a gem of far greater parliamentary commission, which was appointed to value, viz., the yellow sapphire. The largest topaz at inquire into the mode of management of the principal present known is preserved in the Museum of Natural public charities. The nature of these changes we History, at Paris, and weighs rather more than four shall further allude to when we come to speak of the ounces. Topazes of a deep yellow, inclining to orange, internal economy of the institution.

are often absurdly called occidental hyacinths, and Old buildings were pulled down, and new ones hyacinthes miellées by the French; that is, having the erected from time to time, according to the wants of colour of honey. It is very doubtful to what subthe institution, and the pecuniary means at the stance the topaz owes its colour. According to Berdisposal of the governors. Some of these erections zelius it consists chiefly of alumina and silica, with a were rendered necessary by the appearance of ophthal- small portion of fluoric acid. mia in the school about twenty years ago. This was The modern topaz is supposed to be the chrysolite considered in some degree owing to the practice of of the ancients; and their topaz identical with our the boys all washing in one spot, and occasionally chrysolite. This is probable, because the term topaz, using the same towels. To remove this source of not having any peculiar meaning, is as likely to have inconvenience, a new lavatory, or washing-place, was been applied to one substance as the other ; while the erected, containing a long trough on each side, with term chrysolite, meaning golden stone, would not be an pipes and taps at convenient distances, and such improper name as applied to a golden-coloured gem, a supply of hot and cold water, that one hundred such as our topaz: but it is not probable that it was boys can wash at the same time; and every endea- | originally applied to such a stone as the modern chryvour was and is made to preserve the utmost clean-solite, whose colour (dark green, sometimes inclining liness in the arrangement of this room.

to brown) does not at all merit the epithet of “golden.' The last event in the history of the hospital to 7. The EMERALD and BERYL, owing to the simiwhich we can here allude, is the rebuilding of the larity of their composition, are considered as the same

stone. Ils rarity and great beanty have caused it to metallic oxide, has acquired a beautiful violet colour, be universally considered as a gem, though, according like that part of the prismatic spectrum where the to the definition we have hitherto given, it can hardly red and blue are so exactly balanced, that neither of be reckoned as such, either as to hardness or specific them preponderates. It is a common but erroneous gravity. The only known localities of this stone are notion that this stone forms the matrix of the true several places in Peru, especially the valley of Tomana, oriental amethyst: that is to say, it is supposed to be near New Carthagena; but it is probable that it was the stone or rock in which the latter gem is found procured by the ancients from Ethiopia. In common imbedded; but the common amethyst is almost language, the term emerald is applied solely to such exactly similar in composition to pure flint. of these gems as are of a beautiful grass-green colour. Another beautifully-coloured variety of quartz is The blue variety, which is met with more frequently, the Prase and CHRYSOPRASE, which are of a pleasing and in larger crystals, is called beryl, or more com apple-green tint, sometimes passing into grass-green, monly aquamarine, from its colour resembling that of when they have been confounded with the emerald. the sea viewed at a distance in a clear atmosphere. Their colour is due to oxide of nickel. Those who The primitive form of the emerald is a hexagonal consider these stones as distinct from each other, state prism; but it is very frequently modified. This gem that the true chrysoprase is found only in Silesia. was greatly prized by the ancients. Pliny describes It is greatly valued as a jewel; for a ring-stone of its brilliancy as being like the air that encircles us, good transparent and homogeneous chrysoprase has and many of the early writers speak of it as being often been sold for upwards of twenty guineas. This comforting to the eyes. The large emeralds men stone greatly exceeds the other varieties of quartz tioned by Herodotus, however, must huve been of a in hardness. different composition. We are told that in the This stone is liable to lose its colour and become valley of Manta, in Peru, a real emerald of immense black by a very slight elevation of temperature, so size was formerly worshipped by the ignorant people that it requires care in cutting and polishing the of that district, under the name of the mother of eme facets, lest the mere friction should produce this ralds, and offerings made to it of smaller emeralds, said effect. It is also stated that moisture as well as heat to be its daughters. A marvellous account of the affects the colour of this gem. emerald in the monastery of Reichenau, in Lake Con The CARNELIAN, or CORNELIAN, and the CalcEstance, is also related. It is said to weigh twenty DONY are the same stone, but differently coloured. eight pounds and three quarters! Strangers are now By the latter name are known such specimens as are prohibited from examining it; but one traveller, who white, blueish-white, or light-blue, while the term once had an opportunity of doing so, declares it to be carnelian is used for such as pass from white into only coloured glass, and another spoke of it as green yellow, orange, and red. The deeper and more fluor-spar. The emerald is composed of silex, alu- transparent the red colour is, the more is the stone mine, and carbonate of lime, and its colour is produced valued; while those of a pale yellow colour, or which by chrome.

are only translucent, are very little esteemed. 8. Many varieties of GARNET are reckoned by The best carnelians come from India, Japan *, and lapidaries: the most esteemed is the noble or precious other parts of Asia, but the ancients procured theirs garnet; also called oriental, from whatever quarter from the interior of Africa, whence they were brought procured. This kind is of a rich blood-red colour, through Carthage. The royal collection at Paris, and but far inferior in brilliancy to the oriental ruby, or the British Museum, have numerous ancient engraved red sapphire. Werner calls this fine variety of garnet carnelians of a fine description. Many of those in pyrope, while Karsten gives it the name of almadine. the latter institution were found in the field of Cannæ When these stones incline to an orange or purple | in Apulia, where Hannibal defeated the Romans so colour, they are esteemed less valuable: the orange signally, and where so many Romans of the higher are called by the French hyacinthe la belle, and by the class were slain, that he is said to have forwarded Italians jacintho guarnacino: the purple variety has to Carthage three bushels of the rings which they the appellation of Syrian, a corruption of Sorian. This wore, as a token of his victory. stone is composed of silica, lime, alumina, and oxide Calcedony, in its simplest state, is a stone of very of iron.

It is obtained chiefly from Pegu. In Green- small value, and frequently occurs among pebbles and land also it is very abundant and of fine quality. gravel in all countries. But when it is found in Immense quantities are found in Bohemia, and other layers of various colours, it is called onyx and sardonyx. parts of Germany, but these are inferior in quality to These terms are now much confounded together; but the rest.

it seems that the ancients applied the term onyx to The garnet might be of essential service to the semi-transparent specimens of calcedony, variegated optician; for though its refractive power is very great, by opaque wbite layers, or covered with an opaque it has no double refraction, and the light which it white crust'; so that by partially cutting away this transmits is almost homogeneous, as the gem absorbs crust, white figures could be left upon a coloured almost all the rays except the red. On this account ground. The term sardonyx is derived from onyx, it is valuable in the construction of lenses of very and sarda, the ancient name for carnelian, so that it short focal length, such as those of microscopes; properly applies to stones presenting alternate stripes and simple microscopes of garnet have been found or layers of carnelian and onyx of various colours. far superior to any others.

Engravers have long availed themselves of these 9. Quartz is the next stone in the scale of hard- stones, in forming those beautiful specimens of their ness, and this, in its purest and simplest form, con art called cameos, in which the different layers of the stitutes white rock crystal, a substance too common stones are so cut away as to form coloured figures in to be ranked among the precious stones. There are relief. The hair, for instance, being represented by a several coloured varieties of it, however, that are com brown, the face by a flesh-coloured, and the drapery monly considered as gems, especially the following :- by a white layer. Such cameos are greatly esteemed,

Common AMETHYST, or AMETHYST QUARTZ, so in prop ortion to the number of colours they exhibit. called to distinguish it from the oriental amethyst or purple sapphire, is simply quartz, or pure silica, of pale carnelians so as to produce a most beautilul, uniform, and

* The Japanese are said to possess tne art of deepening the colour which, by the addition of a very small portion of

permanent cherry.colour.


STTOZYmd backwards, having in its mouth a knot of dried grass


both in preparing it, and in stocking it with grass, d) 9991W mesti 9999 tentang adt 20 tisq isdt oli &c., for their winter store. They scoop out the earth .) 1914tiya ,

Ruld bos be with great expedition, and, throwing away a portion of milloragredit; beat the rest into a firm and compact pathway

The marmot'is a very cleanly animal, and throughout MU1 its arrangements there is an evident regard to neat

ness and comfort, in an abode which is to form its place of retreat and safety at all seasons of the year, and its constant dormitory during the season of

torpor. The entrance to the burrow is generally od made beneath some projecting stone or ledge, in y order that the rain or melting snow may not pene.

and as an additional security, the animal on

retreating for the winter season enters the burrow mitab as asidta ..129S

De which it draws tightly into the small aperture which to 90a-01

forms the entrance, and thus completely closes it. 230 9251027 euromon 16 3119710 hoes

It is very commonly said that thiese little animals The different species of marmot form the genus when laying in their stores of grass for the lining of Arctomys, which literally signifies" hear-rat," or rat their winter abode, have the following ingenious having the body formed somewhat like a bear. This method of working. One of the members of the generic name has, however, been restricted to such of little society intending to congregate together, permits' these animals as are without cheek-pouches, while to his body to be made use of as a kind of sledge for the other division, having cheek-pouches, the name of the transportation of the stores. He turns on his Spermophilus is applied.

back and allows his comrades to load him with as The marmot of the Alps may be taken as the type much of the grass, moss, &c., as he can conveniently

of the first division; and in describing the appearance support between his paws. When thus loaded, his 1

and habits of this interesting little animal, we shall, companions seize him by the tail and pull him along with some trifling exceptions, be describing those of with his load, he contriving to keep steadily on his the allied species.

back all the time. When either party gets tired, a The Alpine marmut is an inhabitant, as its name change is made, and other marmots supply their places, implies, of the Alps, and of some other mountainous and so on till the provisions are safely lodged in the regions of Europe; but it is not found even in the burrow. We have heard the same story related of most elevated parts of the British isles. It is dis- rats, but do not, in either case, vouch for its accuracy. tinguishable by a thick, inelegant body, short thick The commencement of lethargy in the marmot legs, large and flat head, truncated ears, short tail, and seems to depend on the beginning of the cold weather;. general clumsiness of appearance. The prevailing the time of their final retreat to their burrows varies, colour of the fur is gray on the upper part of the therefore, from the middle of September to the body, and fawn colour, or brownish red, beneath. The middle of October. The repose of this animal is not, eyes are large, with round pupils. The upper lip is like that of the dormouse, liable to frequent intercleft, leaving the incisors at all times uncovered. The ruptions; it is a deep lethargy, in which the whole cheeks are so thickly covered with fur as to change winter is passed without food : accordingly, the anithe apparent proportions of the head. The fur is mal, which at the commencement of winter is so fat

also very thick on the back and sides of the animal. as to be sought after by the mountaineers as an Į

From this description of the marmot, it is evident article of food, at the termination of this long period
that an appearance of heaviness 'and stupidity is of abstinence bas become so extremely thin as to
given to the animal, not by any means discoverable render its flesh bard and coriaceous, and quite unfit
in its habits and economy. Destined principally for for that purpose. To refined appetites the marmot
a subterraneous existence, it requires not the lightness would at any season be unpalatable, for the fat with
and agility of the squirrel, and having few enemies, which it is loaded, when in its best condition has very
and requiring little more for sustenance than the much the taste and appearance of lard.
scanty herbage round its burrow, quickness of motion The marmot remains in its winter abode, until the
is unnecessary to it. Accordingly we find its locomo- returning warmth of spring, in the month of March or

tion is slow, it raises itself with apparent effort, and April, causes it to awake from its long sleep and to -1 climbs slowly up the clefts and projections of its look about for means of subsistence. Removing the native mountains.

barrier from the entrance of its burrow, it now seeks That the marmot is not destitute of sagacity and the lower ground where food may be obtained; but it ingenuity is proved by its method of working in the does not appear at any season to roam to a great formation of its burrow, and by the caution observed distance from its proper home. A very remarkable on occasion of quitting its retreat. The burrow of instinct is observed ainong these animals, on occasion this animal is generally in the elevated parts of moun. of quitting their retreats. They appear to enjoy the tains, above the forest range, and within the region of sunshine, and bring out their young ones to share perpetual snow. It always consists of two galleries or their pleasure. - These show some degree of activity: alleys, each five or six feet long, one containing the they chase one another along the slopes of the hill, dwelling and the entrance to the dwelling, and the or raise themselves on their hind feet with their faces other which joins this, but has a greater inclination, towards the sun, as if to enjoy more fully the benefit and opens lower down the hill, is a sewer or drain, by of his rays; meanwhile, one of the family is placed means of which the dwelling is always kept dry and on an elevated spot near the mouth of the burrow, comfortable. The nest itself is a circular excavation, and within sight of the rest, who are thus sporting containing a great quantity of moss and dried grass, or seeking for food. If an enemy or any new object and made sufficiently large to admit a considerable be observed by the sentinel on guard, he utters a number of the animals. The different members of the shrill cry, when in an instant all the scattered memsociety inhabiting the same burrow work in unison, bers of the society retreat towards the burrow, or if

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they find themselves too distant from it, shelter them

We might also describe the different species selves in holes or clefts in the hill.

called Franklin's marmot, the powdered marmot, and The marmot is not so productive as many other of Richardson's marmot, but the trivial points of difthe rodentia order, there being but one litter in the ference would be uninteresting to the general reader. year consisting, in general, of five; but the animals The American species of marmot are probably very are subject to fewer casualties than we might expect numerous, and many doubtless remain wholly unobfrom the inhospitable region they inhabit. Their served and undescribed. As that vast continent watchful habits protect them from many enemies, becomes more fully explored, it is probable that a though the sudden pounce of the eagle or the vul- large accession will be made to the list of animals of ture sometimes proves fatal to them; their dormant this description, As far as present observation goes, propensities prevent the intensity of the cold from however, we have much to admire in the habits and affecting them; and the little provision necessary for remarkable instinct of the marmot tribe, and in the their subsistence enables them to gain a living in the beautiful adaptation of their forms and natures to barren regions they inhabit.

the place they hold in the scale of being. The Alpine marmot is easily tamed, and may be The wood-cut at the head of this article represents taught many amusing tricks. In the domestic state it a fine marmot, which died some years ago at Exeter is very gentle and docile, and though capable of Change. In colour it was light-brown on the upper inflicting severe wounds with its sharp teeth, is seldom part, with a darker hue down the centre of the back, provoked to do so. The strength of the incisor and slight bars of the same colour marking the sides. teeth is so great that nothing but a cage of iron wire The tail was dark-brown, and from eye to eye the will retain these little animals.

animal was marked with a black crescent: a black The Polish marmot is rather larger than the spe- bar also extended from one ear to the other, passing cies just described. It does not inhabit regions round the mouth and nostrils, but leaving the latter equally elevated, and in making its burrow, it ex pure white. The specific name of this animal is un. plores to a great depth, and makes an excavation large known. enough to contain twenty or thirty individuals. It is found from Poland to Kamtschatka.

THE SYRIAN COAST. IV. The various species of American marmot belonging to this genus cannot here be particularised. The The plain, at the western extremity of which Acre is Maryland marmot has been known as the “ground situated, extends about thirty miles from east to hog” and the “Bahama rabbit.” The Missouri | west, by twenty from north to south. It is naturally marmot, a most abundant species, has on account of the most fertile part of Palestine, and is the Great its peculiar barking noise acquired the name of the Plain of Scripture, or Plain of Esdraelon, which "prairie dog ;” and there are others known in the fell to the lot of the tribe of Issachar, occasioning country by various familiar names, which are now

them to “rejoice in their tents” (Deut. xxxiii. 18). placed in this genus of animals.

Although, from the earliest ages to the present, devasWe must pass on to notice the other division, men tated by the frequent tread of hostile armies, it still tioned at the commencement of this article, and retains much of its ancient productiveness, and is entitled Spermophilus, or marmots whose leading cha

described by a recent traveller as one sea of cultivaracters are the possession of cheek-pouches, and tion,” with only a very few small villages scattered their being solitary, not social in their habits.

over its surface. In this plain fell the host of Sisera

; The animals of this genus are more nocturnal in here also was King Josiah slain by the Egyptians their habits than the true marmots, and this, with here Vespasian mustered the army which accomtheir wild and solitary character, makes it difficult to plished the destruction of Jerusalem; here numerous study them. The social animals are less afraid of encounters took place during the long siege of Acre, man, and therefore more easily observed by him (A.D. 1189—1191); and here, in 1799, a division of than the solitary ones. The proper place of the the French army under Kleber was attacked and genus we are now considering, in the order of rodent nearly annihilated by the Turks. Among the mounanimals, seems to be that of a connecting link tains that form its eastern boundary, Jebel Tor between the true marmot and the squirrel. Towards (Mount Tabor) is conspicuous, in whose immediate the latter animal it approaches in having the feet and vicinity stand Nazareth, Emmaus, and Tiberias, each legs more lengthened, and in some cases the tail long fraught with holy recollections, but now all mere and covered with long hair.

villages, bearing respectively the disfigured appellaThe souslik, or Siberian marmot, is by far the pret

tions of Naszera, Hamam, and Tabarea; the last, tiest of the genus. It is of a yellowish-brown colour the scene of the overthrow of the kingdom of the on the upper part, spotted or waved with white, and Latins, and still presenting numerous memorials of has the under part completely white. It is partially its former rulers. On the west is the ridge of Carcarnivorous, and in its hoards are occasionally found

mel, at whose foot, on the southern side of the bay reserves of birds and small quadrupeds, on which it

of Acre, is Caypha, or Haypha, with a number of feeds. The cheek-pouches, which are depositories for tombs, (to which a Jewish origin is ascribed by some carrying provisions, and can easily be emptied of travellers,) excavated in the rock, whence its ancient their contents by the pressure of the paws of the

name (Kepha). Between this point and Acre, the animal, are in this species considered large for the Nahr el Mukatta, (the modern name of “that ansize of the marmot.

cient river, the river Kishon,") in winter pours its The American species, called Parry's marmot,

flood into the bay, but is almost dry in summer ; belongs to this genus. It was noticed by Hearne in and further north is a smaller stream, called Naamany, the extreme north of the American continent, and the ancient Belus, where one of the most useful arts was considered by him as a ground-squirrel. On

is said to have originated from accident*, and the Franklin's expedition it was observed, and its true sand from the mouth of which was long employed in place was assigned to it by Richardson. It is mottled

* Pliny states that a party of Phænician sailors, having landed with black and white, and on the under part is rusty at the mouth of this stream, propped up the kettle in which they red. It is furnished with cheek-pouches, and its

cooked their food with pieces of nitre and sand from the shore, and

to their surprise found a transparent substance produced by the habits appear to be similar to those of the rest of its action of the fire: this was glass.

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