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the Louvre consists, contain a mass of treasure in the fine | value, when passing through the Barrières, by which the arts which few other cities can equal. During the usurpation extent of every day's supply is well known. of Buonaparte, the richest treasures of Italy and Germany
FOURTH DISTRICT. NORTH-EASTERN PARIS. were added to the collection of the Louvre, as military spoils; but at the conclusion of the war, the Allies properly We now pass on to another district, including all that insisted on the restitution of the sculptures and paintings part of Paris which is east of the Rue St. Martin and north which had been violently taken from their rightful owners. of the river Seine, and in which are contained the Hôtel de The present collection is all honourably acquired, and is Ville, the churches of St. Gervais, of la Visitation, of the 'i creditable to the taste of the French nation. The long Carmelites, and of St. Antoine, the Conservatoire des "Arts ! gallery, at the time to which we just alluded, contained et Métiers, the Archives de la France, the hospitals 'of 1200 pictures, the finest of every age and country, and Quinze-Vingts and of St. Louis, the Place Royale, the--? most of which had been brought by Buonaparte from Fountain of the Elephant, numerous places of public amuseforeign countries. In its present state, the Louvre contains ment, and just without the walls,—the celebrated cemetery about 1500 pictures, 1000 pieces of sculptures, 4000 engraved of Père la Chaise. copper-plates, and 20,000 drawings. These treasures are Few buildings in Paris are so remarkable in their exterior * deposited in various apartments, to which appropriate names appearance as the Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall), situated in are given; and the present monarch, Louis Philippe, has the Place de Grève, near the river. It was con menced in been constantly making additions to the collection.
1533, after the design of an Italian architect; but has been The English reader is aware that the French nation frequently altered and repaired. The entrance, in the professes the Roman Catholic religion. There are, how centre of the principal front, is deemed far too small for ever, a few Protestant places of worship at Paris, one of such a building; but the interior of the edifice is con-4 which is situated in the district now under consideration. veniently arranged for the purposes for which it was inThis is the ancient church of the Oratoire, in the Rue St. tended. The large hall is a parallelogram, ornamented Honoré, and is much admired for the regularity of the with Corinthian columns, and beautifully decorated. The architecture, and the harmonious proportions of the Corin- Hôtel de Ville derives its chief importance from the exthian order, which prevail throughout the building. Service citing scenes of the Revolution : Louis the Sixteenth was is performed here every Sunday morning, by a French exhibited to the populace from one of the windows; and or a Swiss Protestant clergyman, and on Sunday afternoon hither Robespierre retreated, when his guilty career was by an English clergyman. The Church of the Visitation, nearly at an end. In the Revolution of 1830, also, the once belonging to a conventual establishment, is now Hôtel de Ville was the scene of many conflicts. devoted to Protestant worship; as are likewise six other The Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers is one of the most buildings, situated in different parts of Paris, the congre- admirable institutions in Paris. It is a collection of models gations belonging to various denominations of Protestants of all the machines invented by French genius and in
At a short distance northward of the Louvre, is the dustry, in almost every kind of manufacture, and every Place des Victoires, planned by Marshal la Feuillade, in branch of art, arranged and classified in a very convenient the reign of Louis the Fourteenth. It is in a semicircular way. A piece of tapestry is shown at the museum, reform, and had originally a colossal statue of that monarch specting which a singular story is told. Vaucanson, the in the centre; but in the year 1792 tbis statue was removed, celebrated mechanician, invented some weaving-machines and another put up in honour of General Dessaix. This, which the weavers of Lyons treated with neglect; in revenge in its turn, disappeared in 1822, to make room for another for which he attached an ass to one of his looms, in such a equestrian statue Louis the Fourteenth, by Bosio, an manner as to produce a piece of tapestry more exquisite Italian sculptor: the pedestal of this statue is decorated than the Lyonnese had ever produced. with bas-reliefs, representing some of the military achieve The Archives of France, consisting of about ten thousand ments of "le grand monarch." The Place is surrounded volumes, are now kept in a building formerly belonging to by noble and uniform houses; among which is one which the Dukes of Guise, and having a handsome façade of was built by Francis Mansard, as an hotel for the Duc de sixteen columns of the Composite order. Adjoining this Vrillière in 1620, but which is now appropriated as a is another building, once occupied by Cardinal de Rohan; bank, where notes are issued, bills discounted, money but now devoted to the Royal Printing-office, where an advanced to government, private deposits received, &c. immense collection of types, of all ages, countries, and Near this building is also the Public Treasury; and a characters, is kept, and where the Royal Ordonnances, &c., little way northward of it the Bourse, or Royal Exchange. have been printed. We may here remind the English This last is a noble building: it was commenced in 1808, reader, that many matters of this kind, which in England and finished in 1824. It comprises both an exchange and are under the control of parliament, are in France the a tribunal of commerce, and is surrounded by columns which prerogative of the king in person. It is said that when the form a continuous colonnade round the building; and in pope, during the usurpation of Buona parte, visited this the principal front (Rue des Filles St. Thomas) is a printing-office, the directors caused the Lord's Prayer to be peristyle of fourteen columns, the ascent to which is by a printed in 150 different languages, copies of which were flight of sixteen steps. Within the peristyle is a vestibule, prepared and presented to him while he was yet there. leading to a noble hall, 116 feet long, by 75 broad, capable A little to the north of the Rue St. Antoine is the Place of holding two thousand persons, and decorated with great Royale, an open square planned and built by order of Henry beauty and taste. The hall for public business occupies the Fourth, about 1600; but, unlike other Parisian "Places, the lower part of the building, and the Tribunal of Com- it has much of the melancholy air of a cloister, on account of merce, (where municipal arrangements regarding commerce the height of the buildings, their sombre style of architecare made,) the upper part.
ture, the few outlets from the square, and the small number The Post Office and the Custom-House, present no re of persons who visit it. A statue of Louis the Thirteenth, markable features; but the Halle au Blé, or Corn-Mar- erected in the middle of the square, was pulled down by the ket, merits a passing notice. In Paris, the markets are mob, in 1792, but afterwards replaced by a marble equestrian termed either halle or marché, according as the goods are statue of the same monarch. The Palace des Tournelles, sold by wholesale or retail. The Corn-Market is of the which once stood in this square, and which was inhabited former class, and was built by Mazières, in 1762. The by several French sovereigns, was destroyed by order of building was of a circular form, and was admired for its Catherine de Medicis. Almost close to this square is the lightness and elegance. Being open to the sky, it was site on which the celebrated prison of the Bastille stood, afterwards covered with an immense dome or roof; but it before it was destroyed by the revolutionists. When Buowas destroyed by fire in 1802, and replaced by the present naparte was in the height of his power, he ordered the structure, which is a circular hall of cast-iron, covered by erection of a figure of a gigantic elephant near this spot: a cupola, 130 feet in diameter, and lighted by a central the elephant was to be seventy-two feet high, with a tower lantern, 37 feet in diameter. The other markets of Paris on its back, out of whose trunk water was to flow. This are the wine-hall, the leather-market, the wool-warehouse, enormous structure was commenced; but the fall of Buo·and fish, butter, poultry, fruit, flower, horse, cattle, &c., naparte prevented its completion; and it is not likely that markets. We may here mention a remarkable difference the original plan will be carried out to the fullest extent. between London and Paris. In our own capital there are The Hospital of St. Louis is an extensive pile of buildneither gates, walls, nor barriers, so that the precise quan- ings, surrounding a court 300 feet square, and is used as a tity of provisions brought into London from the country can pest-house for the reception of infected persons: the number scarcely be determined. But in Paris every cart-load, of which can be accommodated is 800. Paris, in the midst of whatever kind, pays a duty, proportionate to its extent or its demoralizing scenes, is not deficient in benevolent insti
tutions: it is said that there are 5000 beds devoted gra on its site. A court, called the Cour du Mai, in front of tuitously to the sick, and 15,000 to the aged, infirm, and the building, leads to a grand fight of steps, at the summit infants ; but, notwithstanding the schools, institutions, and of which is the entrance to the palace, having four noble hospitals of Paris, no other city in Europe contains so many Doric columns, surmounted by a balustrade. One part of idle poor; chiefly owing to the facilities for dissipation the building is devoted to the prison of the Conciergerie, which that capital affords.
another to the Tribunal of Police, a third to the Court of The cemetery of Père la Chaise, situated in this part of Cassation, a fourth to the Cour Royale, a fifth to the Paris, is well worthy of notice; but as we intend to devote Court of Assizes. The whole building is therefore approa separate article to it hereafter, as well as to the extraor- priately termed the Palace of Justice. Close by the palace dinary Catacombs of Paris, we will not enter into any details is the Sainte Chapelle, or Holy Chapel, one of the most respecting it here.
beautiful Gothic structures in Europe. It is not used for
religious worship, but was intended as a repository for the FIFTH DISTRICT. ISLANDS IN THE SEINE.
relics which St. Louis brought from the Holy Land, and is We have now taken a rapid view of that part of Paris now used as a record-house for the archives and records of which lies north of the river Seine; and must next describe the courts of justice. the three islands situated in that river, before proceedling The Isle St. Louis contains private dwellings, chiefly of to its southern banks. These islands are called Isle du modern date, but no public buildings of importance; and Palais, Isle St. Louis, and Isle Louvier. The first con the Isle Louvier, the easternmost, is used as a depôt for stituted the original city of Paris, in the time of the fire-wood. After having said a few words about the bridges, Romans, and is still often called the cité. The island is therefore, we shall quit this insular part of Paris. Reckonsurrounded by quays, and is thickly intersected by olding from the extremities of Paris, there are eighteen streets, which are generally narrow and gloomy. The bridges across the Seine, most of which are tolerably level. isle is chietly distinguished for the magnificent cathedral The most western is the Pont de Jena, opposite the Champ of Notre Dame, the Archbishop's Palace, the Hôtel Dieu, de Mars. It has fire handsome arches, and was built and the Palais de Justice,
about thirty years ago, after the battle of Jena. The Pont The cathedral of Notre Dame is the principal religious des Invalides is a chain-bridge, leading from the Hôtel des edifice in France. In the time of the Romans a teinple Invalides to the Champs Elysées. The Pont Louis XVI. occupied the site on which the cathedral now stands; and leads from the Place Louis XVI. to the Chamber of Deputhis temple was removed to make way for a church dedi- ties, and was formerly called the Pont de la Concorde. ' It cated to St. Denis. The present structure was built by was built by Louis XVI. in 1791: the length is 600 feet; Robert the Devout, about the year 1010, and it has survived the number of arches five, and it is decorated with statues the storms which have so often desolated France. It is a of Bayard, Condé, Sully, Colbert, and other eminent Gothic structure, 414 feet long, 144 wide, and 102 high, Frenchimen. The Pont Royal is opposite the Tuileries, with two immense square towers, about 200 feet high. and is a plain stone structure, 430 feet in length, chietly The edifice is supported by 120 enormous columns, running remarkable for the fine view obtained of the Tuileries' garfrom end to end; besides which there are about 300 other den. The Pont des Arts leads from the Louvre to the columns, each cut from a single block, in different parts of Palais des Beaux Arts, and is a horizontal cast-iron bridge, the edifice. There are forty-five chapels ranged round the 500 feet in length. We next come to nine or ten bridges, interior. The eastern, or principal front, presents three (which either connect the three islands together, or to the portals, of which the side ones are ancient, and the centre other parts of Paris,) the most celebrated of which is the comparatively modern; and above the central one is a gallery Pont Neuf, at the west end of the Isle du Palais, which it which formerly contained statues of twenty-eight kings of connects with both sides of the city, by passing over both France, but which were destroyed at the Revolution. The arms of the river. This bridge is nearly 1000 feet in whole exterior of the building is surrounded by galleries, length, and has an equestrian statue of Henri Quatre in in such a manner that a visitor may gain access to almost the centre. A constant stream of persons is passing over every part of it. The interior is decorated with all that this bridge, and itinerant dealers in fruit, vegetables, sweetcostly magnificence which distinguishes cathedrals in meats, books, prints, ballads, &c., are met with at every Roman Catholic countries, and which accords better with step: Beyond the islands, towards the east, is the last the tenets of that church than with the simpler and purer Parisian bridge, the Pont du Jardin des Plantes, formerly rites of the English national church. The chapels, of
the Pont d'Austerlitz, an elegant cast-iron structure, leadwhich thirty still remain in good preservation, are, as is ing from the Boulevard Bourbon to the Jardin des Plantes, usual on the Continent, dedicated to rarious saints, and are decorated with paintings and sculptures in great number.
SIXTH DISTRICT.-SOUTH-WESTERN PARIS. The archiepiscopal Palace, the residence of the archbishop We shall now conduct the reader to the southern side of of Paris, is a heavy building, adjoining the cathedral, and the Seine, where, westward of the Rue St. Jacques, and contrasting unfavourably with the elegant Gothic details of between the Boulevards and the river, are the Champ de the latter. It was, however, before the Revolution of 1830 Mars, the Hôpital des Invalides, l'Ecole Militaire, le Cham(at which time it suffered great injury) decorated with much bre des Députés, the Luxembourg, the Observatory, &c. beauty and richness, Nearly adjoining the cathedral, on The Champ de Mars is a vast open area between the the other side, is the Hôtel Dieu, the most ancient hospital river and the military school, bounded by a double avenue in Paris. Being situated in the very heart of Paris, it has of trees, and surrounded by a fosse and a wide embankment, always been crowded with patients; and it is said that, This embankment is sufficiently lofty to allow spectators to shortly before the Revolution, it contained no less than five obtain a view of the fêtes, reviews, races, &c., which are thousand patients, in less than one-third that number of frequently carried on in the field. The Ecole Militaire is beds. Dead and dying, -the fevered and the consumptive, a large edifice, on the eastern boundary of the Champ de -were often lying on the same pallet; so that of all the Mars, and erected about ninety years ago, for the instrucpatients who entered the hospital, only one-fifth, on an ave tion of young men of good family, who were either almost rage, left it alive, notwithstanding the benevolent exertions portionless, or whose fathers had fallen in the service of the of physicians, and of the Sisters of Charity, (a class of state. Buonaparte used the edifice as barracks for the nuns whose time and employments are devoted to works of Imperial Guard, but it has since reverted to its original humanity). By the care of Louis the Sixteenth, and by destination. subsequent arrangements made during the Revolution, The Hôpital des Invalides is perhaps the most extensive other hospitals were established in different parts of France, building in Paris. Henry the Third planned, and Henry the and the Hôtel Dieu became relieved of those inmates Fourth put in execution, an asylum for soldiers who bad whose maladies were most severe or infectious. At present grown old in the service of their country. This asylum about 1300 beds are made up in the hôtel, and it is under being deemed by Louis the Fourteenth too small and mean admirable regulations.
for such an object, he caused the present hospital to be conTowards the west end of the island is the Palais de Jus- structed about the year 1680. It is an immense pile, tice, a large building, once occupied as a residence by the covering an area of more than 30,000 square yards. There kings of France. The original palace was built in the are five square courts, all equal in dimensions, and all surninth century, and was enlarged at different periods. It rounded by buildings. The principal façade, which fronts contained a hall, much celebrated in the annals of France, the river, is 600 feet long, and divided into three toors, as being the place where the kings received the ambassa- above the basement. A projecting building in the centre dors of foreign nations. That building was, however, is pierced with a magnificent arch, forming the principal destroyed by fire, in 1618, and the present structure built entrance to the building; and from this entrance convenient
galleries, corridors, and staireases lead to the other parts of together once a quarter, to prepare general reports &c. the building Every convenience that is practicable is As the number of members is small, as each receives a afforded for the veteran inmates, who are generally about salary from the king, and as the institute stands high in 3500 in number. The church attached to the hospital is European estimation, the honour of a seat in it is eagerly deemed one of the finest ecclesiastical structures in France. sought at every vacancy. It has a spacious dome, or cupola, surrounded by forty As the prosecution of science is under a central governcolumns, and has a central lantern more than 300 feet from ment, so is that of education. The University of Paris, the ground. Beneath the dome were formerly hung a situated near the Chamber of Deputies, is an institution as large collection of tags and banners which had been taken old as the time of the Emperor Charlemagne; and though in battle; but when the Allies entered Paris, the invalids it has at different times suffered changes, it still remains a took down the tlags and burned them, to prevent them national establishment of considerable importance. Educafrom falling into the enemy's hands.
tion in France is entirely under the control of a Council Proceeding northward from the hospital towards the river, of Public Instruction, without whose sanction no school can we come to the Chumber of Deputies. This building was be established. The educational establishments are of four formerly the Palais Bourbon, and was built by the Duchess kinds, Colleges, Royal Schools, Boarding Schools, and of Bourbon in 1722. At various times it has been con Charity Schools:-Of these we may briefly mention the siderably altered, and was almost rebuilt about ten years Faculté de Théologie, where six professors lecture on bibliago. Its principal entrance consists of one noble portico, cal history, church-discipline, the Hebrew language, ethics with a colonnade of Corinthian columns; and within are logie, &c. Faculté de Droit, where seven professors give courts, corridors, galleries, &c., in great number. The instruction and lectures on all branches of the law, civil and hall, in which the national representatives assemble, was international. Faculté de Médicine, This is a noble rebuilt in 1831, and is a very handsome apartment, orna building, erected by Louis the Fourteenth, consisting of a mented with statues. The members do not, as in England, central court, surrounded by a large pile of beautiful buildaddress the house from their places, but each one, when he ings, in which instruction is given in anatomy, physiology, wishes to speak, proceeds to an elevated rostrum or tribune, medical chemistry, philosophy of medicine, pathology, something like a pulpit. Business here commences at botany, materia medica, and the collateral branches of study: one o'clock, instead of four or five, as in England. The it is deemed the most complete medical school in Europe, Chambre des Pairs, or House of Lords, does not hold its and has produced men whose medical reputation will be meetings adjoining the Chamber of Deputies, but in the imperishable. The Faculté de Lettres et Sciences is die Lurembourg Palace, near the Rue St. Jacques. This vided into two sections, in one of which lec ures are given on magnificent palace was occupied in succession by the Duc all subjects relating to history and the Belles Lettres: and de Luxembourg, Mary de Medicis, Madame de Montpen- in the other on subjects relating to the physical sciences. sier, the Duchess de Guise, Louis the Fourteenth, Duchess The Collège de France affords a gratuitous education to a of Brunswick, Mademoiselle d'Orléans, Louis the Sixteenth, large number of pupils, who are instructed in an extensive Monsieur; and afterwards became a prison,-a house for range of subjects, qualifying them to fill various stations the Senate,—and finally the Chamber of Peers. It forms a in after-life. The other Facultés, Collèges, Lycées, Ecoles, square 360 feet by 300, enclosing a large court: and at the &c., are too numerous to be dwelt on here. corners are four square buildings called pavilions: these The church of St. Sulpice, near 1 Ecole de Médicine, is pavilions are connected with the central portion by low a beautiful structure, whose grand proportions, boldness of galleries, supported by light and elegant arcades. The design, and general effect, are highly extolled. The portico building contains numerous apartments devoted to official | has two stories, of which the lower is in the Doric, and the purposes. The hall in which the peers meet is an elegant upper in the lonic order: a tower rises at each extremity seroicircular room, 80 feet in diameter, and adorned by of the portico: the interior of the church is fitted up with numerous statues and paintings. The palace has a fine magnificence. This church was commenced in the reign of garden, as is indeed the case with all the Parisian palaces. Louis the Thirteenth; but was not completed for nearly a
At a short distance within the Boulevards, and eastward century. of the Chamber of Deputies, are the Palace of the Legion The last building which we can describe in the present of Honour, the War Office, and the Office of the Home district is the Observatoire, situated nearly at the southern Secretary The first named is noted as having been built extremity of the city, at the end of an avenue leading by Rousseau in the last century. He called it the Hôtel from the Luxembourg gardens. It consists principally of de Salm; but when Buonaparte appropriated it to the Legion a solid mass of buildings, almost entirely of stone, with of Honour, its name was changed. At the principal front octagonal towers at two of the angles, and a projecting buiidin the Rue de Lille is a triumphal arch, flanked by an ing on the opposite side. The exterior is grand, simple, and lonic colonnade, and enclosing a spacious court or area. The imposing ; but rather too small for the purposes for which it palace itself presents a noble Corinthian portico, flanked by was intended. The interior is fitted up with astronomical Ionic colonnades. The river-front is not so elegant; but instruments of every kind; an anemometer, for measuring the interior fully accords with the grand entrance: there is the direction and force of the wind; a pluviometer, for a noble saloon, in form of a rotunda, covered by a cupola, measuring rain; a mural circle; a well 170 feet deep, for which is adorned with fine paintings; and the saloon itself making experiments on the velocity of falling bodies; a mecontains many statues of the principal officers of the Legion. ridian line, running through the great hall; caverns and
Proceeding eastward, we come to the Palace of the pits, for the prosecution of experiments in congelation, &c. Institute, at the foot of the Pont des Beaux Arts. This There are three resident astronomers; and the affairs of palace was built by Cardinal Mazarin, and was called the the Bureau des Longitudes are conducted here. College of the Four Nations; because originally intended
SOUTH-EASTERN PARIS. for the reception of sixty pupils from four nations conquered by Louis the Fourteenth. It is of a semicircular form, The last section into which we have divided Paris is consisting of two pavilions flanked by two ranges of build that portion east of the Rue St. Jacques, and south of ings, with a central portico of the Corinthian order, sur
the Seine; constituting the south-east portion of the city. mounted by a noble dome. An ancient church or chapel This contains the Church of St. Etienne, the Panthéon, or attached to the palace, is now used as a hall, where the Church of St. Geneviève, the Church of Val-de-Grace, sittings of the members are held. The other rooms are
the College of France, and L'Ecole Polytechnique, Colappropriated as cabinets, museums, libraries, &c. We leges of Henry the Fourth and of Louis the Fourteenth, may here remark that science, in France, partakes of that the Jardin des Plantes, the Gobelin Tapestry Manufactory, system of centralization which so much prevails in that &c., &c. country. The National Institute is an establishment The Church of St. Etienne du Mont is one of the most divided into four sections or academies; viz., the Académie ancient in France, St. Geneviève, who converted the first des Sciences, for the cultivation of natural philosophy, che- French monarch to Christianity, died in 512, and was mistry and mathematics; the Académie Française, for the buried near the spot where this church now stands. The cultivation of the French language and literature; the Aca- | spot was regarded as a holy one by succeeding monarchs, démie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, for history, anti. and at length a royal abbey was built, and dedicuted to St. quities, and ancient literature ; and the Académie des Geneviève. The Church of St Etienne, as it is now called, Bea!x Arts, for sculpture, painting, engraving, &c. There was subsequently built as a chapel for the vassals belonging are in the whole about two hundred mernbers, and an to the abbey; and in order to indicate that this chapel equal number of corresponding members. The four acade- belonged wholly to the abbey, and did not come under the tiies pursue their researches separately; but they all meet | jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Paris, it was made with
out any external door, having no inlet but from the abbey: , duty of one franc is paid for every cask of wine that enters it remained thus till the reign of Henry the Fourth, when the market, of which as many as fi!teen hundred is the the present entrance was made. The abbey crumbled average number. The market is capable of conveniently away by the effects of time and devastation; but the church receiving half a million casks at once. of St. Etienne still remains, and is much admired. The Proceeding eastward we come to the noble Jardin des front is formed of four banded Ionic columns, supporting a Plantes, one of the most extensive and valuable botanic garrichly-ornamented triangular pediment. The interior is a dens in Europe; comprising not only the plants which belong singular mixture of Greek, Gothic, and Arabic architecture, to such an establishment, but also a large menagerie, å chietly distinguished for its lofty arches, slender columns, museum of natural history and of anatomy, and numerous and light and almost aërial staircases. The sculptured lecture-rooms, where lectures are delivered on various pulpit is supported on a colossal figure of Saturn; and the branches of science. At the entrance of the garden are seen altar, windows, &c., display much ancient magnificence. / several enclosures, devoted to subjects connected with agriPascal, Racine, Le Sueur, Tournefort, De Sacy, Le Maître, culture; one containing specimens of different kinds of and other eminent men, were buried in this church.
soils and manures exhibited so as to show their comparative Very near this church is the Panthéon, or Church of St. | fertility; a second contains specimens of fences, hedges, &c. Geneviève, which, from its dome, at first sight reminds an with examples of the modes of training espalier fruits, everEnglish visitor of St. Paul's, and which was built about greens, &c.; a third contains, systematically arranged, seventy years ago. The entrance resembles that of the specimens of all the fruit-trees growing in France and the Pantheon at Rome, being a noble peristyle of Corinthian neighbouring countries; and a fourth contains specimens of columns, together forming a spacious porch. The interior almost every vegetable which is appropriated io the food of the building consists of four naves, separated by Corin- of man, with examples of the most successful modes of thian columns, which support an entablature serving as a training them. Beyond these enclosures we come to the basement to the galleries. Above these galleries rises a Botanic Garden, which consists of more than seven thounoble dome, having its interior surrounded by pillars, sand plants arranged on the system of Jussien; each spestanding on a circular basement. A style of lightness and cimen being labelled with its proper name, and the whole elegance was introduced in the original construction of the planted in beds divided off from each other by box-hedges. building, which rendered the pillars unequal to the enormous To this succeeds a range of green-houses and hot-houses, pressure of the dome; and twelve new columns had to be 600 feet in length, and filled with a beautiful and extensive introduced among the others to support the pressure, which collection of towers and shrubs, such as require artificial have the effect of injuring the coup dæil. The interior of aid in a temperate climate. Here, as in the open garden, the dome is covered with paintings, which cover a surface every plant is labelled in the most conspicuous manner; of 3256 feet, and represent four epochs in the history of and the visitor may see the sugar-cane, the bread-fruit France, separated into four tableaux. The first, the tree, and the date-palm, a flourishing state. A long conversion of King Clovis; the second, Charlemagne path leads by a winding ascent to the summit of an and his consort, surrounded by the emblems of his great artificial hill, where a little pavilion is erected, from whence ness; the third, Louis the Ninth, surrounded by all a splendid view of nearly the whole of Paris is obtained. those emblems of Christian virtue, which led to his being Half-way up the ascent is a beautiful cedar of Lebanon, called St. Louis; and the fourth, the restoration of Louis tbe planted by Jussieu and still flourishing; as well as busts Eighteenth. In another department Louis the Sixteenth of Linnæus and of Daubenton. and his murdered relations are represented in a group. The Menagerie comprises a very large collection of rare The Pantheon was intended for the reception of the animals. There are also aitempts made to illustrate the illustrious dead, who had in any way rendered honour to native habits of more docile animals, by planting trees, their country; and this intention is indicated by an inscrip- shrubs, &c., in the enclosures where the animals are kept, tion on the plinth of the portico :-"Aux Grands Hommes : and of such kinds as they are accustomed to prefer when La Patrie Reconnaissante." In 1822 its name was changed in their native state. There is an Aviary, in which the from Pantheon to the Church of St. Geneviève ; it was birds (chietly of France) are classed according to their speconsecrated by the Archbishop of Paris; and divine service cies or habits. was performed in it until the Revolution of 1830, when it The Cabinet of Natural History is divided into various reverted to its original design. Many eminent men are halls and apartments. One room,-ihe Library, contains deposited in the vaults, which consist of galleries lined with a copy of almost every book that has ever been printed in cells : each cell contains one body, enclosed in a stone sar any language, on the subject of natural history. A second cophagus, and an inscription of the name, dignity, &c., of room contains specimens of minerals arranged by Haüy. the deceased.
A third contains ores; a fourth, geological specimens. A I'Ecole Polytechnique is one of the most distinguished fifth contains fossil remains of animals whose bones Cuvier educational establishments in Paris. It was established | found in the quarries at Montmartre, &c. Another room in 1796, for the completion of the education of students contains vegetable fossil remains, such as ferns, leaves, imwho have rendered themselves conspicuous in other in- pressions of plants, gradual formation of coal, &c. One stitutions, especially such as are intended for the artillery room is devoted to fossil reptiles-another to fossil fishes. and engineering departments of the army; since no officer A long gallery is devoted to stuffed specimens of quadruis admitted into the artillery_who has not been educated peds and birds, containing almost every known species, in the Polytechnic School. The most accomplished men arranged in systematic order. Another gallery contains a of science are appointed by government as professors ; collection of insects, and the eggs and nests of birds. and their salaries, as well as the whole expenses of the The Cabinet of Comparative Anatomy is a separate establishment, are defrayed out of a fund derived partly building, and is intended to contain the skeleton of every from the payments received with the students. Each known animal, as well as all the bones of the skeleton in a student, of whom there are 300, pays 1000 francs per separate state, in order to verify other bones which may be annum for his board and lodging, and undergoes a most found. It also contains wax preparations of insects, fishes, rigorous examination as to proficiency before he is admitted. shell-fish, and likewise a cabinet of Human Anatomy, com• As the students are mostly verging upon manhood, and prising skeletons and wax preparations in great number. are engaged in the study of military affairs, it is not very Somewhat to the south of the Jardin des Plantes is the surprising that they plunged into the scene of strife and celebrated Gobelin Tapestry Manufactory. A dyer, named contest which distinguished the month of July, 1830. Gobelin, established himself at Paris, in the reign of Francis
At a short distance north-east of l'Ecole Polytechnique the First, as a worsted-dyer; but at a subsequent period the is the Halle aux Vins, or Wine-market. It was built by minister Culbert brought some tapestry-weavers from FlanBuonaparte in 1811, on a plan as singular as it is extensive. ders, who introduced that branch of art into France, and The market is divided into streets, receiving the names of produced specimens which have been universally admired the different kinds of wine which are principally sold there; throughout Europe for their beauty and excellence. It such as the Rue de Champagne, Rue de Bourgogne, Rue became, and has since remained, a government establishde Bourdeaux, Rue de Languedoc, Rue de la Côte d'Or. ment: indeed, the principal part of ihe tapestry produced There are seven distinct piles of buildings separated by there during the luxurious reign of Louis the Fourteenth was these streets; of which some are used as markets, some as employed to decorate the royal palaces. The principal subcellars, some for brandies, others for the offices of the nu. jects to which the Gobelin looms have been devoted are merous clerks who superintend the entrance and departures copies of the most celebrated paintings of the Italian and of the wines, and another as a bureau or office wherein are French schools, a single specimen of which has often taken kept copies of all the wine-measures used in France. A two or three years to execute. The worsted is dyed on
the premises, and a school is established for the instruction display of toys and trinkets; tables at which the scribe, of the workmen in the principles of their art.
with the pen of a ready writer, will indite a letter or memoThe Sèvres Manufactory is also a public establishment, rial, of any length, or on any subject; flower-girls by dozens, where are produced some fine specimens of porcelain : who will take no denial; musicians performing on every indeed, before the time of Wedgewood, England could not instrument which the art of man has invented to please compete with the well-known “Sèvres china." A successive (or torture) the ear; professors of natural philosophy, who train of improvements has, however, made English porce-contrive to make their hydrostatic experiments sufficiently lain fully equal, except in the richness of some particular impressive on the visages and clothes of their auditors; tints, to that of Sèvres. The Manufacture des Glaces, sage diviners of the lucky numbers of lottery-tickets; men (plate glass manufactory) is another government establish with castles inhabited by white mice, who play a thousand ment, where plates of glass, containing sixty or seventy antics in the different apartments; fortresses guarded by square feet of surface, are produced.
a regiment of canary-birds, who perform their different 'We have said that the Boulevards form a belt round evolutions with the precision of veterans; and last, not least, Paris, and with a few words respecting these Boulevards caricaturists, or grimaciers, who change the human face we must conclude. A modern writer, speaking of the divine into a rapid succession of odd and inconceivably public walks, says:-“The principal charm of the Bou- grotesque forms.' levards consists in the gay and festive crowd which con The reader will scarcely expect us to apologize for having stanily fills them, and the inexhaustible fund of amuse- omitted to name or describe many out of the large number ment which every step supplies. Ballad-singers, dancing of public buildings which are to be seen in Paris. All we children, dancing dogs, tumblers, posture-masters, con- have professed is to convey a brief idea of the general jurors, puppet-showmen, merry-andrews, players, and for- characteristics of a city which has long ranked as the tune-tellers, stand in long and interminable succession; second in Europe, and in many respects as the first. At each unweariedly exerting himself to please, and thankful the time we are now writing, the city of Paris is being for the few sous which are occasionally thrown to him. fortified, by means of a military wall, ditch, &c., round the Intermixed with these are stalls, glittering with a gaudy entire city